Stem Cell Treatment for Glaucoma

Stem Cell Treatments for Glaucoma are currently available at SIRM

GLAUCOMA

Stem cell treatment for glaucoma

Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.

The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different subtypes of glaucoma, but they can all be considered a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma. One person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, while another person may have high eye pressure for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness.

Glaucoma can be divided roughly into two main categories

  • open angle: Open angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and patients may not notice they have lost vision until the disease has progressed significantly.
  • closed angle: Closed angle glaucoma can appear suddenly and is often painful; visual loss can progress quickly, but the discomfort often leads patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs.

 

Stem Cell Treatment for Glaucoma and stem cell therapy.

Stem Cell treatment studies and stem cell protocols from the NIH database:

Related Articles Therapeutic drug repositioning using personalized proteomics of liquid biopsies. JCI Insight. 2017 12 21;2(24): Authors: Velez G, Bassuk AG, Colgan D, Tsang SH, Mahajan VB Abstract BACKGROUND: In patients with limited response to conventional therapeutics, repositioning of already approved drugs can bring new, more effective options. Current drug repositioning methods, however, frequently rely on retrospective computational analyses and genetic testing - time consuming methods that delay application of repositioned drugs. Here, we show how proteomic analysis of liquid biopsies successfully guided treatment of neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (NIV), an inherited autoinflammatory disease with otherwise poor clinical outcomes. METHODS: Vitreous biopsies from NIV patients were profiled by an antibody array for expression of 200 cytokine-signaling proteins. Non-NIV controls were compared with NIV samples from various stages of disease progression. Patterns were identified by 1-way ANOVA, hierarchical clustering, and pathway analysis. Subjects treated with repositioned therapies were followed longitudinally. RESULTS: Proteomic profiles revealed molecular pathways in NIV pathologies and implicated superior and inferior targets for therapy. Anti-VEGF injections resolved vitreous hemorrhages without the need for vitrectomy surgery. Methotrexate injections reversed inflammatory cell reactions without the side effects of corticosteroids. Anti-IL-6 therapy prevented recurrent fibrosis and retinal detachment where all prior antiinflammatory interventions had failed. The cytokine array also showed that TNF-α levels were normal and that corticosteroid-sensitive pathways were absent in fibrotic NIV, helping explain prior failure of these conventional therapeutic approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Personalized proteomics can uncover highly personalized therapies for autoinflammatory disease that can be timed with specific pathologic activities. This precision medicine strategy can also help prevent delivery of ineffective drugs. Importantly, proteomic profiling of liquid biopsies offers an endpoint analysis that can directly guide treatment using available drugs. PMID: 29263305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Development of a stem cell tracking platform for ophthalmic applications using ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging. Theranostics. 2019;9(13):3812-3824 Authors: Kubelick KP, Snider EJ, Ethier CR, Emelianov S Abstract Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Disease progression is associated with reduced cellularity in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a fluid drainage tissue in the anterior eye. A promising therapy seeks to deliver stem cells to the TM to regenerate the tissue and restore its function. However, like many stem cell-based regenerative therapies, preclinical development relies heavily on histology to evaluate outcomes. To expedite clinical translation, we are developing an ultrasound/photoacoustic (US/PA) imaging platform for longitudinal tracking of stem cells in the anterior eye. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were labeled with gold nanospheres in vitro and injected through the cornea into the anterior chamber of ex vivo porcine eyes. Physiological pressure was imposed to mimic in vivo conditions. AuNS-labeled MSCs were injected through the cornea while single-wavelength US/PA images were acquired. At 5 hours post-injection, three-dimensional multi-wavelength US/PA datasets were acquired and spectroscopic analysis was used to detect AuNS-labeled MSCs. US/PA results were compared to fluorescent microscopy. Results: The US/PA imaging platform was able to provide real-time monitoring of the stem cell injection and distinguish AuNS-labeled MSCs from highly absorbing background tissues in the anterior segment. Conclusion: Our US/PA imaging approach can inform preclinical studies of stem cell therapies for glaucoma treatment, motivating further development of this theranostic imaging tool for ophthalmic applications. PMID: 31281515 [PubMed - in process]
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