Stem Cell Treatment for Glaucoma

Stem Cell Treatments for Glaucoma are currently available at SIRM

GLAUCOMA

Stem cell treatment for glaucoma

Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.

The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different subtypes of glaucoma, but they can all be considered a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma. One person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, while another person may have high eye pressure for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness.

Glaucoma can be divided roughly into two main categories

  • open angle: Open angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and patients may not notice they have lost vision until the disease has progressed significantly.
  • closed angle: Closed angle glaucoma can appear suddenly and is often painful; visual loss can progress quickly, but the discomfort often leads patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs.

 

Stem Cell Treatment for Glaucoma and stem cell therapy.

Stem Cell treatment studies and stem cell protocols from the NIH database:

Related Articles Intermediate-Term and Long-Term Outcomes With the Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis in Aniridia. Cornea. 2018 Jan;37(1):11-14 Authors: Shah KJ, Cheung AY, Holland EJ Abstract PURPOSE: To report the intermediate- and long-term visual outcomes and complications with the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro) for the management of aniridic keratopathy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 46 eyes of 34 patients (20 females and 14 males) with aniridic keratopathy who underwent Boston type 1 KPro surgery by a single surgeon from 2004 to 2012 with minimum 2-year follow-up was conducted. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were collected and analyzed. The primary outcome was the change in best-corrected visual acuity. Secondary outcomes included the rate of retroprosthetic membrane formation, glaucoma progression, glaucoma tube revisions, and KPro retention. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 43.5 ± 19.8 years with a mean follow-up period of 4.5 ± 1.6 years (range 2-7.4 years). Thirty-four eyes (74%) had previously failed keratoplasty. Thirty-five eyes (76%) previously underwent ocular surface stem cell transplantation, specifically a keratolimbal allograft. Within the first 6 months postoperatively, 74% (34/46) of patients experienced a gain of ≥2 lines of vision. Overall, there was a gain of ≥2 lines of vision in 43.5% (20/46) of patients at last follow-up. The rate of retroprosthetic membrane formation was 61%, the rate of glaucoma onset/progression was 26%, the rate of tube revision was 31%, and the KPro retention rate was 87%. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that initial visual improvement in aniridic keratopathy cases occurs at a high rate with the Boston type 1 KPro but also found progressive loss of these initial visual improvements. PMID: 28990998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles CRISPR in the Retina: Evaluation of Future Potential. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1016:147-155 Authors: Cho GY, Justus S, Sengillo JD, Tsang SH Abstract Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has been gaining widespread attention for its ability for targeted genome surgery. In treating inherited retinal degenerations, gene therapies have had varied results; the ones effective in restoring eye sight are limited by transiency in its effect. Genome surgery, however, is a solution that could potentially provide the eye with permanent healthy cells. As retinal degenerations are irreversible and the retina has little regenerative potential, permanent healthy cells are vital for vision. Since the retina is anatomically accessible and capable of being monitored in vivo, the retina is a prime location for novel therapies. CRISPR technology can be used to make corrections directly in vivo as well as ex vivo of stem cells for transplantation. Current standard of care includes genetic testing for causative mutations in expectation of this potential. This chapter explores future potential and strategies for retinal degenerative disease correction via CRISPR and its limitations. PMID: 29130158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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