Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option

STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETESDiabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETES

Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes

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Related Articles miRNA-23a/27a attenuates muscle atrophy and renal fibrosis through muscle-kidney crosstalk. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018 08;9(4):755-770 Authors: Zhang A, Li M, Wang B, Klein JD, Price SR, Wang XH Abstract BACKGROUND: The treatment of muscle wasting is accompanied by benefits in other organs, possibly resulting from muscle-organ crosstalk. However, how the muscle communicates with these organs is less understood. Two microRNAs (miRs), miR-23a and miR-27a, are located together in a gene cluster and regulate proteins that are involved in the atrophy process. MiR-23a/27a has been shown to reduce muscle wasting and act as an anti-fibrotic agent. We hypothesized that intramuscular injection of miR-23a/27a would counteract both muscle wasting and renal fibrosis lesions in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. METHODS: We generated an adeno-associated virus (AAV) that overexpresses the miR-23a∼27a∼24-2 precursor RNA and injected it into the tibialis anterior muscle of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Muscle cross-section area (immunohistology plus software measurement) and muscle function (grip strength) were used to evaluate muscle atrophy. Fibrosis-related proteins were measured by western blot to monitor renal damage. In some cases, AAV-GFP was used to mimic the miR movement in vivo, allowing us to track organ redistribution by using the Xtreme Imaging System. RESULTS: The injection of AAV-miR-23a/27a increased the levels of miR-23a and miR-27a as well as increased phosphorylated Akt, attenuated the levels of FoxO1 and PTEN proteins, and reduced the abundance of TRIM63/MuRF1 and FBXO32/atrogin-1 in skeletal muscles. It also decreased myostatin mRNA and protein levels as well as the levels of phosphorylated pSMAD2/3. Provision of miR-23a/27a attenuates the diabetes-induced reduction of muscle cross-sectional area and muscle function. Curiously, the serum BUN of diabetic animals was reduced in mice undergoing the miR-23a/27a intervention. Renal fibrosis, evaluated by Masson trichromatic staining, was also decreased as were kidney levels of phosphorylated SMAD2/3, alpha smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and collagen. In diabetic mice injected intramuscularly with AAV-GFP, GFP fluorescence levels in the kidneys showed linear correlation with the levels in injected muscle when examined by linear regression. Following intramuscular injection of AAV-miR-23a∼27a∼24-2, the levels of miR-23a and miR-27a in serum exosomes and kidney were significantly increased compared with samples from control virus-injected mice; however, no viral DNA was detected in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that overexpression of miR-23a/27a in muscle prevents diabetes-induced muscle cachexia and attenuates renal fibrosis lesions via muscle-kidney crosstalk. Further, this crosstalk involves movement of miR potentially through muscle originated exosomes and serum distribution without movement of AAV. These results could provide new approaches for developing therapeutic strategies for diabetic nephropathy with muscle wasting. PMID: 29582582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Bone Marrow CD133+ Stem Cells Ameliorate Visual Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Mice with Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Cell Transplant. 2018 Jun;27(6):916-936 Authors: Rong L, Gu X, Xie J, Zeng Y, Li Q, Chen S, Zou T, Xue L, Xu H, Yin ZQ Abstract Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide, is characterized by neurovascular disorders. Emerging evidence has demonstrated retinal neurodegeneration in the early pathogenesis of DR, and no treatment has been developed to prevent the early neurodegenerative changes that precede detectable microvascular disorders. Bone marrow CD133+ stem cells with revascularization properties exhibit neuroregenerative potential. However, whether CD133+ cells can ameliorate the neurodegeneration at the early stage of DR remains unclear. In this study, mouse bone marrow CD133+ stem cells were immunomagnetically isolated and analyzed for the phenotypic characteristics, capacity for neural differentiation, and gene expression of neurotrophic factors. After being labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein, CD133+ cells were intravitreally transplanted into streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice to assess the outcomes of visual function and retina structure and the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect. We found that CD133+ cells co-expressed typical hematopoietic/endothelial stem/progenitor phenotypes, could differentiate to neural lineage cells, and expressed genes of robust neurotrophic factors in vitro. Functional analysis demonstrated that the transplantation of CD133+ cells prevented visual dysfunction for 56 days. Histological analysis confirmed such a functional improvement and showed that transplanted CD133+ cells survived, migrated into the inner retina (IR) over time and preserved IR degeneration, including retina ganglion cells (RGCs) and rod-on bipolar cells. In addition, a subset of transplanted CD133+ cells in the ganglion cell layer differentiated to express RGC markers in STZ-induced diabetic retina. Moreover, transplanted CD133+ cells expressed brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs) in vivo and increased the BDNF level in STZ-induced diabetic retina to support the survival of retinal cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that transplantation of bone marrow CD133+ stem cells represents a novel approach to ameliorate visual dysfunction and the underlying IR neurodegeneration at the early stage of DR. PMID: 29717657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles BMS 493 Modulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Differentiation During Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells for Islet Regeneration. Stem Cells Dev. 2018 08 01;27(15):1062-1075 Authors: Elgamal RM, Bell GI, Krause SCT, Hess DA Abstract Cellular therapies are emerging as a novel treatment strategy for diabetes. Thus, the induction of endogenous islet regeneration in situ represents a feasible goal for diabetes therapy. Umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), isolated by high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi), have previously been shown to reduce hyperglycemia after intrapancreatic (iPan) transplantation into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. However, these cells are rare and require ex vivo expansion to reach clinically applicable numbers for human therapy. Therefore, we investigated whether BMS 493, an inverse retinoic acid receptor agonist, could prevent retinoic acid-induced differentiation and preserve islet regenerative functions during expansion. After 6-day expansion, BMS 493-treated cells showed a twofold increase in the number of ALDHhi cells available for transplantation compared with untreated controls. Newly expanded ALDHhi cells showed increased numbers of CD34 and CD133-positive cells, as well as a reduction in CD38 expression, a marker of hematopoietic cell differentiation. BMS 493-treated cells showed similar hematopoietic colony-forming capacity compared with untreated cells, with ALDHhi subpopulations producing more colonies than low aldehyde dehydrogenase activity subpopulations for expanded cells. To determine if the secreted proteins of these cells could augment the survival and/or proliferation of β-cells in vitro, conditioned media (CM) from cells expanded with or without BMS 493 was added to human islet cultures. The total number of proliferating β-cells was increased after 3- or 7-day culture with CM generated from BMS 493-treated cells. In contrast to freshly isolated ALDHhi cells, 6-day expansion with or without BMS 493 generated progeny that were unable to reduce hyperglycemia after iPan transplantation into STZ-treated NOD/SCID mice. Further strategies to reduce retinoic acid differentiation during HPC expansion is required to expand ALDHhi cells without the loss of islet regenerative functions. PMID: 29737242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Challenges and advances in stem cell therapy. Biosci Trends. 2019;13(4):286 Authors: Tang W Abstract After decades of research, stem cells have shown tremendous promise to treat a range of diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disease. However, many challenges remain in their transformation from bench to bedside, such as the potential risk of tumorigenicity from undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC), the lack of large-scale culture systems for clinical treatment, and the inconvenience of cell therapy itself. "Cell sheet technology" and secretome therapy represent advances in these regards. With gradual breakthroughs in theory and technology, stem cell therapy will lead to a new medical revolution in the coming era. PMID: 31527325 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Anti-inflammatory property of AMP-activated protein kinase. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2019 Aug 29;: Authors: Binte Noor H, Mou NA, Salem L, Shimul MFA, Biswas S, Akther R, Khan S, Raihan S, Mohib MM, Sagor MAT Abstract BACKGROUND: One of the many debated topics in inflammation research is whether this scenario is really an accelerated form of human wound healing and immunity boosting or a push towards autoimmune diseases. The answer requires a better understanding of the normal inflammatory process, including the molecular pathology underlying the possible outcomes. Exciting recent investigations regarding severe human inflammatory disorders and autoimmune conditions have implicated molecular changes that are also linked to normal immunity, such as triggering factors, switching on and off, the influence of other diseases and faulty stem cell homeostasis, in disease progression and development. METHODS: We gathered around and collected recent online literatures on immunity, inflammation, inflammatory disorders and AMPK. We basically searched PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar to assemble the literatures which were published since 2010. FINDINGS: Our findings suggested that inflammation and related disorders are on the verge and interfere in the treatment of other diseases. AMPK serves as a key component that prevents various kinds of inflammatory signaling. In addition, our table and hypothetical figures may open a new door in inflammation research, which could be a greater therapeutic target for controlling diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance and preventing autoimmune diseases. CONCLUSION: The relationship between immunity and inflammation becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of inflammation turns out to be so startling that the theory may not be instantly established and many possible arguments are raised for its clearance. However, this study might be able to reveal some possible approaches where AMPK can reduce or prevent inflammatory disorders. PMID: 31530260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Necrostatin-1 supplementation enhances young porcine islet maturation and in vitro function. Xenotransplantation. 2019 Sep 18;:e12555 Authors: Lau H, Corrales N, Alexander M, Mohammadi MR, Li S, Smink AM, de Vos P, Lakey JRT Abstract BACKGROUND: Necroptosis has been demonstrated to be a primary mechanism of islet cell death. This study evaluated whether the supplementation of necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), a potent inhibitor of necroptosis, to islet culture media could improve the recovery, maturation, and function of pre-weaned porcine islets (PPIs). METHODS: PPIs were isolated from pre-weaned Yorkshire piglets (8-15 days old) and either cultured in control islet culture media (n = 6) or supplemented with Nec-1 (100 µM, n = 5). On days 3 and 7 of culture, islets were assessed for recovery, insulin content, viability, cellular composition, GLUT2 expression in beta cells, differentiation of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells, function, and oxygen consumption rate. RESULTS: Nec-1 supplementation induced a 2-fold increase in the insulin content of PPIs on day 7 of culture. When compared to untreated islets, Nec-1 treatment doubled the beta- and alpha-cell composition and accelerated the development of delta cells. Additionally, beta cells of Nec-1-treated islets had a significant upregulation in GLUT2 expression. The enhanced development of major endocrine cells and GLUT2 expression after Nec-1 treatment subsequently led to a significant increase in the amount of insulin secreted in response to in vitro glucose challenge. Islet recovery, viability, and oxygen consumption rate were unaffected by Nec-1. CONCLUSION: This study underlines the importance of necroptosis in islet cell death after isolation and demonstrates the novel effects of Nec-1 to increase islet insulin content, enhance pancreatic endocrine cell development, facilitate GLUT2 upregulation in beta cells, and augment insulin secretion. Nec-1 supplementation to culture media significantly improves islet quality prior to xenotransplantation. PMID: 31532037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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