Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option
Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
- Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
- Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes
Streaming NIH Database:
Related Articles Miracle cells for natural dentistry - A review. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2017 Jan-Apr;7(1):49-53 Authors: Somani R, Jaidka S, Bajaj N, Arora S Abstract Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Recently, enormous growth has been seen in the recognition of stem cell-based therapies, which have the potential to ameliorate the life of patients with conditions that span from Parkinson's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. This research has produced new but unexplored possibilities in the regeneration of different organs and tissues. Presently, research is focused on the proficiency of stem cells and their utilization in dentistry, which is gaining interest. The tooth is nature's "esteem" for these precious stem cells and there are a number of these cells in permanent and primary teeth, as well as in the wisdom teeth. Dental stem cells are easy, convenient, and affordable to collect. They hold promise for a range of very potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer, spinal cord injury, brain damage, myocardial infarction, hearing loss, diabetes, wound healing, baldness, etc. Since these cells were used to regenerate damaged tissue in medical therapy successfully, it is possible that the dentist in future might use stem cell to regenerate lost or damaged dental and periodontal structures. This paper reviews the current concepts, characteristics of stem cells in regeneration, and its subsequent uses in dentistry. PMID: 28316922 [PubMed - in process]Read more...
Production of pancreatic progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a three-dimensional suspension bioreactor system.
Related Articles Production of pancreatic progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a three-dimensional suspension bioreactor system. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2017 Mar 20;: Authors: Mihara Y, Matsuura K, Sakamoto Y, Okano T, Kokudo N, Shimizu T Abstract Islet replacement is a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes and patients who have undergone total pancreatectomy. Recent progress in cellular reprogramming technology may allow the transplantation of a patient's own pancreatic cells. Although many studies have reported the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), obtaining sufficient cell numbers for clinical applications remains problematic. Here, we describe the mass production of human pancreatic progenitor cells from human induced (i)PSCs using a three-dimensional suspension bioreactor system. Bioreactor culture of cells with stage-specific provision of growth factors and small compounds for 17 days produced approximately 1.6 × 10(8) cells/100 ml vessel in a single batch. About 95% of cells expressed pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1, and 22% co-expressed the transcription factor NKX6.1. Furthermore, culture of pancreatic progenitor cells for an additional 2 weeks yielded mature pancreatic cells, including C-peptide-, glucagon- and trypsin-expressing cell populations. Moreover, differentiated β-cells secreted insulin in response to increased glucose in vitro. These findings suggest that a three-dimensional suspension culture system can generate human pancreatic progenitor cells from human iPSCs. Further optimization of culture conditions should provide sufficient functional islet cells for transplantation therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID: 28317340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more...
Related Articles The H3K27 demethylase, Utx, regulates adipogenesis in a differentiation stage-dependent manner. PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0173713 Authors: Ota K, Tong KI, Goto K, Tomida S, Komuro A, Wang Z, Nishio K, Okada H Abstract Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx), in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes. Utx-deficient mESCs showed diminished potential to differentiate to adipocytes compared to that of controls. In contrast, Utx-deficient preadipocytes showed enhanced differentiation to adipocytes. Microarray analyses indicated that the β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway was differentially regulated in Utx-deficient cells during adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, our data suggest that Utx governs adipogenesis by regulating c-Myc in a differentiation stage-specific manner and that targeting the Utx signaling pathway could be beneficial for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and congenital utx-deficiency disorders. PMID: 28319137 [PubMed - in process]Read more...