Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option

STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETESDiabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETES

Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes

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Related Articles Glycoprotein Nonmelanoma Clone B Regulates the Crosstalk between Macrophages and Mesenchymal Stem Cells toward Wound Repair. J Invest Dermatol. 2018 01;138(1):219-227 Authors: Yu B, Alboslemy T, Safadi F, Kim MH Abstract The process of wound repair requires the coordinated participation of multiple types of cells, which are sequentially recruited during the healing process. In response to tissue injury, both macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited to the site of injury, where they participate in the repair process. Despite considerable understanding of the role of each cell type in the process of wound repair, the nature of the dynamic interplay between these two cell types and how this interaction influences the process of wound repair are not well understood. Here, using an in vivo model of cutaneous wound healing in mice, we provide evidence that GPNMB is functionally important in promoting the recruitment of MSCs to the site of skin injury, which in turn modulates inflammatory responses by directing the M2 polarization of macrophages in acute wound healing. Furthermore, we show that GPNMB activity is impaired in a diabetic wound environment, which is associated with impaired MSC recruitment that is reversed by the topical administration of recombinant GPNMB protein to the wounds of diabetic mice. Our study provides important insight into the crosstalk between macrophages and endogenous MSCs toward wound repair. PMID: 28899684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles MANF Is Required for the Postnatal Expansion and Maintenance of Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Mice. Diabetes. 2019 01;68(1):66-80 Authors: Danilova T, Belevich I, Li H, Palm E, Jokitalo E, Otonkoski T, Lindahl M Abstract Global lack of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotropic factor (MANF) leads to progressive postnatal loss of β-cell mass and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice. Similar to Manf-/- mice, embryonic ablation of MANF specifically from the pancreas results in diabetes. In this study, we assessed the importance of MANF for the postnatal expansion of pancreatic β-cell mass and for adult β-cell maintenance in mice. Detailed analysis of Pdx-1Cre+/- ::Manffl/fl mice revealed mosaic MANF expression in postnatal pancreata and a significant correlation between the number of MANF-positive β-cells and β-cell mass in individual mice. In vitro, recombinant MANF induced β-cell proliferation in islets from aged mice and protected from hyperglycemia-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Consequently, excision of MANF from β-cells of adult MIP-1CreERT::Manffl/fl mice resulted in reduced β-cell mass and diabetes caused largely by β-cell ER stress and apoptosis, possibly accompanied by β-cell dedifferentiation and reduced rates of β-cell proliferation. Thus, MANF expression in adult mouse β-cells is needed for their maintenance in vivo. We also revealed a mechanistic link between ER stress and inflammatory signaling pathways leading to β-cell death in the absence of MANF. Hence, MANF might be a potential target for regenerative therapy in diabetes. PMID: 30305368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles VEGFC Reduces Glomerular Albumin Permeability and Protects Against Alterations in VEGF Receptor Expression in Diabetic Nephropathy. Diabetes. 2019 01;68(1):172-187 Authors: Onions KL, Gamez M, Buckner NR, Baker SL, Betteridge KB, Desideri S, Dallyn BP, Ramnath RD, Neal CR, Farmer LK, Mathieson PW, Gnudi L, Alitalo K, Bates DO, Salmon AHJ, Welsh GI, Satchell SC, Foster RR Abstract Elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A are thought to cause glomerular endothelial cell (GEnC) dysfunction and albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that VEGFC could counteract these effects of VEGFA to protect the glomerular filtration barrier and reduce albuminuria. Isolated glomeruli were stimulated ex vivo with VEGFC, which reduced VEGFA- and type 2 diabetes-induced glomerular albumin solute permeability (Ps'alb). VEGFC had no detrimental effect on glomerular function in vivo when overexpression was induced locally in podocytes (podVEGFC) in otherwise healthy mice. Further, these mice had reduced glomerular VEGFA mRNA expression, yet increased glomerular VEGF receptor heterodimerization, indicating differential signaling by VEGFC. In a model of type 1 diabetes, the induction of podVEGFC overexpression reduced the development of hypertrophy, albuminuria, loss of GEnC fenestrations and protected against altered VEGF receptor expression. In addition, VEGFC protected against raised Ps'alb by endothelial glycocalyx disruption in glomeruli. In summary, VEGFC reduced the development of diabetic nephropathy, prevented VEGF receptor alterations in the diabetic glomerulus, and promoted both glomerular protection and endothelial barrier function. These important findings highlight a novel pathway for future investigation in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 30389746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening in Immunosuppressed Women Without HIV Infection. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2019 Apr;23(2):87-101 Authors: Moscicki AB, Flowers L, Huchko MJ, Long ME, MacLaughlin KL, Murphy J, Spiryda LB, Gold MA Abstract EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The risk of cervical cancer (CC) among women immunosuppressed for a variety of reasons is well documented in the literature. Although there is improved organ function, quality of life and life expectancy gained through use of immunosuppressant therapy, there may be increased long-term risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer and the need for more intense screening, surveillance, and management. Although guidance for CC screening among HIV-infected women (see Table 1) has been supported by evidence from retrospective and prospective studies, recommendations for CC screening among non-HIV immunosuppressed women remains limited because quality evidence is lacking. Moreover, CC screening guidelines for HIV-infected women have changed because better treatments evolved and resulted in longer life expectancy.The objective of this report was to summarize current knowledge of CC, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in non-HIV immunocompromised women to determine best practices for CC surveillance in this population and provide recommendations for screening. We evaluated those with solid organ transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and a number of autoimmune diseases.A panel of health care professionals involved in CC research and care was assembled to review and discuss existing literature on the subject and come to conclusions about screening based on available evidence and expert opinion. Literature searches were performed using key words such as CC, cervical dysplasia/squamous intraepithelial lesion, HPV, and type of immunosuppression resulting in an initial group of 346 articles. Additional publications were identified from review of citations in these articles. All generated abstracts were reviewed to identify relevant articles. Articles published within 10 years were considered priority for review. Reviews of the literature were summarized with relevant statistical comparisons. Recommendations for screening generated from each group were largely based on expert opinion. Adherence to screening, health benefits and risks, and available clinical expertise were all considered in formulating the recommendations to the degree that information was available. RESULTS: Solid Organ Transplant: Evidence specific for renal, heart/lung, liver, and pancreas transplants show a consistent increase in risk of cervical neoplasia and invasive CC, demonstrating the importance of long-term surveillance and treatment. Reports demonstrate continued risk long after transplantation, emphasizing the need for screening throughout a woman's lifetime.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: Although there is some evidence for an increase in CC in large cohort studies of these patients, conflicting results may reflect that many patients did not survive long enough to evaluate the incidence of slow-growing or delayed-onset cancers. Furthermore, history of cervical screening or previous hysterectomy was not included in registry study analysis, possibly leading to underestimation of CC incidence rates.Genital or chronic graft versus host disease is associated with an increase in high-grade cervical neoplasia and posttransplant HPV positivity.Inflammatory Bowel Disease: There is no strong evidence to support that inflammatory bowel disease alone increases cervical neoplasia or cancer risk. In contrast, immunosuppressant therapy does seem to increase the risk, although results of observational studies are conflicting regarding which type of immunosuppressant medication increases risk. Moreover, misclassification of cases may underestimate CC risk in this population. Recently published preventive care guidelines for women with inflammatory bowel disease taking immunosuppressive therapy recommend a need for continued long-term CC screening.Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis: The risk of cervical high-grade neoplasia and cancer was higher among women with systemic lupus erythematosus than those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although studies were limited by size, inclusion of women with low-grade neoplasia in main outcomes, and variability of disease severity or exposure to immunosuppressants. In studies designed to look specifically at immunosuppressant use, however, there did seem to be an increase in risk, identified mostly in women with RA. Although the strength of the evidence is limited, the increase in risk is consistent across studies.Type 1 DM: There is a paucity of evidence-based reports associating type 1 DM with an increased risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer. RECOMMENDATIONS: The panel proposed that CC screening guidelines for non-HIV immunocompromised women follow either the (1) guidelines for the general population or (2) current center for disease control guidelines for HIV-infected women. The following are the summaries for each group reviewed, and more details are noted in accompanying table:Solid Organ Transplant: The transplant population reflects a greater risk of CC than the general population and guidelines for HIV-infected women are a reasonable approach for screening and surveillance.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: These women have a greater risk of CC than the general population and guidelines for HIV-infected women are a reasonable approach for screening. A new diagnosis of genital or chronic graft versus host disease in a woman post-stem cell transplant results in a greater risk of CC than in the general population and should result in more intensive screening and surveillance.Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Women with inflammatory bowel disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs are at greater risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer than the general population and guidelines for HIV-infected women are a reasonable approach for screening and surveillance. Those women with inflammatory bowel disease not on immunosuppressive therapy are not at an increased risk and should follow screening guidelines for the general population.Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis: All women with systemic lupus erythematosus, whether on immunosuppressant therapy or not and those women with RA on immunosuppressant therapy have a greater risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer than the general population and should follow CC screening guidelines for HIV-infected women. Women with RA not on immunosuppressant therapy should follow CC screening guidelines for the general population.Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Because of a lack of evidence of increased risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer among women with type 1 DM, these women should follow the screening guidelines for the general population. PMID: 30907775 [PubMed - in process]
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