Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option

STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETESDiabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes

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Related Articles Combating osteoporosis and obesity with exercise: leveraging cell mechanosensitivity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019 06;15(6):339-355 Authors: Pagnotti GM, Styner M, Uzer G, Patel VS, Wright LE, Ness KK, Guise TA, Rubin J, Rubin CT Abstract Osteoporosis, a condition of skeletal decline that undermines quality of life, is treated with pharmacological interventions that are associated with poor adherence and adverse effects. Complicating efforts to improve clinical outcomes, the incidence of obesity is increasing, predisposing the population to a range of musculoskeletal complications and metabolic disorders. Pharmacological management of obesity has yet to deliver notable reductions in weight and debilitating complications are rarely avoided. By contrast, exercise shows promise as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological method of regulating both osteoporosis and obesity. The principal components of exercise - mechanical signals - promote bone and muscle anabolism while limiting formation and expansion of fat mass. Mechanical regulation of bone and marrow fat might be achieved by regulating functions of differentiated cells in the skeletal tissue while biasing lineage selection of their common progenitors - mesenchymal stem cells. An inverse relationship between adipocyte versus osteoblast fate selection from stem cells is implicated in clinical conditions such as childhood obesity and increased marrow adiposity in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as contributing to skeletal frailty. Understanding how exercise-induced mechanical signals can be used to improve bone quality while decreasing fat mass and metabolic dysfunction should lead to new strategies to treat chronic diseases such as osteoporosis and obesity. PMID: 30814687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Creation of PDX-Bearing Humanized Mice to Study Immuno-oncology. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1953:241-252 Authors: Yao LC, Aryee KE, Cheng M, Kaur P, Keck JG, Brehm MA Abstract A significant obstacle to the study of human cancer biology and the testing of human specific immunotherapeutics is the paucity of translational models that recapitulate both the growth of human tumors and the functionality of human immune systems. Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) enable preclinical investigation of the interactions between the human immune system and human cancer. We use immunodeficient non-obese diabetic (NOD, scid, gamma) NSG™ or NSG™-SGM3 mice as hosts for establishment of human immunity following HSC injection and for engraftment of human tumors. Here we describe a refined protocol for the subcutaneous implant of solid PDX tumors into humanized mice. Protocols to recover infiltrating immune cells from growing tumors and to evaluate the immune cell subsets by flow cytometry are also described. PMID: 30912026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Antidiabetic and Cardioprotective Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition of GRK2 in db/db Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 25;20(6): Authors: Cipolletta E, Gambardella J, Fiordelisi A, Del Giudice C, Di Vaia E, Ciccarelli M, Sala M, Campiglia P, Coscioni E, Trimarco B, Sorriento D, Iaccarino G Abstract Despite the availability of several therapies for the management of blood glucose in diabetic patients, most of the treatments do not show benefits on diabetic cardiomyopathy, while others even favor the progression of the disease. New pharmacological targets are needed that might help the management of diabetes and its cardiovascular complications at the same time. GRK2 appears a promising target, given its established role in insulin resistance and in systolic heart failure. Using a custom peptide inhibitor of GRK2, we assessed in vitro in L6 myoblasts the effects of GRK2 inhibition on glucose extraction and insulin signaling. Afterwards, we treated diabetic male mice (db/db) for 2 weeks. Glucose tolerance (IGTT) and insulin sensitivity (ITT) were ameliorated, as was skeletal muscle glucose uptake and insulin signaling. In the heart, at the same time, the GRK2 inhibitor ameliorated inflammatory and cytokine responses, reduced oxidative stress, and corrected patterns of fetal gene expression, typical of diabetic cardiomyopathy. GRK2 inhibition represents a promising therapeutic target for diabetes and its cardiovascular complications. PMID: 30934608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Expansion and Maintenance of CD133-Expressing Pancreatic Ductal Epithelial Cells via Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling. Stem Cells Dev. 2019 Jul 17;: Authors: Zhang F, Ma D, Liu T, Liu Y, Guo J, Jing S, Wu Q, Pan Y, Zhang Y, Guo C, Teng C, Jin L Abstract Restoring β-cell mass by the transplantation of pancreatic islets is an effective diabetes treatment, but it is limited by the shortage of donor organs. CD133-expressing pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) have the ability to generate insulin-producing cells. The expansion of these cells is dependent on extrinsic niche factors, but few of those signals have been identified. In this study, CD133-expressing PDECs were purified by sorting from adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice and TGFβRIInull/null mice. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence and transplantation assays, we found that the inhibition of the TGF-β pathway promoted the expansion of CD133-expressing PDECs for many generations and maintained the ability of CD133-expressing PDECs to generate insulin-producing cells. Moreover, western blot, qRT-PCR, and dual luciferase assays using TGF-β inhibitors were performed to identify the mechanisms by which TGF-β signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation. The results showed that the inhibition of TGF-β signaling enhanced Id2 binding to the promoter region of the cell proliferation repressor p16 and promoted the expansion of CD133-expressing PDECs, and the increased Id2 binding to NeuroD1 decreased the transcription of Pax6 to maintain CD133-expressing PDECs in the Pdx1-expression stage. Taken together, the effect of TGF-β antagonists on CD133-expressing PDECs reveals a novel paradigm of signaling that explains the balance between the expansion and differentiation of pancreatic duct epithelial progenitors. PMID: 31311463 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In vivo tracking on longer retention of transplanted myocardin gene-modified adipose-derived stem cells to improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2019 Jul 16;10(1):208 Authors: Zhang HB, Chen FZ, He SH, Liang YB, Wang ZQ, Wang L, Chen ZR, Ding W, Zhao SC, Wei AY Abstract BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy has revealed a promising future for treating erectile dysfunction (ED), but the fate and curative mechanism of intracavernosal transplanted stem cells are under further exploration. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of myocardin gene modification on improving erectile function and prolonging the retention of implanted adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) using in vivo small animal imaging. METHODS: ASCs were isolated, cultured, and identified by flow cytometry and osteogenic and adipogenic induction. The effects of gene modification on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and contraction were determined by CCK-8, EdU, flow cytometry, and collagen gel lattice contraction assays as well as confocal microscopy. A total of 20 normal and 60 diabetes mellitus ED to (DMED) Sprague-Dawley rats were recruited to the 7 day and 21 day groups. Each group contained subgroups of 10 rats each: the negative control (NC), DMED + ASCs plus Ad-Luc-Myocardin, DMED + ASCs plus Ad-Luc, and DMED + phosphate buffer solution (PBS) groups. Erectile function was evaluated with the intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (△ICP/MAP) ratio. In vivo small animal imaging and an EdU cell tracking strategy were introduced to detect the transplanted ASCs, and IHC and WB were performed to assess smooth muscle cell protein levels. RESULTS: The ASCs expressed high CD29 and CD90 and scant CD45, while the multi-induction potential was verified by oil red O and alizarin red staining. Gene transfection of myocardin had no significant influence on ASC apoptosis but inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell contraction. Myocardin combined with ASCs enhanced the therapeutic potential of ASCs for improving the △ICP/MAP ratio as well as α-SMA and calponin expression. In vivo imaging confirmed that ASCs resided within the cavernous body in 21 days, while only a few red EdU dots were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardin induced ASC differentiation towards smooth muscle-like cells and enhanced the therapeutic potential of ASCs for ameliorating ED in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Notably, in vivo small animal tracking was an effective strategy for monitoring the implanted stem cells, and this strategy might have advantages over traditional EdU assays. PMID: 31311594 [PubMed - in process]
Real-time observation of pancreatic beta cell differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Am J Transl Res. 2019;11(6):3490-3504 Authors: Wang Q, Donelan W, Ye H, Jin Y, Lin Y, Wu X, Wang Y, Xi Y Abstract Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) holds great promise for cell therapy for diabetic patients. Despite recent advances in developing beta cell differentiation protocols, it is becoming clear that the hPSC-derived beta-like cells are functionally immature, and the efficiencies of differentiation can be variable depending on the hPSC lines used. Therefore, advanced methodologies are highly desirable for the development and refinement of beta cell differentiation protocols from hPSCs. In this report, we first derived and validated a Pdx1-mRFP/insulin-hrGFP dual-reporter cell line from MRC5-iPSCs. Then, using this dual-reporter cell line, we developed and optimized an in vitro beta cell differentiation protocol through real-time monitoring expression of Pdx1 and insulin. We demonstrated that DNA demethylation could increase the efficiency of beta cell differentiation. Furthermore, three-dimensional induction not only significantly increased the efficiency of pancreatic progenitor specification and the yield of IPCs, but also produced more mature IPCs. The current study indicates that this dual-reporter cell line is of great value for developing and optimizing the beta cell differentiation protocols. It will facilitate the development of novel protocols for generating IPCs from hPSCs and the investigation of beta cell differentiation mechanisms. PMID: 31312361 [PubMed]

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