Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option

STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETESDiabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes

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Related Articles Glial Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 7 (FABP7) Regulates Neuronal Leptin Sensitivity in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus. Mol Neurobiol. 2018 Dec;55(12):9016-9028 Authors: Yasumoto Y, Miyazaki H, Ogata M, Kagawa Y, Yamamoto Y, Islam A, Yamada T, Katagiri H, Owada Y Abstract The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence (ME) are the primary hypothalamic sites that sense leptin and nutrients in the blood, thereby mediating food intake. Recently, studies demonstrating a role for non-neuronal cell types, including astrocytes and tanycytes, in these regulatory processes have begun to emerge. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined in detail the localization of fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) in the hypothalamic ARC and sought to determine its role in the hypothalamus. We performed a phenotypic analysis of diet-induced FABP7 knockout (KO) obese mice and of FABP7 KO mice treated with a single leptin injection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that FABP7+ cells are NG2+ or GFAP+ in the ARC and ME. In mice fed a high-fat diet, weight gain and food intake were lower in FABP7 KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. FABP7 KO mice also had lower food intake and weight gain after a single injection of leptin, and we consistently confirmed that the number of pSTAT3+ cells in the ARC indicated that the leptin-induced activation of neurons was significantly more frequent in FABP7 KO mice than in WT mice. In FABP7 KO mice-derived primary astrocyte cultures, the level of ERK phosphorylation was lower after leptin treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that in hypothalamic astrocytes, FABP7 might be involved in sensing neuronal leptin via glia-mediated mechanisms and plays a pivotal role in controlling systemic energy homeostasis. PMID: 29623545 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles PEGylated graphene oxide-mediated quercetin-modified collagen hybrid scaffold for enhancement of MSCs differentiation potential and diabetic wound healing. Nanoscale. 2018 May 24;10(20):9547-9560 Authors: Chu J, Shi P, Yan W, Fu J, Yang Z, He C, Deng X, Liu H Abstract Nanoscale delivery based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated graphene oxide (GO-PEG) merits attention for biomedical applications owing to its functional surface modification, superior solubility/biocompatibility and controllable drug release capability. However, impaired skin regeneration in applications of these fascinating nanomaterials in diabetes is still limited, and critical issues need to be addressed regarding insufficient collagen hyperplasia and inadequate blood supply. Therefore, a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold with biocompatible and biodegradable properties is essential for diabetic wound healing. Natural and artificial acellular dermal matrix (ADM) scaffolds with spatially organized collagen fibers can provide a suitable architecture and environment for cell attachment and proliferation. Here, a novel collagen-nanomaterial-drug hybrid scaffold was constructed from GO-PEG-mediated quercetin (GO-PEG/Que)-modified ADM (ADM-GO-PEG/Que). The resulting unique and versatile hybrid scaffold exhibited multiple advantages, including the following: a biocompatible, cell-adhesive surface for accelerating mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and proliferation; superior stability and adjustability of the conduction potential of quercetin for inducing the differentiation of MSCs into adipocytes and osteoblasts; and a biodegradable nanofiber interface for promoting collagen deposition and angiogenesis in diabetic wound repair. This study provides new prospects for the design of innovative GO-PEG-based collagen hybrid scaffolds for application in efficient therapeutic drug delivery, stem cell-based therapies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID: 29745944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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