Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option

STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETESDiabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETES

Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes

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Related Articles Dclk1, a tumor stem cell marker, regulates pro-survival signaling and self-renewal of intestinal tumor cells. Mol Cancer. 2017 Feb 01;16(1):30 Authors: Chandrakesan P, Yao J, Qu D, May R, Weygant N, Ge Y, Ali N, Sureban SM, Gude M, Vega K, Bannerman-Menson E, Xia L, Bronze M, An G, Houchen CW Abstract BACKGROUND: More than 80% of intestinal neoplasia is associated with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation. Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), a kinase protein, is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and specifically marks tumor stem cells (TSCs) that self-renew and increased the tumor progeny in Apc (Min/+) mice. However, the role of Dclk1 expression and its contribution to regulating pro-survival signaling for tumor progression in Apc mutant cancer is poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed DCLK1 and pro-survival signaling gene expression datasets of 329 specimens from TCGA Colon Adenocarcinoma Cancer Data. The network of DCLK1 and pro-survival signaling was analyzed utilizing the GeneMANIA database. We examined the expression levels of Dclk1 and other stem cell-associated markers, pro-survival signaling pathways, cell self-renewal in the isolated intestinal epithelial cells of Apc (Min/+) mice with high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. To determine the functional role of Dclk1 for tumor progression, we knocked down Dclk1 and determined the pro-survival signaling pathways and stemness. We used siRNA technology to gene silence pro-survival signaling in colon cancer cells in vitro. We utilized FACS, IHC, western blot, RT-PCR, and clonogenic (self-renewal) assays. RESULTS: We found a correlation between DCLK1 and pro-survival signaling expression. The expression of Dclk1 and stem cell-associated markers Lgr5, Bmi1, and Musashi1 were significantly higher in the intestinal epithelial cells of Apc (Min/+) mice than in wild-type controls. Intestinal epithelial cells of Apc (Min/+) mice showed increased expression of pro-survival signaling, pluripotency and self-renewal ability. Furthermore, the enteroids formed from the intestinal Dclk1(+) cells of Apc (Min/+) mice display higher pluripotency and pro-survival signaling. Dclk1 knockdown in Apc (Min/+) mice attenuates intestinal adenomas and adenocarcinoma, and decreases pro-survival signaling and self-renewal. Knocking down RELA and NOTCH1 pro-survival signaling and DCLK1 in HT29 and DLD1 colon cancer cells in vitro reduced the tumor cells' ability to self-renew and survive. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Dclk1 is essential in advancing intestinal tumorigenesis. Knocking down Dclk1 decreases tumor stemness and progression and is thus predicted to regulate pro-survival signaling and tumor cell pluripotency. This study provides a strong rationale to target Dclk1 as a treatment strategy for colorectal cancer. PMID: 28148261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Impact of CYP2D6 genotype on amitriptyline efficacy for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a pilot study. Pharmacogenomics. 2017 Apr;18(5):433-443 Authors: Chaudhry M, Alessandrini M, Rademan J, Dodgen TM, Steffens FE, van Zyl DG, Gaedigk A, Pepper MS Abstract AIM: Therapy with low-dose amitriptyline is commonly used to treat painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. There is a knowledge gap, however, regarding the role of variable CYP2D6-mediated drug metabolism and side effects (SEs). We aimed to generate pilot data to demonstrate that SEs are more frequent in patients with variant CYP2D6 alleles. METHOD: To that end, 31 randomly recruited participants were treated with low-dose amitriptyline for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and their CYP2D6 gene sequenced. RESULTS: Patients with predicted normal or ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotypes presented with less SEs compared with individuals with decreased CYP2D6 activity. CONCLUSION: Hence, CYP2D6 genotype contributes to treatment outcome and may be useful for guiding drug therapy. Future investigations in a larger patient population are planned to support these preliminary findings. PMID: 28350251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles 3D printed vascularized device for subcutaneous transplantation of human islets. Biotechnol J. 2017 Jul 22;: Authors: Farina M, Ballerini A, Fraga D, Matthew Hogan EN, Demarchi D, Scaglione F, Sabek O, Horner P, Thekkedath U, Gaber O, Grattoni A Abstract Transplantation of pancreatic islets or stem cell derived insulin secreting cells is an attractive treatment strategy for diabetes. However, islet transplantation is associated with several challenges including function-loss associated with dispersion and limited vascularization as well as the need for continuous immunosuppression. To overcome these limitations, here we present a novel 3D printed and functionalized encapsulation system for subcutaneous engraftment of islets or islet like cells. The devices were 3D printed with polylactic acid and the surfaces treated and patterned to increase the hydrophilicity, cell attachment and proliferation. Surface treated encapsulation systems were implanted with growth factor enriched platelet gel, which helped to create a vascularized environment before loading human islets. The device protected the encapsulated islets from acute hypoxia and kept them functional. The adaptability of the encapsulation system was demonstrated by refilling some of the experimental groups transcutaneously with additional islets. PMID: 28734022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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