Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option
Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
- Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
- Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes
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Related Articles Efficient generation of functional pancreatic β-cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. J Diabetes. 2017 Feb;9(2):168-179 Authors: Yabe SG, Fukuda S, Takeda F, Nashiro K, Shimoda M, Okochi H Abstract BACKGROUND: Insulin-secreting cells have been generated from human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by mimicking developmental processes. However, these cells do not always secrete glucose-responsive insulin, one of the most important characteristics of pancreatic β-cells. We focused on the importance of endodermal differentiation from human iPSCs in order to obtain functional pancreatic β-cells. METHODS: A six-stage protocol was established for the differentiation of human iPSCs to pancreatic β-cells using defined culture media without feeders or serum. The effects of CHIR99021, a selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, were examined in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2, activin, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (FAB) during definitive endodermal induction by immunostaining for SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17 (SOX17) and Forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2). Insulin secretion was compared between the last stage of monolayer culture and spheroid culture conditions. Cultured cells were transplanted under kidney capsules of streptozotocin-diabetic non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency mice, and blood glucose levels were measured once a week. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation. RESULTS: Addition of CHIR99021 (3 μmol/L) in the presence of FAB for 2 days improved endodermal cell viability, maintaining the high SOX17-positive rate. Spheroid formation after the endocrine progenitor stage showed more efficient insulin secretion than did monolayer culture. After cell transplantation, diabetic mice had lower blood glucose levels, and islet-like structures were detected in vivo. CONCLUSION: Functional pancreatic β-cells were generated from human iPSCs. Induction of definitive endoderm and spheroid formation may be key steps for producing these cells. PMID: 27038181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...
Antidiabetic activity of perylenequinonoid-rich extract from Shiraia bambusicola in KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Related Articles Antidiabetic activity of perylenequinonoid-rich extract from Shiraia bambusicola in KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Sep 15;191:71-81 Authors: Huang M, Zhao P, Xiong M, Zhou Q, Zheng S, Ma X, Xu C, Yang J, Yang X, Zhang TC Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter and cold traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been long used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM) based on unique medical theory system since ancient China. As one of bitter and cold TCMs, the stromatas of Shiraia bambusicola have been used for the treatment of DM and exerted clinical effects to a certain extent. However, the corresponding active principles and antidiabetic mechanism of the TCM still remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the potential antidiabetic effect of the active Shiraia bambusicola EtOAc extract (SB-EtOAc) in vitro and in vivo, and elucidate its probable antidiabetic mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A LC-PDA-ESIMS protocol was developed to determine the chemical principles of the active EtOAc extract rapidly and unambiguously. The effect of SB-EtOAc on the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation and glucose uptake in L6 cells was examined. SB-EtOAc was orally administration at the dose of 30, 60 and 120mg/kg/d in KK-Ay mice, for 21 days. Body weight, plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, fasted blood glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test, serum insulin and blood-lipid indexes were measured. GLUT4 on L6 cells membrane and phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) expression in L6 cells were measured. The GLUT4 and p-AMPK expression in KK-Ay mice skeletal muscle were measured. Phosphorylation of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC) and p-AMPK were measured. RESULTS: In vitro, SB-EtOAc exhibited a strong effect of stimulation on GLUT4 translocation by 3.2 fold in L6 cells compared with basal group, however, the selective AMPK inhibitor compound C can completely inhibit the AMPK pathway and prevent the GLUT4 translocation caused by SB-EtOAc. The further western blotting experiments showed that SB-EtOAc can stimulate AMPK phosphorylation in L6 cells and improve the expression of GLUT4. In vivo, SB-EtOAc can improve the KK-Ay mice insulin resistant and oral glucose tolerance to a certain extent. And the body weight, blood glucose levels and the serum TC, TG, FFA, AST, ALT and LDL-C were significantly reduced and HDL-C were increased after 3 weeks treatment. Mechanistically, phosphorylation of the AMPK and ACC had been improved obviously and the levels of AMPK phosphorylation and GLUT4 had been also enhanced. CONCLUSION: In vitro, SB-EtOAc exhibited a strong effect of stimulation on GLUT4 translocation and improved significantly the glucose uptake. In vivo, SB-EtOAc significantly improved oral glucose tolerance and the insulin resistant as well as glucolipid metabolism. In this study, SB-EtOAc displayed promising positive antidiabetic activity in vitro and in vivo, partly by modulating AMPK-GLUT4 and AMPK-ACC signaling pathways. PMID: 27286915 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...
Recipient Glycemic Micro-environments Govern Therapeutic Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion on Osteopenia.
Related Articles Recipient Glycemic Micro-environments Govern Therapeutic Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion on Osteopenia. Theranostics. 2017;7(5):1225-1244 Authors: Sui BD, Hu CH, Zheng CX, Shuai Y, He XN, Gao PP, Zhao P, Li M, Zhang XY, He T, Xuan K, Jin Y Abstract Therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion have been revealed in various human disorders, but impacts of diseased micro-environments are only beginning to be noticed. Donor diabetic hyperglycemia is reported to impair therapeutic efficacy of stem cells. However, whether recipient diabetic condition also affects MSC-mediated therapy is unknown. We and others have previously shown that MSC infusion could cure osteopenia, particularly in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Here, we discovered impaired MSC therapeutic effects on osteopenia in recipient type 1 diabetes (T1D). Through intensive glycemic control by daily insulin treatments, therapeutic effects of MSCs on osteopenia were maintained. Interestingly, by only transiently restoration of recipient euglycemia using single insulin injection, MSC infusion could also rescue T1D-induced osteopenia. Conversely, under recipient hyperglycemia induced by glucose injection in OVX mice, MSC-mediated therapeutic effects on osteopenia were diminished. Mechanistically, recipient hyperglycemic micro-environments reduce anti-inflammatory capacity of MSCs in osteoporotic therapy through suppressing MSC interaction with T cells via the Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We further revealed in diabetic micro-environments, double infusion of MSCs ameliorated osteopenia by anti-inflammation, attributed to the first transplanted MSCs which normalized the recipient glucose homeostasis. Collectively, our findings uncover a previously unrecognized role of recipient glycemic conditions controlling MSC-mediated therapy, and unravel that fulfillment of potent therapeutic effects of MSCs requires tight control of recipient micro-environments. PMID: 28435461 [PubMed - in process]Read more...