Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option

STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETESDiabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes

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Related Articles Reversible secretome and signaling defects in diabetic mesenchymal stem cells from peripheral arterial disease patients. J Vasc Surg. 2018 Aug 10;: Authors: Chadid T, Morris A, Surowiec A, Robinson S, Sasaki M, Galipeau J, Pollack BP, Brewster LP Abstract OBJECTIVE: Regenerative medicine seeks to stall or to reverse the pathologic consequences of chronic diseases. Many people with diabetes have peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which increases their already high risk of major amputation. Cellular therapies are a promising regenerative medicine approach to PAD that can be used to focally inject regenerative cells to endangered tissue beds. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to promote tissue regeneration through stromal support and paracrine stimulation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Whereas little is known about human diabetic MSCs (dMSCs), particularly those from patients with PAD, dMSCs have a limited expansion capacity but can be improved with human platelet lysate (PL) supplementation. PL is rich in many growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), which is known to be important to cell proliferation and survival signaling pathways. We hypothesize that dMSCs have a reversible defect in EGF receptor pathways. The objective of this work was to test this hypothesis using dMSCs from PAD patients. METHODS: The secretome expression of EGF and prominent angiogens was characterized from bone marrow (BM)-derived and adipose tissue-derived (ATD) dMSCs from five patients (six limbs) undergoing major amputation. Western blot was used to characterize the AKT and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 expression in dMSCs under standard culture (5% fetal bovine serum plus fibroblast growth factor 2 [FGF2]), 5% human PL, or 5% fetal bovine serum plus EGF. Healthy donor MSCs were control cells. The angiogenic activity of BM- and ATD-dMSCs was tested on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Paired t-test, analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Both BM- and ATD-dMSCs had typical MSC surface marker expression and similar expansion profiles, and they did not express EGF in their secretome. PL supplementation of dMSCs improved AKT signaling, but they were resistant to FGF2 activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2. EGF supplementation led to similar AKT expression as with PL, but PL had greater phosphorylation of AKT at 30 and 60 minutes. The conditioned media from both BM- and ATD-dMSCs had robust levels of prominent angiogens (vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, hepatocyte growth factor), which stimulated EC proliferation and migration, and the co-culture of dMSCs with ECs led to significantly longer EC sprouts in three-dimensional gel than EC-alone pellets. CONCLUSIONS: PL and EGF supplementation improves AKT expression in dMSCs over that of FGF2, but PL improved pAKT over that of EGF. Thus, PL supplementation strategies may improve AKT signaling, which could be important to MSC survival in cellular therapies. Furthermore, BM- and ATD-dMSCs have similar secretomes and robust in vitro angiogenic activity, which supports pursuing dMSCs from both reservoirs in regenerative medicine strategies. PMID: 30104096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related Articles Hyperbaric Oxygen Increases Stem Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis and Wound-Healing Ability of WJ-MSCs in Diabetic Mice. Front Physiol. 2018;9:995 Authors: Peña-Villalobos I, Casanova-Maldonado I, Lois P, Prieto C, Pizarro C, Lattus J, Osorio G, Palma V Abstract Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is effective for the medical treatment of diverse diseases, infections, and tissue injury. In fact, in recent years there is growing evidence on the beneficial effect of HBOT on non-healing ischemic wounds. However, there is still yet discussion on how this treatment could benefit from combination with regenerative medicine strategies. Here we analyzed the effects of HBOT on three specific aspects of tissue growth, maintenance, and regeneration: (i) modulation of adult rodent (Mus musculus) intestinal stem cell turnover rates; (ii) angiogenesis dynamics during the development of the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) in Gallus gallus embryos; (iii) and wound-healing in a spontaneous type II diabetic mouse model with a low capacity to regenerate skin. To analyze these aspects of tissue growth, maintenance, and regeneration, we used HBOT alone or in combination with cellular therapy. Specifically, Wharton Jelly Mesenchymal Stem cells (WJ-MSC) were embedded in a commercial collagen-scaffold. HBOT did not affect the metabolic rate of adult mice nor of chicken embryos. Notwithstanding, HBOT modified the proliferation rate of stem cells in the mice small intestinal crypts, increased angiogenesis in the CAM, and improved wound-healing and tissue repair in diabetic mice. Moreover, our study demonstrates that combining stem cell therapy and HBOT has a collaborative effect on wound-healing. In summary, our data underscore the importance of oxygen tension as a regulator of stem cell biology and support the potential use of oxygenation in clinical treatments. PMID: 30104981 [PubMed]
Related Articles Pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction in diabetic males. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018 Aug 14;:1-12 Authors: El-Sakka AI Abstract INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have highlighted the intimate association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the true pathogenesis of ED among diabetic men has not yet been fully discovered. The treatment of ED in diabetic patients remains an interesting area of research. The last two decades have witnessed phenomenal advances in the management of ED with the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for ED in diabetic patients encouraging, especially with introduction of innovative conservative tools for treatment. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available information on ED pharmacotherapy in diabetic males and provide an expert perspective on the current treatment strategies. Expert opinion: Conservative treatment remains the initial step for the treatment of ED in diabetic patients. This kind of therapy consists of different modalities including: oral treatments, intracavernosal pharmacotherapy, and evolving modalities such as soluble guanylate cyclase activators, stem cells (SCs), and alternative treatments such as herbal treatment and transdermal/topical pharmacotherapy. However, it should be noted that the currently available pharmacotherapy is still far from ideal. One hopes to witness new drugs and technologies that may revolutionize ED treatment in the future, especially in such complex cases as DM. PMID: 30106605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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