Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option

STEM CELL TREATMENT DIABETESDiabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Stem Cell Treatment and Diabetes

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Related Articles Transplantation of dental pulp stem cells suppressed inflammation in sciatic nerves by promoting macrophage polarization towards anti-inflammation phenotypes and ameliorated diabetic polyneuropathy. J Diabetes Investig. 2016 Jul;7(4):485-96 Authors: Omi M, Hata M, Nakamura N, Miyabe M, Kobayashi Y, Kamiya H, Nakamura J, Ozawa S, Tanaka Y, Takebe J, Matsubara T, Naruse K Abstract AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are thought to be an attractive candidate for cell therapy. We recently reported that the transplantation of DPSCs increased nerve conduction velocity and nerve blood flow in diabetic rats. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSC transplantation on diabetic peripheral nerves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of Sprague-Dawley rats and expanded in culture. Eight weeks after the streptozotocin injection, DPSCs were transplanted into the unilateral hindlimb skeletal muscles. Four weeks after DPSC transplantation, neurophysiological measurements, inflammatory gene expressions and the number of CD68-positive cells in sciatic nerves were assessed. To confirm the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs, the effects of DPSC-conditioned media on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were investigated. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed significant delays in sciatic nerve conduction velocities and decreased sciatic nerve blood flow, all of which were ameliorated by DPSC transplantation. The number of CD68-positive monocytes/macrophages and the gene expressions of M1 macrophage-expressed cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were increased in the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats. DPSC transplantation significantly decreased monocytes/macrophages and tumor necrosis factor-α messenger ribonucleic acid expression, and increased the gene expression of the M2 macrophage marker, CD206, in the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats. The in vitro study showed that DPSC-conditioned media significantly increased the gene expressions of interleukin-10 and CD206 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that DPSC transplantation promoted macrophages polarization towards anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes, which might be one of the therapeutic mechanisms for diabetic polyneuropathy. PMID: 27181261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Effects of ethanol extract of propolis on histopathological changes and anti-oxidant defense of kidney in a rat model for type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Investig. 2016 Jul;7(4):506-13 Authors: Sameni HR, Ramhormozi P, Bandegi AR, Taherian AA, Mirmohammadkhani M, Safari M Abstract AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress has a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Propolis and its constituents have a wide range of medicinal properties against oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-oxidant effects of ethanolic extracts of propolis on kidneys in diabetes mellitus rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: control, diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus with vehicle treatment, diabetes mellitus with propolis treatment (100 mg/kg) and diabetes mellitus with propolis treatment (200 mg/kg). Diabetes mellitus in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Diabetic groups were treated with vehicle or ethanolic extracts of Iranian propolis for 6 weeks. Serum concentration of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. RESULTS: The results showed that Iranian propolis significantly inhibited bodyweight loss in diabetes mellitus rats. The propolis extracts significantly reduced serum glucose levels and kidney weight in diabetes mellitus rats (P < 0.001). Furthermore, propolis extracts significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.001) along with the total anti-oxidant activity in the kidney tissue of diabetes mellitus rats. In the kidneys of the diabetes mellitus and vehicle group, the glomerular basement membrane thickness and glomerular area were significantly increased. Treatment of diabetes mellitus rats with the propolis extract significantly reduced the glomerular basement membrane thickness and glomerular area. CONCLUSIONS: The present study results showed that the Iranian propolis extract could enhance the anti-oxidant levels and histopathological changes in the kidneys of rats. The final results showed that most of the favorable effects of propolis are mediated by a reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. PMID: 27181714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Dermal Repair in Burns and Diabetic Wounds. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;12(1):61-70 Authors: Maranda EL, Rodriguez-Menocal L, Badiavas EV Abstract In this review we explore stem cell function in wounds that are resistant to healing, such as burn injuries and diabetic wounds. Diabetic ulcers are of interest due to their remarkable resistance to heal; severe thermal burns are addressed due to critical need for effective therapies for the prevention shock and improvement in scarring. Cell-based therapy utilizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stromal cells, are currently being investigated as a therapeutic avenue for both chronic diabetic ulcers and severe thermal burns. The clinical utility of stem cells, in particular MSCs, in caring for these types of injuries is primarily based on repairing and replacing cellular substrates, attenuation of inflammation, increasing angiogenesis, and enhancing migration of reparative cells. MSCs are sought after due to their unique ability to initiate different wound-healing programs, depending on the environmental milieu. Thus, this review aims to highlight the properties of MSCs, including their characterization, immunogenicity, and function in the context of dermal repair and regeneration in severe burns and diabetic wounds. Additionally, relevant clinical and pre-clinical studies illustrating the impact of allogeneic and autologous sources of MSCs on therapeutic efficacy are reviewed. Insight into the properties of MSCs and the dramatic host-to-MSC interactions within these pathological states may lead to the development of effective strategies for improving outcomes in impaired wounds. PMID: 27412677 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Effects of insulin on the skin: possible healing benefits for diabetic foot ulcers. Arch Dermatol Res. 2016 Dec;308(10):677-694 Authors: Emanuelli T, Burgeiro A, Carvalho E Abstract Diabetic foot ulcers affect 15-20 % of all diabetic patients and remain an important challenge since the available therapies have limited efficacy and some of the novel therapeutic approaches, which include growth factors and stem cells, are highly expensive and their safety remains to be evaluated. Despite its low cost and safety, the interest for topical insulin as a healing agent has increased only in the last 20 years. The molecular mechanisms of insulin signaling and its metabolic effects have been well studied in its classical target tissues. However, little is known about the specific effects of insulin in healthy or even diabetic skin. In addition, the mechanisms involved in the effects of insulin on wound healing have been virtually unknown until about 10 years ago. This paper will review the most recent advances in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of insulin on skin wound healing in diabetes. Emerging evidence that links dysfunction of key cellular organelles, namely the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, to changes in the autophagy response, as well as the impaired wound healing in diabetic patients will also be discussed along with the putative mechanisms whereby insulin could regulate/modulate these alterations. PMID: 27655635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Uric acid as a novel biomarker for bone-marrow function and incipient hematopoietic reconstitution after aplasia in patients with hematologic malignancies. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017 Feb 16;: Authors: Haen SP, Eyb V, Mirza N, Naumann A, Peter A, Löffler MW, Faul C, Vogel W, Bethge WA, Rammensee HG, Kanz L, Heni M Abstract PURPOSE: Prolonged aplasia and graft failure (GF) represent life-threatening complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) requiring suitable biomarkers for early detection and differentiation between GF and poor graft function (PGF). Uric acid (UA) is a strong immunological danger signal. METHODS: Laboratory results were analyzed from patients undergoing either allogeneic or autologous HCT or induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia (n = 50 per group, n = 150 total). RESULTS: During therapy, UA levels declined from normal values to hypouricemic values (all p < 0.001). Alongside hematopoietic recovery, UA serum levels returned to baseline values. During aplasia, UA levels remained low and started steadily increasing (defined as >two consecutive days, median one 2-day increase) at a median of 1 day before rising leukocytes in allogeneic HCT (p = 0.01) and together with leukocytes in autologous HCT (median one 2-day increase). During induction chemotherapy, a UA increase was also observed alongside rising leukocytes/neutrophils but also several times during aplasia (median 3 increases). Most HCT patients had no detectable leukocytes during aplasia, while some leukocytes remained detectable after induction therapy. No increase in UA levels was observed without concomitant or subsequent rise of leukocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in UA serum levels can indicate incipient or remaining immunological activity after HCT or induction therapy. They may, therefore, help to differentiate between PGF and GF. PMID: 28210842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible cells embedded within a biologically-inspired construct promote recovery in a mouse model of peripheral vascular disease. Biomed Mater. 2017 Feb 17;12(1):015024 Authors: Grau-Monge C, Delcroix GJ, Bonnin-Marquez A, Valdes M, Awadallah EL, Quevedo DF, Armour MR, Montero RB, Schiller PC, Andreopoulos FM, D'Ippolito G Abstract Peripheral vascular disease is one of the major vascular complications in individuals suffering from diabetes and in the elderly that is associated with significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Stem cell therapy is being tested as an attractive alternative to traditional surgery to prevent and treat this disorder. The goal of this study was to enhance the protective and reparative potential of marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells by incorporating them within a bio-inspired construct (BIC) made of two layers of gelatin B electrospun nanofibers. We hypothesized that the BIC would enhance MIAMI cell survival and engraftment, ultimately leading to a better functional recovery of the injured limb in our mouse model of critical limb ischemia compared to MIAMI cells used alone. Our study demonstrated that MIAMI cell-seeded BIC resulted in a wide range of positive outcomes with an almost full recovery of blood flow in the injured limb, thereby limiting the extent of ischemia and necrosis. Functional recovery was also the greatest when MIAMI cells were combined with BICs, compared to MIAMI cells alone or BICs in the absence of cells. Histology was performed 28 days after grafting the animals to explore the mechanisms at the source of these positive outcomes. We observed that our critical limb ischemia model induces an extensive loss of muscular fibers that are replaced by intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), together with a highly disorganized vascular structure. The use of MIAMI cells-seeded BIC prevented IMAT infiltration with some clear evidence of muscular fibers regeneration. PMID: 28211362 [PubMed - in process]

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