Stem Cell Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease

Stem Cell Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease

Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, often called "degenerative disc disease" (DDD) of the spine, is a condition that can be painful and can greatly affect the quality of one's life.

STEM CELL TREATMENT DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASE

While disc degeneration is a normal part of aging and for most people is not a problem, for certain individuals a degenerated disc can cause severe constant chronic pain. Often, degenerative disc disease can be successfully treated without surgery. One or a combination of treatments such as physical therapy, chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) and other chiropractic treatments, osteopathic manipulation, anti-inflammatory medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, traction, or spinal injections often provide adequate relief of these troubling symptoms.

Degenerative discs typically show degenerative fibrocartilage and clusters of chondrocytes, suggestive of repair. Inflammation may or may not be present. Histologic examination of disc fragments resected for presumed DDD is routine to exclude malignancy.

Fibrocartilage replaces the gelatinous mucoid material of the nucleus pulposus as the disc changes with age. There may be splits in the annulus fibrosis, permitting herniation of elements of nucleus pulposus. There may also be shrinkage of the nucleus pulposus that produces prolapse of the annulus with secondary osteophyte formation at the margins of the adjacent vertebral body.

The pathologic findings in DDD include protrusion, spondylolysis, and/or subluxation of vertebrae (sponylolisthesis) and spinal stenosis.

STEM CELL TREATMENT FOR DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASE

Stem Cell Treatment and Degenerative Disc Disease NIH Streaming Database

Related Articles Sustained Release of GDF5 from a Designed Coacervate Attenuates Disc Degeneration in a Rat Model. Acta Biomater. 2019 Jan 16;: Authors: Zhu J, Xia K, Yu W, Wang Y, Hua J, Liu B, Gong Z, Wang J, Xu A, You Z, Chen Q, Li F, Tao H, Liang C Abstract Low back pain is often caused by intervertebral disc degeneration, which is characterized by nucleus pulposus (NP) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) induced by growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) can differentiate into an NP-like phenotype. Although stem cell-based therapy with prolonged exposure to growth factors is regarded as a promising treatment, the efficacy of this approach in attenuating the disc degeneration process is limited by the short lifespan of growth factors. In our study, a unique growth factor delivery vehicle composed of heparin and the synthetic polycation poly(ethylene argininylaspartate diglyceride) (PEAD) was used to sustain GDF5 release. The results showed that sustained release of GDF5 by the PEAD:heparin delivery system promoted hADSC differentiation to an NP-like phenotype in vitro. After injection of the PEAD:heparin:GDF5 delivery platform and hADSCs into intervertebral spaces of coccygeal (Co) vertebrae Co7/Co8 and Co8/Co9 of the rat, the disc height, water content, and structure of the NPs decreased more slowly than other treatment groups. This new strategy may be used as an alternative treatment for attenuating intervertebral disc degeneration with hADSCs without the need for gene therapy. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Low back pain is often caused by intervertebral disc degeneration, which is characterized by nucleus pulposus (NP) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) induced by growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) can differentiate into an NP-like phenotype. Although stem cell-based therapy with prolonged exposure to growth factor is regarded as a promising treatment, the efficacy of this approach in the disc regeneration process is limited by the short life of growth factors. In our study, a unique growth factor delivery vehicle comprised of heparin and the synthetic polycation poly(ethylene argininylaspartate diglyceride) (PEAD) was used to sustain the release of GDF-5. Numerous groups have explored IDD regeneration methods in vitro and in vivo. Our study differs in that GDF5 was incorporated into a vehicle through charge attraction and exhibited a sustained release profile. Moreover, GDF-5 seeded coacervate combined with hADSC injection could be a minimally invasive approach for tissue engineering that is suitable for clinical application. We investigated the stimulatory effects of our GDF-5 seeded coacervate on the differentiation of ADSCs in vitro and the reparative effect of the delivery system on degenerated NP in vivo. PMID: 30660009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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