Stem Cell Treatment for Cerebral Palsy

Stem Cell Treatment for Cerebral Palsy

Stem Cell Treatments for Cerebral Palsy are Currently Available at SIRM

Because Cerebral Palsy is a condition that encompasses a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, we aim to treat it with Stem Cell Therapy.

Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain (although the disorder most likely involves connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum), and palsy refers to disorder of movement. Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the motor control centers of the developing brain and can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or after birth up to about age three. Resulting limits in movement and posture cause activity limitation and are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, depth perception and other sight-based perceptual problems, communication ability; impairments can also be found in cognition, and epilepsy is found in about one-third of cases. CP, no matter what the type, is often accompanied by secondary musculoskeletal problems that arise as a result of the underlying etiology.

Cerebral Palsy Stem Cell Treatment

Asphyxia, Infections, and Inflammation during Intrauterine development seemed to be the causes.

There are 4 types:

  1. Spastic - 80% and most common; hypertonic and have what is essentially a neuromuscular mobility impairment (rather than hypotonia or paralysis) stemming from an upper motor neuron lesion in the brain as well as the corticospinal tract or the motor cortex. This damage impairs the ability of some nerve receptors in the spine to properly receive gamma amino butyric acid, leading to hypertonia in the muscles signaled by those damaged nerves.
  2. Ataxic - caused by damage to the cerebellum, and it is common for individuals to have difficulty with visual and/or auditory processing.
  3. Dyskinetic - is mixed muscle tone – both hypertonia and hypotonia mixed with involuntary motions. People with Dyskinetic CP have trouble holding themselves in an upright, steady position for sitting or walking, and often show involuntary motions.
  4. Mixed - A combination of the above

Cerebral Palsy Stem Cell Treatment and stem cell therapy. Cerebral Palsy treatment studies and stem cell protocols:

Related Articles Neural stem cell-like cells derived from autologous bone mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients with cerebral palsy. J Transl Med. 2013 Jan 26;11:21 Authors: Chen G, Wang Y, Xu Z, Fang F, Xu R, Wang Y, Hu X, Fan L, Liu H Abstract BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. Autologous MSCs may be a better cell source and have been studied for the treatment of cerebral palsy because of their functions in tissue repair and the regulation of immunological processes. METHODS: To assess neural stem cell-like (NSC-like) cells derived from autologous marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 60 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this open-label, non-randomised, observer-blinded controlled clinical study with a 6-months follow-up. For the transplantation group, a total of 30 cerebral palsy patients received an autologous NSC-like cells transplantation (1-2 × 107 cells into the subarachnoid cavity) and rehabilitation treatments whereas 30 patients in the control group only received rehabilitation treatment. RESULTS: We recorded the gross motor function measurement scores, language quotients, and adverse events up to 6 months post-treatment. The gross motor function measurement scores in the transplantation group were significantly higher at month 3 (the score increase was 42.6, 95% CI: 9.8-75.3, P=.011) and month 6 (the score increase was 58.6, 95% CI: 25.8-91.4, P=.001) post-treatment compared with the baseline scores. The increase in the Gross Motor Function Measurement scores in the control group was not significant. The increases in the language quotients at months 1, 3, and 6 post-treatment were not statistically significant when compared with the baseline quotients in both groups. All the 60 patients survived, and none of the patients experienced serious adverse events or complications. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that NSC-like cells are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to establish the efficacy of this procedure. PMID: 23351389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Therapeutic potential of umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells transplantation for cerebral palsy: a case report. Case Rep Transplant. 2013;2013:146347 Authors: Wang L, Ji H, Zhou J, Xie J, Zhong Z, Li M, Bai W, Li N, Zhang Z, Wang X, Zhu D, Liu Y, Wu M Abstract Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood. In current paper, we first report our clinical data regarding administration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation in treatment of cerebral palsy. A 5-year-old girl with cerebral palsy was treated with multiple times of intravenous and intrathecal administration of MSCs derived from her young sister and was followed up for 28 months. The gross motor dysfunction was improved. Other benefits included enhanced immunity, increased physical strength, and adjusted speech and comprehension. Temporary low-grade fever was the only side effect during the treatment. MSCs may be a safe and effective therapy to improve symptoms in children with cerebral palsy. PMID: 23533920 [PubMed]
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Related Articles ADVANCES IN THE CELL-BASED TREATMENT OF NEONATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC BRAIN INJURY. Future Neurol. 2013 Mar 01;8(2):193-203 Authors: Pabon MM, Borlongan CV Abstract Stem cell therapy for adult stroke has reached limited clinical trials. Here, we provide translational research guidance on stem cell therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury requiring a careful consideration of clinically relevant animal models, feasible stem cell sources, and validated safety and efficacy endpoint assays, as well as a general understanding of modes of action of this cellular therapy. To this end, we refer to existing translational guidelines, in particular the recommendations outlined in the consortium of academicians, industry partners and regulators called Stem cell Therapeutics as an Emerging Paradigm for Stroke or STEPS. Although the STEPS guidelines are directed at enhancing the successful outcome of cell therapy in adult stroke, we highlight overlapping pathologies between adult stroke and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We are, however, cognizant that the neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury displays disease symptoms distinct from adult stroke in need of an innovative translational approach that facilitates the entry of cell therapy in the clinic. Finally, insights into combination therapy are provided with the vision that stem cell therapy may benefit from available treatments, such as hypothermia, already being tested in children diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. PMID: 23565051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Vascular endothelial growth factors A and C are induced in the SVZ following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and exert different effects on neonatal glial progenitors. Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Apr;4(2):158-70 Authors: Bain JM, Moore L, Ren Z, Simonishvili S, Levison SW Abstract Episodes of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) are strongly associated with cerebral palsy and a wide spectrum of other neurological deficits in children. Two key processes required to repair damaged organs are to amplify the number of precursors capable of regenerating damaged cells and to direct their differentiation towards the cell types that need to be replaced. Since hypoxia induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, it is logical to predict that VEGFs are key mediators of tissue repair after H-I injury. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that certain VEGF isoforms increase during recovery from neonatal H-I and that they would differentially affect the proliferation and differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors. During the acute recovery period from H-I both VEGF-A and VEGF-C were transiently induced in the SVZ, which correlated with an increase in SVZ blood vessel diameter. These growth factors were produced by glial progenitors, astrocytes and to a lesser extent, microglia. VEGF-A promoted the production of astrocytes from SVZ glial progenitors while VEGF-C stimulated the proliferation of both early and late oligodendrocyte progenitors, which was abolished by blocking the VEGFR-3. Altogether, these results provide new insights into the signals that coordinate the reactive responses of the progenitors in the SVZ to neonatal H-I. Our studies further suggest that therapeutics that extend VEGF-C production and/or agonists that stimulate the VEGFR-3 will promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell development to enhance myelination after perinatal brain injury. PMID: 23565129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles The potential for stem cell therapies to have an impact on cerebral palsy: opportunities and limitations. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013 Aug;55(8):689-97 Authors: Ruff CA, Faulkner SD, Fehlings MG Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic childhood disorder described by a group of motor and cognitive impairments and results in a substantial socio-economic burden to the individual, family, and healthcare system. With no effective biological interventions, therapies for CP are currently restricted to supportive and management strategies. Cellular transplantation has been suggested as a putative intervention for neural pathology, as mesenchymal and neural stem cells, as well as olfactory ensheathing glia and Schwann cells, have shown some regenerative and functional efficacy in experimental central nervous system disorders. This review describes the most common cell types investigated and delineates their purported mechanisms in vivo. Furthermore, it provides a cogent summary of both current early-phase clinical trials using neural precursor cells (NPCs) and the state of stem cell therapies for neurodegenerative conditions. Although NPCs are perhaps the most promising candidates for cell replacement therapy in the context of CP, much still remains to be understood regarding safety, efficacy, timing, dose, and route of transplantation, as well as the capacity for combinatorial strategies. PMID: 23680015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Dexamethasone induces apoptosis of progenitor cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of developing rat brain. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Sep;91(9):1191-202 Authors: Bhatt AJ, Feng Y, Wang J, Famuyide M, Hersey K Abstract The use of dexamethasone in premature infants to prevent and/or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia adversely affects neurocognitive development and is associated with cerebral palsy. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are multifactorial and likely include apoptosis. The objective of this study was to confirm whether dexamethasone causes apoptosis in different regions of the developing rat brain. On postnatal day 2, pups in each litter were randomly divided into the dexamethasone-treated (n = 91) or vehicle-treated (n = 92) groups. Rat pups in the dexamethasone group received tapering doses of dexamethasone on postnatal days 3-6 (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.06 mg/kg/day, respectively). Dexamethasone treatment significantly decreased the gain of body and brain weight and increased brain caspase-3 activity, DNA fragments, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and cleaved caspse-3-positive cells at 24 hr after treatment. Dexamethasone increased cleaved caspse-3-positive cells in the cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, dentate gyrus, and subventricular zone. Double-immunofluorescence studies show that progenitor cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus preferentially undergo apoptosis following dexamethasone exposure. These results indicate that dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in immature cells in developing brain is one of the mechanisms of its neurodegenerative effects in newborn rats. PMID: 23686666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Cerebral palsy prevention and cure: vision or mirage? A personal view. J Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Feb;50(2):89-90 Authors: Graham HK PMID: 23711208 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles First autologous cell therapy of cerebral palsy caused by hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in a child after cardiac arrest-individual treatment with cord blood. Case Rep Transplant. 2013;2013:951827 Authors: Jensen A, Hamelmann E Abstract Each year, thousands of children incur brain damage that results in lifelong sequelae. Therefore, based on experimental evidence, we explored the therapeutic potential of human cord blood, known to contain stem cells, to examine the functional neuroregeneration in a child with cerebral palsy after cardiac arrest. The boy, whose cord blood was stored at birth, was 2.5 years old and normally developed when global ischemic brain damage occurred resulting in a persistent vegetative state. Nine weeks later, he received autologous cord blood (91.7 mL, cryopreserved, 5.75 × 10e8 mononuclear cells) intravenously. Active rehabilitation (physio- and ergotherapy) was provided daily, follow-up at 2, 5, 12, 24, 30, and 40 months. At 2-months follow-up the boy's motor control improved, spastic paresis was largely reduced, and eyesight was recovered, as did the electroencephalogram. He smiled when played with, was able to sit and to speak simple words. At 40 months, independent eating, walking in gait trainer, crawling, and moving from prone position to free sitting were possible, and there was significantly improved receptive and expressive speech competence (four-word sentences, 200 words). This remarkable functional neuroregeneration is difficult to explain by intense active rehabilitation alone and suggests that autologous cord blood transplantation may be an additional and causative treatment of pediatric cerebral palsy after brain damage. PMID: 23762741 [PubMed]
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Related Articles The potential for cell-based therapy in perinatal brain injuries. Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Apr;4(2):137-48 Authors: Phillips AW, Johnston MV, Fatemi A Abstract Perinatal brain injuries are a leading cause of cerebral palsy worldwide. The potential of stem cell therapy to prevent or reduce these impairments has been widely discussed within the medical and scientific communities and an increasing amount of research is being conducted in this field. Animal studies support the idea that a number of stem cells types, including cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have a neuroprotective effect in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Both these cell types are readily available in a clinical setting. The mechanisms of action appear to be diverse, including immunomodulation, activation of endogenous stem cells, release of growth factors, and anti-apoptotic effects. Here, we review the different types of stem cells and progenitor cells that are potential candidates for therapeutic strategies in perinatal brain injuries, and summarize recent preclinical and clinical studies. PMID: 23814628 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles [Advances in the management of neonatal hypoxia]. Rev Neurol. 2013 Sep 06;57 Suppl 1:S17-21 Authors: Riesgo Rdos S, Becker MM, Ranzan J, Winckler MI, Ohlweiler L Abstract INTRODUCTION: During the birth, physiological changes occur in virtually all organs of the child, including the central nervous system. In this transitional phase, it is possible some degree of hypoxemia, generally well tolerated by the newborn. But, if neonatal hypoxia is intense and continuous it can lead to neonatal encephalopathy, which characterizes a critical situation for the infant. The proper approach is essential to ensure a good long-term prognosis. DEVELOPMENT: We up-to-date information regarding hypoxia neonatal and review recent evidence-based medicine publications addressing its approach. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal encephalopathy may be clinically classified into three levels of intensity. Mild cases usually have a good prognosis, moderate intensity cases have 30% chance of sequels, and severe intensity cases have more than 70% mortality and nearly all survivors have sequels. Recent advances occurred in two areas: in the diagnosis, with new EEG and MRI techniques, and in the treatment, with the advent of therapeutic hypothermia. There is the possibility of future use for stem cell therapy. The prognosis depends on the clinical classification, the neuroimaging data as well as the EEG. PMID: 23897145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles The potential for stem cells in cerebral palsy--piecing together the puzzle. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2013 Jun;20(2):146-53 Authors: Faulkner SD, Ruff CA, Fehlings MG Abstract The substantial socioeconomic burden of a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, coupled with a positive anecdotal and media spin on stem cell treatments, drives many affected families to seek information and treatment outside of the current clinical and scientific realm. Preclinical studies using several types of stem and adult cells--including mesenchymal stem cells, neural precursor cells, olfactory ensheathing glia and Schwann cells--have demonstrated some regenerative and functional efficacy in neurologic paradigms. This paper describes the most common cell types investigated for transplant in vivo and summarizes the current state of early-phase clinical trials. It investigates the most relevant and promising coadministered therapies, including rehabilitation, drug targeting, magnetic stimulation, and bioengineering approaches. We highlight the need for adjunctive combinatorial strategies to successfully transfer stem cell treatments from bench to bedside. PMID: 23948689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Cortical region-specific engraftment of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells restores axonal sprouting to a subcortical target and achieves motor functional recovery in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013;7:128 Authors: Shinoyama M, Ideguchi M, Kida H, Kajiwara K, Kagawa Y, Maeda Y, Nomura S, Suzuki M Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) at birth could cause cerebral palsy (CP), mental retardation, and epilepsy, which last throughout the individual's lifetime. However, few restorative treatments for ischemic tissue are currently available. Cell replacement therapy offers the potential to rescue brain damage caused by HI and to restore motor function. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (ES-NPCs) to become cortical deep layer neurons, to restore the neural network, and to repair brain damage in an HIE mouse model. ES cells stably expressing the reporter gene GFP are induced to a neural precursor state by stromal cell co-culture. Forty-hours after the induction of HIE, animals were grafted with ES-NPCs targeting the deep layer of the motor cortex in the ischemic brain. Motor function was evaluated 3 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry and neuroanatomical tracing with GFP were used to analyze neuronal differentiation and axonal sprouting. ES-NPCs could differentiate to cortical neurons with pyramidal morphology and expressed the deep layer-specific marker, Ctip2. The graft showed good survival and an appropriate innervation pattern via axonal sprouting from engrafted cells in the ischemic brain. The motor functions of the transplanted HIE mice also improved significantly compared to the sham-transplanted group. These findings suggest that cortical region specific engraftment of preconditioned cortical precursor cells could support motor functional recovery in the HIE model. It is not clear whether this is a direct effect of the engrafted cells or due to neurotrophic factors produced by these cells. These results suggest that cortical region-specific NPC engraftment is a promising therapeutic approach for brain repair. PMID: 23970853 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Research using autologous cord blood - time for a policy change. Med J Aust. 2013 Aug 19;199(4):288-99 Authors: Han MX, Craig ME Abstract • Type 1 diabetes results from the loss of normal immunological self-tolerance, which may be attributable to the failure of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Umbilical cord blood is rich in Tregs and therefore has the potential to prevent or delay the onset of type 1 diabetes. A pilot trial is currently underway in Australia to examine whether infusion of autologous cord blood can prevent type 1 diabetes in high-risk children with serum antibodies to multiple β-cell antigens. • A number of other potential therapeutic indications for autologous cord blood have been proposed, including cerebral palsy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. • Recruitment to clinical trials using cord blood is influenced by divergent public and private cord blood banking policy in Australia. The burgeoning consumer demand for storage of cord blood highlights the need for regulatory bodies to develop and adapt policies to facilitate research that may extend the use of cord blood beyond currently recognised indications. • Consumers, researchers and policymakers must also recognise specific ethical issues associated with collection and storage of cord blood, including storage in public and private banks, informed consent, ownership, access and the principle of beneficence. PMID: 23984789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Safety and efficacy of G-CSF mobilization and collection of autologous peripheral blood stem cells in children with cerebral palsy. Transfus Apher Sci. 2013 Dec;49(3):516-21 Authors: Moon JH, Kim MJ, Song SY, Lee YJ, Choi YY, Kim SH, Lee YH Abstract We hypothesized that mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) could be useful for treating neurological impairments and therefore assessed the safety of administering G-CSF followed by collecting PBSC in children with cerebral palsy (CP). G-CSF (10 μg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously for 5 days, and apheresis was performed to collect PBSC via central venous catheter. G-CSF-related events occurred in 3 patients (fever in 2, irritability in 1). No catheter-related complications were reported. None of the patients needed platelet transfusion or calcium replacement during apheresis. Mobilization with G-CSF followed by PBSC collection appears to be safe and feasible in CP children. PMID: 24035522 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles An observational study of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells transplantation in seven patients with nervous system diseases: a 2-year follow-up. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014 May;69(1):179-87 Authors: Ren C, Geng RL, Ge W, Liu XY, Chen H, Wan MR, Geng DQ Abstract Currently, autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell is one of the most innovative areas of stem cells research. Previous studies on animal models of nervous system diseases have shown that these cells have a good effect on nervous system disorders. The alternative treatment with stem cells for the nervous system diseases has also gradually reached to clinical application stage. The prospect is captivating, but the safety and efficacy of this procedure need further research. To observe the clinical efficacy and side effects of the treatment for autologous mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem/progenitor cells which are in differentiated form by inducing with cerebrospinal fluid in the patients with nervous system diseases, thirty patients were selected from our hospital (2009-10 to 2012-07) and were followed at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after the treatment with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem/progenitor cells in differentiated form was introduced. In this paper, we will introduce the process to make cells accessible for the clinical application by the description of the changes observed in 7 cases were followed for 2 years. The time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could be available for clinical needs is as early as 5 days, not later than 10 days, and the median time is 8 days, while neural stem/progenitor cells in differentiated form can be available for clinical needs in as early as 12 days, not later than 15 days, and the median time is 13.5 days (statistical explanation: Case 5 only uses autologous mesenchymal stem cells, and Case 7 has two times bone marrow punctures). The neurological function of the patients was improved in 1-month follow-up, and the patients have a better discontinuous trend (statistical explanation: sometimes the neurological function of the patients between two adjacent follow-ups does not change significantly). After transplantation, four patients appeared to have transient fever, but it was easily controlled by symptomatic treatment. Seven patients did not appear to show secondary tumor induced by transplantation of stem cells in 2-year follow-up. Thus, it suggests that the use of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells transplantation in patients with nervous system diseases is a feasible, convenient, safe, and effective method. PMID: 24062130 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on gross motor function measure scores of children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary clinical study. Cytotherapy. 2013 Dec;15(12):1549-62 Authors: Wang X, Cheng H, Hua R, Yang J, Dai G, Zhang Z, Wang R, Qin C, An Y Abstract BACKGROUND AIMS: Pre-clinical evidence indicates that autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) transplantation improves motor function in patients with central nervous system disorders. METHODS: After providing informed consent, 52 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) who met the study criteria received BM-MSC transplantation. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 and GMFM-66 scales at baseline (before transplantation) and at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation. The participants completed the trial without visible side effects. The GMFM-66 percentile (motor growth curves) was used as the control index of motor function to exclude the interference of improvement with age. RESULTS: The score domains A, B, C and D and the total GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 scores in participants increased at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation compared with the baseline value (P < 0.01). The scores of domain E also increased at 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation, although they were not significantly increased at 1 month post-transplantation. There were significant increases in the GMFM-66 score and the GMFM-66 percentile corresponding to patient age and Gross Motor Function Classification System level after cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Autologous BM-MSC transplantation appears to be a feasible, safe and effective therapy for patients with CP. The treatment improved the development of children with CP with regard to motor function. PMID: 24100132 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells. Front Neurosci. 2013 Oct 24;7:194 Authors: Castillo-Melendez M, Yawno T, Jenkin G, Miller SL Abstract In the research, clinical, and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however, this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical, and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form teratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury. PMID: 24167471 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Advancing critical care medicine with stem cell therapy and hypothermia for cerebral palsy. Neuroreport. 2013 Dec 18;24(18):1067-71 Authors: Dailey T, Mosley Y, Pabon M, Acosta S, Tajiri N, van Loveren H, Kaneko Y, Borlongan CV Abstract With limited clinical trials on stem cell therapy for adult stroke underway, the assessment of efficacy also needs to be considered for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, considering its distinct symptoms. The critical nature of this condition leads to establishment of deficits that last a lifetime. Here, we will highlight the progress of current translational research, commenting on the critical nature of the disease, stem cell sources, the use of hypothermia, safety and efficacy of each treatment, modes of action, and the possibility of combination therapy. With this in mind, we reference translational guidelines established by a consortium of research partners called Stem cell Therapeutics as an Emerging Paradigm for Stroke (STEPS). The guidelines of STEPS are directed toward evaluating outcomes of cell therapy in adult stroke; however, we identify the overlapping pathology, as we believe that these guidelines will serve well in the investigation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic therapy. Finally, we discuss emerging treatments and a case report, altogether suggesting that the potential for these treatments to be used in synergy has arrived and the time for advancing stem cell use in combination with hypothermia for cerebral palsy is now. PMID: 24169604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Stem cells for brain repair in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Childs Nerv Syst. 2014 Jan;30(1):37-46 Authors: Chicha L, Smith T, Guzman R Abstract Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults are a significant cause of pediatric encephalopathy, developmental delays, and spastic cerebral palsy. Although the developing brain's plasticity allows for remarkable self-repair, severe disruption of normal myelination and cortical development upon neonatal brain injury are likely to generate life-persisting sensory-motor and cognitive deficits in the growing child. Currently, no treatments are available that can address the long-term consequences. Thus, regenerative medicine appears as a promising avenue to help restore normal developmental processes in affected infants. Stem cell therapy has proven effective in promoting functional recovery in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury and therefore represents a hopeful therapy for this unmet medical condition. Neural stem cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal tissues as well as umbilical cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have all shown initial success in improving functional outcomes. However, much still remains to be understood about how those stem cells can safely be administered to infants and what their repair mechanisms in the brain are. In this review, we discuss updated research into pathophysiological mechanisms of neonatal brain injury, the types of stem cell therapies currently being tested in this context, and the potential mechanisms through which exogenous stem cells might interact with and influence the developing brain. PMID: 24178233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Cerebral palsy. Lancet. 2014 Apr 05;383(9924):1240-9 Authors: Colver A, Fairhurst C, Pharoah PO Abstract The syndrome of cerebral palsy encompasses a large group of childhood movement and posture disorders. Severity, patterns of motor involvement, and associated impairments such as those of communication, intellectual ability, and epilepsy vary widely. Overall prevalence has remained stable in the past 40 years at 2-3·5 cases per 1000 livebirths, despite changes in antenatal and perinatal care. The few studies available from developing countries suggest prevalence of comparable magnitude. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder; approaches to intervention, whether at an individual or environmental level, should recognise that quality of life and social participation throughout life are what individuals with cerebral palsy seek, not improved physical function for its own sake. In the past few years, the cerebral palsy community has learned that the evidence of benefit for the numerous drugs, surgery, and therapies used over previous decades is weak. Improved understanding of the role of multiple gestation in pathogenesis, of gene environment interaction, and how to influence brain plasticity could yield significant advances in treatment of the disorder. Reduction in the prevalence of post-neonatal cerebral palsy, especially in developing countries, should be possible through improved nutrition, infection control, and accident prevention. PMID: 24268104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Short-term effects of erythropoietin on neurodevelopment in infants with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Brain Dev. 2014 Oct;36(9):764-9 Authors: Lee HS, Song J, Min K, Choi YS, Kim SM, Cho SR, Kim M Abstract OBJECTIVE: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disabling condition characterized by the motor impairment, which is difficult to be ameliorated. In the brain of infants with CP, there are persistent pathomechanisms including accentuated neuroinflammation. Since erythropoietin was demonstrated to have neuroprotective effect via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, we hypothesized that the administration of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) could help children with CP, especially young infants. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of rhEPO for infants with CP, who had been undergoing active rehabilitation in hospitalized setting to eliminate treatment bias. Twenty infants with CP were randomly divided into EPO or control group equally. We compared the changes in the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) scores during one month of hospitalization between two groups. RESULTS: The improvements after 1 month on the GMFM A and GMFM total scores differed significantly between the groups (p = 0.003, p = 0.04, respectively). However, the changes after 6 months were not different between the two groups. The scores of BSID-II did not show any differences at 1-month and 6-months post-treatment. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that rhEPO could have therapeutic efficacy for infants with CP during the active rehabilitation and anti-inflammation was suggested to be one of its therapeutic mechanisms. PMID: 24314853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Effects of intravenous administration of umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells in a mouse model of neonatal stroke. Neuroscience. 2014 Mar 28;263:148-58 Authors: Tsuji M, Taguchi A, Ohshima M, Kasahara Y, Sato Y, Tsuda H, Otani K, Yamahara K, Ihara M, Harada-Shiba M, Ikeda T, Matsuyama T Abstract Neonatal stroke occurs in approximately 1/4000 live births and results in life-long neurological impairments: e.g., cerebral palsy. Currently, there is no evidence-based specific treatment for neonates with stroke. Several studies have reported the benefits of umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell treatment in rodent models of neonatal brain injury. However, all of the studies examined the effects of administering either the UCB mononuclear cell fraction or UCB-derived mesenchymal stem cells in neonatal rat models. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of human UCB CD34(+) cells (hematopoietic stem cell/endothelial progenitor cells) in a mouse model of neonatal stroke, which we recently developed. On postnatal day 12, immunocompromized (SCID) mice underwent permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Forty-eight hours after MCAO, human UCB CD34(+) cells (1×10(5)cells) were injected intravenously into the mice. The area in which cerebral blood flow (CBF) was maintained was temporarily larger in the cell-treated group than in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated group at 24h after treatment. With cell treatment, the percent loss of ipsilateral hemispheric volume was significantly ameliorated (21.5±1.9%) compared with the PBS group (25.6±5.1%) when assessed at 7weeks after MCAO. The cell-treated group did not exhibit significant differences from the PBS group in either rotarod (238±46s in the sham-surgery group, 175±49s in the PBS group, 203±54s in the cell-treated group) or open-field tests. The intravenous administration of human UCB CD34(+) cells modestly reduced histological ischemic brain damage after neonatal stroke in mice, with a transient augmentation of CBF in the peri-infarct area. PMID: 24444827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Mannitol-enhanced delivery of stem cells and their growth factors across the blood-brain barrier. Cell Transplant. 2014;23(4-5):531-9 Authors: Gonzales-Portillo GS, Sanberg PR, Franzblau M, Gonzales-Portillo C, Diamandis T, Staples M, Sanberg CD, Borlongan CV Abstract Ischemic brain injury in adults and neonates is a significant clinical problem with limited therapeutic interventions. Currently, clinicians have only tPA available for stroke treatment and hypothermia for cerebral palsy. Owing to the lack of treatment options, there is a need for novel treatments such as stem cell therapy. Various stem cells including cells from embryo, fetus, perinatal, and adult tissues have proved effective in preclinical and small clinical trials. However, a limiting factor in the success of these treatments is the delivery of the cells and their by-products (neurotrophic factors) into the injured brain. We have demonstrated that mannitol, a drug with the potential to transiently open the blood-brain barrier and facilitate the entry of stem cells and trophic factors, as a solution to the delivery problem. The combination of stem cell therapy and mannitol may improve therapeutic outcomes in adult stroke and neonatal cerebral palsy. PMID: 24480552 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Early intervention after perinatal stroke: opportunities and challenges. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014 Jun;56(6):516-21 Authors: Basu AP Abstract Perinatal stroke is the most common cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy. No standardized early intervention exists despite evidence for a critical time window for activity-dependent plasticity to mould corticospinal tract development in the first few years of life. Intervention during this unique period of plasticity could mitigate the consequences of perinatal stroke to an extent not possible with later intervention, by preserving the normal pattern of development of descending motor pathways. This article outlines the broad range of approaches currently under investigation. Despite significant progress in this area, improved early detection and outcome prediction remain important goals. PMID: 24528276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Safety and tolerability of intrathecal delivery of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells in children with cerebral palsy: an open-label phase I trial. Cytotherapy. 2014 Jun;16(6):810-20 Authors: Mancías-Guerra C, Marroquín-Escamilla AR, González-Llano O, Villarreal-Martínez L, Jaime-Pérez JC, García-Rodríguez F, Valdés-Burnes SL, Rodríguez-Romo LN, Barrera-Morales DC, Sánchez-Hernández JJ, Cantú-Rodríguez OG, Gutiérrez-Aguirre CH, Gómez-De León A, Elizondo-Riojas G, Salazar-Riojas R, Gómez-Almaguer D Abstract BACKGROUND AIMS: Cerebral palsy (CP) is related to severe perinatal hypoxia with permanent brain damage in nearly 50% of surviving preterm infants. Cell therapy is a potential therapeutic option for CP by several mechanisms, including immunomodulation through cytokine and growth factor secretion. METHODS: In this phase I open-label clinical trial, 18 pediatric patients with CP were included to assess the safety of autologous bone marrow-derived total nucleated cell (TNC) intrathecal and intravenous injection after stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Motor, cognitive, communication, personal-social and adaptive areas were evaluated at baseline and 1 and 6 months after the procedure through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 6 months after therapy. This study was registered in ClinicaTrials.gov (NCT01019733). RESULTS: A median of 13.12 × 10(8) TNCs (range, 4.83-53.87) including 10.02 × 10(6) CD34+ cells (range, 1.02-29.9) in a volume of 7 mL (range, 4-10.5) was infused intrathecally. The remaining cells from the bone marrow aspirate were administered intravenously; 6.01 × 10(8) TNCs (range, 1.36-17.85), with 3.39 × 10(6) cells being CD34+. Early adverse effects included headache, vomiting, fever and stiff neck occurred in three patients. No serious complications were documented. An overall 4.7-month increase in developmental age according to the Battelle Developmental Inventory, including all areas of evaluation, was observed (±SD 2.63). No MRI changes at 6 months of follow-up were found. CONCLUSIONS: Subarachnoid placement of autologous bone marrow-derived TNC in children with CP is a safe procedure. The results suggest a possible increase in neurological function. PMID: 24642016 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Feasibility of trialling cord blood stem cell treatments for cerebral palsy in Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Jul;50(7):540-4 Authors: Crompton KE, Elwood N, Kirkland M, Clark P, Novak I, Reddihough D Abstract AIM: Umbilical cord blood may have therapeutic benefit in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but further studies are required. On first appearance it seems that Australia is well placed for such a trial because we have excellence in CP research backed by extensive CP registers, and both public and private cord blood banks. We aimed to examine the possibilities of conducting a trial of autologous umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) as a treatment for children with CP in Australia. METHODS: Data linkages between CP registers and cord blood banks were used to estimate potential participant numbers for a trial of autologous UCBCs for children with CP. RESULTS: As of early 2013, one Victorian child with CP had cord blood stored in the public bank, and between 1 and 3 children had their cord blood stored at Cell Care Australia (private cord blood bank). In New South Wales, we counted two children on the CP register who had their stored cord blood available in early 2013. We estimate that there are between 10 and 24 children with CP of any type who have autologous cord blood available across Australia. CONCLUSIONS: In nations with small populations like Australia, combined with Australia's relatively low per capita cord blood storage to date, it is not currently feasible to conduct trials of autologous UCBCs for children with CP. Other options must be explored, such as allogeneic UCBCs or prospective trials for neonates at risk of CP. PMID: 24909743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Syngeneic transplantation of newborn splenocytes in a murine model of neonatal ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015 May;28(7):842-7 Authors: Wang F, Shen Y, Tsuru E, Yamashita T, Baba N, Tsuda M, Maeda N, Sagara Y Abstract OBJECTIVE: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is caused by brain injury that occurs in a developing fetus or infant. Stem cell transplantation can reportedly induce functional recovery in animal models of HIE. Murine neonatal splenocytes are enriched with immature blood stem cells and are used for the investigation of murine models of syngeneic transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of newborn splenocytes in a murine model of neonatal ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. METHODS: C57BL/6N mice (postnatal day 7) underwent right common carotid artery occlusion with an aneurysm clip. Following hypoxic exposure, reperfusion was achieved by unclamping the artery. Newborn splenocytes were transplanted intravenously at 3 weeks after injury. RESULTS: The splenocytes transplanted group tended to show an improvement in behavioral tests, but it was not significantly different compared with the control groups. The transplanted cells were localized in various organs including injured brain tissue over 3 weeks. In the penumbra region of the brain, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was upregulated after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that syngeneic transplantation of newborn splenocytes achieved the long-term survival of the grafts and exerted influence the microenvironment in the injured brains of mice. PMID: 24939627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Stem cell therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Front Neurol. 2014;5:147 Authors: Gonzales-Portillo GS, Reyes S, Aguirre D, Pabon MM, Borlongan CV Abstract Treatments for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) have been limited. The aim of this paper is to offer translational research guidance on stem cell therapy for neonatal HIE by examining clinically relevant animal models, practical stem cell sources, safety and efficacy of endpoint assays, as well as a general understanding of modes of action of this cellular therapy. In order to do so, we discuss the clinical manifestations of HIE, highlighting its overlapping pathologies with stroke and providing insights on the potential of cell therapy currently investigated in stroke, for HIE. To this end, we draw guidance from recommendations outlined in stem cell therapeutics as an emerging paradigm for stroke or STEPS, which have been recently modified to Baby STEPS to cater for the "neonatal" symptoms of HIE. These guidelines recognized that neonatal HIE exhibit distinct disease symptoms from adult stroke in need of an innovative translational approach that facilitates the entry of cell therapy in the clinic. Finally, new information about recent clinical trials and insights into combination therapy are provided with the vision that stem cell therapy may benefit from available treatments, such as hypothermia, already being tested in children diagnosed with HIE. PMID: 25161645 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Comparison of the efficacy of cord blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD34+ cells for the treatment of neonatal mice with cerebral palsy. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014 Dec;70(3):1539-44 Authors: Li X, Shang Q, Zhang L Abstract To compare the efficacy of cord blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD34+ cells for the treatment of neonatal mice models with cerebral palsy (CP). CP model in neonatal mice was established by the ligation of carotid artery. Mice were randomly designated into MNCs group, CD34+ group, model group and control group (30 mice per group). MNCs and CD34+ cells were isolated from human umbilical cord blood. MNCs were transplanted into mice in the MNCs group and CD34+ cells into mice in the CD34+ group through the jugular vein, respectively. The body weight, histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression, learning and memory, and motor function of mice in the four groups were compared. Compared with control group, the body weight of mice in model group was significantly lower (P < 0.05). In addition, the right hemisphere was significantly liquefied and voids were found in model mice, in which degeneration and necrosis were found by HE staining. Real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR showed elevated levels of apoptosis-related gene expression and learning and memory function, and motor function were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in model mice. In the MNCs group and CD34+ group, the weight of mice was significantly increased compared with the model group (P < 0.05). Moreover, neither liquefaction and voids in the hemispheres of mice were found in these two groups, nor degeneration and necrosis of cell. Meanwhile, levels of apoptosis-related gene expression were significantly lower than that of the model group (P < 0.05). Compared with the MNCs group, the expression of apoptotic gene TNF-α and CD40 was significantly lower (P < 0.05). Learning and memory function, and motor function of mice in the MNCs group and CD34+ group were significantly improved than the model group (P < 0.05), and the CD34+ group produced greater improvement than the MNCs group (P < 0.05). MNCs and CD34+ cells can reduce the degree of injury in the neonatal mice with CP. In addition, treatment with MNCs and CD34+ cells suppressed apoptotic gene expression and restored memory and motor function. The efficacy of CD34+ cells after separation and purification was more significant for the treatment of mice with CP. PMID: 25217068 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Clinical experience with autologous M2 macrophages in children with severe cerebral palsy. Cell Transplant. 2014;23 Suppl 1:S97-104 Authors: Chernykh ER, Kafanova MY, Shevela EY, Sirota SI, Adonina EI, Sakhno LV, Ostanin AA, Kozlov VV Abstract Stem cell-based therapy is considered to be a new approach for the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP). Given the potent anti-inflammatory activity and high regenerative potential of M2 macrophages, these cells may be an alternative source for cell transplantation. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of autologous M2 macrophages, we conducted a pilot clinical trial in 21 children with severe CP. The primary outcome measure was safety, which included assessment of mortality of any cause, immediate adverse reactions, and serious adverse effects and comorbidities during 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was functional improvement in Gross Motor Function Measure (66-item GMFM) test, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Fine Motor (PDMS-FM) test, Ashworth scale, MRC scale, and an easy-to-understand questionnaire for evaluation of cognitive functions in our modification. Intradural injection of M2 cells (in mean dose of 0.8 × 10(6)/kg) into the lumbar spinal area did not induce any serious adverse events. No cases of mortality, psychomotor worsening, exacerbation of seizures, and long-term comorbidities, including tumors, were observed during a 5-year follow-up. After 3 months, GMFM score increased from 13.7 ± 7.8 to 58.6 ± 14.6, PDMS-FM score improved from 0.76 ± 0.42 to 5.05 ± 0.97, and the Ashworth score decreased from 3.8 ± 0.21 to 3.3 ± 0.24. Along with gross and fine motor function enhancement, an improvement of cognitive activity (from 1.62 ± 0.41 to 4.05 ± 0.64, according to questionnaire assessment) and reduction of seizure syndrome were registered as well. The neurological improvements did not diminish during the 5-year follow-up period. The data obtained suggest that cell therapy based on M2 macrophages is safe, does not induce early adverse effects and long-term comorbidities, and is accompanied with a significant improvement of motor and cognitive activities in severe CP patients. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation. PMID: 25302537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Could cord blood cell therapy reduce preterm brain injury? Front Neurol. 2014;5:200 Authors: Li J, McDonald CA, Fahey MC, Jenkin G, Miller SL Abstract Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP). Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia-ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB-derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications. PMID: 25346720 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Transplanted glial restricted precursor cells improve neurobehavioral and neuropathological outcomes in a mouse model of neonatal white matter injury despite limited cell survival. Glia. 2015 Mar;63(3):452-65 Authors: Porambo M, Phillips AW, Marx J, Ternes K, Arauz E, Pletnikov M, Wilson MA, Rothstein JD, Johnston MV, Fatemi A Abstract OBJECTIVE: Neonatal white matter injury (NWMI) is the leading cause of cerebral palsy and other neurocognitive deficits in prematurely-born children, and no restorative therapies exist. Our objective was to determine the fate and effect of glial restricted precursor cell (GRP) transplantation in an ischemic mouse model of NWMI. METHODS: Neonatal CD-1 mice underwent unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal-Day 5 (P5). At P22, intracallosal injections of either enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) + GRPs or saline were performed in control and ligated mice. Neurobehavioral and postmortem studies were performed at 4 and 8 weeks post-transplantation. RESULTS: GRP survival was comparable at 1 month but significantly lower at 2 months post-transplantation in NWMI mice compared with unligated controls. Surviving cells showed better migration capability in controls; however, the differentiation capacity of transplanted cells was similar in control and NWMI. Saline-treated NWMI mice showed significantly altered response in startle amplitude and prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigms compared with unligated controls, while these behavioral tests were completely normal in GRP-transplanted animals. Similarly, there was significant increase in hemispheric myelin basic protein density, along with significant decrease in pathologic axonal staining in cell-treated NWMI mice compared with saline-treated NWMI animals. INTERPRETATION: The reduced long-term survival and migration of transplanted GRPs in an ischemia-induced NWMI model suggests that neonatal ischemia leads to long-lasting detrimental effects on oligodendroglia even months after the initial insult. Despite limited GRP-survival, behavioral, and neuropathological outcomes were improved after GRP-transplantation. Our results suggest that exogenous GRPs improve myelination through trophic effects in addition to differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes. PMID: 25377280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Pathophysiology of muscle contractures in cerebral palsy. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2015 Feb;26(1):57-67 Authors: Mathewson MA, Lieber RL Abstract Patients with cerebral palsy present with a variety of adaptations to muscle structure and function. These pathophysiologic symptoms include functional deficits such as decreased force production and range of motion, in addition to changes in muscle structure such as decreased muscle belly size, increased sarcomere length, and altered extracellular matrix structure and composition. On a cellular level, patients with cerebral palsy have fewer muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, and altered gene expression. Understanding the nature of these changes may present opportunities for the development of new muscle treatment therapies. PMID: 25479779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Therapeutic potential of human embryonic stem cell transplantation in patients with cerebral palsy. J Transl Med. 2014 Dec 12;12:318 Authors: Shroff G, Gupta A, Barthakur JK Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy in patients with CP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analysis included patients (30 days-18 yr) with documented diagnosis of CP. The study consisted of four treatment phases (T1, T2, T3, T4) separated by gap phases. Efficacy of hESC therapy was evaluated based on Gross Motor Function Classification Scores Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E & R; 1-good to 5-bad). RESULTS: Ninety one patients were included and all received hESC therapy in T1, 66 patients returned for T2, 38 patients for T3, and 15 patients for T4. Overall, 30.2% patients achieved GMFCS-E & R score 1 during the study with different number of patients achieving GMFCS score 1 by the end of each treatment phase (T1: 6 [6.6%]; T2: 7 [10.6%]; T3: 11 [28.9%]; and T4: 5 [33.3%]). All patients in up to 2 yr (n = 10), 2-4 yr (n = 10), 4-6 yr (n = 9), and 6-12 yr (n = 8) age groups except one of the 5 patients in the age group of 12-18 yr transitioned from GMFCS-E & R score 5 to lower scores by end of T1. Most patients transitioned to GMFCS-E & R score 2 (n = 34) from higher scores by end of T2. Eleven patients achieved GMFCS-E & R score 1 by end of T3. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: Use of hESC therapy in patients with CP is effective and safe. hESC therapy has demonstrated significant improvement in GMFCS-E & R scale. PMID: 25496119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Therapy for Cerebral Palsy by Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation Combined With Basic Rehabilitation Treatment: A Case Report. Glob Pediatr Health. 2015;2:2333794X15574091 Authors: Zhang C, Huang L, Gu J, Zhou X Abstract Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause leading to childhood disability. Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) transplantation is a promising alternative considering the safety and efficacy in current reports. This report represents a case of hUCB-MSCs transplantation combined with basic rehabilitation treatment beginning as early as age 6 months with follow-up as long as 5 years. Methods. A 6-year-old female patient was diagnosed with CP at age 6 months. The patient accepted 4 infusions of intravenous hUCB-MSCs in each course and received 4 courses of transplantation totally. A series of assessments were performed before the first transplantation, including laboratory tests, CDCC Infant Mental Development Scale, and Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88). Then annual assessments using the GMFM-88, Ashworth spasm assessment, and comprehensive function assessment scale were made in addition to the annual laboratory tests. In addition, electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging were conducted before transplantation and in the follow-up phase. Rehabilitation and safety follow-up have been ongoing for 5 years up to date. Results. There was no complaint about adverse effects during hospitalization or postoperative follow-up. Motor function recovered to normal level according to the evaluation of scales. Language function improved significantly. Linguistic rehabilitation therapy was enhanced for further improvement. Conclusions. The clinical application of hUC-MSCs combined with basic rehabilitation treatment was effective and safe for improving motor and comprehensive function in a patient with CP. PMID: 27335947 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Effect of umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells on motor functions of identical twins with cerebral palsy: pilot study on the correlation of efficacy and hereditary factors. Cytotherapy. 2015 Feb;17(2):224-31 Authors: Wang X, Hu H, Hua R, Yang J, Zheng P, Niu X, Cheng H, Dai G, Liu X, Zhang Z, An Y Abstract BACKGROUND AIMS: The objective of this study was to compare the impact of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (UCMSC) transplantation on the motor functions of identical twins with cerebral palsy (CP) and to analyze the correlation between the efficacy and hereditary factors. METHODS: Eight pairs (16 individuals) of identical twins with CP were recruited and received allogenic UCMSC transplantation by means of subarachnoid injection. The gross motor function measure (GMFM) and the fine motor function measure (FMFM) were performed before and 1 and 6 months after the treatment to analyze the results of individuals before and after the therapy, between two individuals of an identical twin and among twin pairs. Repeated-measured data variance was used to analyze the GMFM and FMFM scores of patients before and 1 and 6 months after the therapy. RESULTS: Eight pairs (16 individuals) of children with CP had significant improvement in the GMFM at the end of the 1st and 6th months after the therapy compared with that before the therapy, whereas the amelioration of the FMFM was not statistically significant. The improvements in motor functions between two individuals of an identical twin but not among twin pairs were correlated. CONCLUSIONS: UCMSC transplantation significantly improves GMFM in children with CP; motor function improvements in the GMFM between two individuals of an identical twin were closely correlated, but improvements among twin pairs were not correlated. We hypothesize that hereditary factors contribute to the mechanisms of UCMSC transplantation in motor function improvement in children with CP. PMID: 25593078 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Intrathecal injection of CD133-positive enriched bone marrow progenitor cells in children with cerebral palsy: feasibility and safety. Cytotherapy. 2015 Feb;17(2):232-41 Authors: Zali A, Arab L, Ashrafi F, Mardpour S, Niknejhadi M, Hedayati-Asl AA, Halimi-Asl A, Ommi D, Hosseini SE, Baharvand H, Aghdami N Abstract BACKGROUND AIMS: Recent studies have proposed that cellular transplantation may have some regenerative and functional efficacy in the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP); however, much remains to be understood regarding its safety, feasibility and efficacy. This study was initiated to evaluate the safety of autologous bone marrow-derived CD133(+) cell intrathecal injection. METHODS: Children (n = 12), aged 4 to 12 years, who were diagnosed with different types of CP underwent BM aspiration. CD133(+) cells were enriched from the BM samples and intrathecally injected. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), UK FIM+FAM, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) were assessed at baseline and 6 months after the procedure. Patients' ability to balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and severity of spasticity was evaluated by the Modified Ashworth Scale. Magnetic resonance imaging was done at baseline and 6 months after therapy. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01404663). RESULTS: There were no adverse events detected by clinical and laboratory tests or imaging studies, with the exception of a seizure in 1 patient. A significant improvement was observed 6 months after cell transplantation versus baseline according to GMFM, GMFCS, FIM+FAM, Ashworth Scale, and BBS outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Subarachnoid injection of CD133-positive enriched bone marrow progenitor cells in children with CP is a safe approach. The results suggest a possible short-term improvement in neurological function. PMID: 25593079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy. Neuroimage Clin. 2015;7:315-24 Authors: Englander ZA, Sun J, Laura Case, Mikati MA, Kurtzberg J, Song AW Abstract Cerebral Palsy (CP) refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005). Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years) in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17), who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM) connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study. PMID: 25610796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Neuroprotection in preterm infants. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:257139 Authors: Berger R, Söder S Abstract Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID: 25650134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Current proceedings of cerebral palsy. Cell Transplant. 2015;24(3):471-85 Authors: Fan HC, Ho LI, Chi CS, Cheng SN, Juan CJ, Chiang KL, Lin SZ, Harn HJ Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complicated disease with varying causes and outcomes. It has created significant burden to both affected families and societies, not to mention the quality of life of the patients themselves. There is no cure for the disease; therefore, development of effective therapeutic strategies is in great demand. Recent advances in regenerative medicine suggest that the transplantation of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord blood cells, and human embryonic germ cells, focusing on the root of the problem, may provide the possibility of developing a complete cure in treating CP. However, safety is the first factor to be considered because some stem cells may cause tumorigenesis. Additionally, more preclinical and clinical studies are needed to determine the type of cells, route of delivery, cell dose, timing of transplantation, and combinatorial strategies to achieve an optimal outcome. PMID: 25706819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles A clinical study of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for cerebral palsy patients: a new frontier. Stem Cells Int. 2015;2015:905874 Authors: Sharma A, Sane H, Gokulchandran N, Kulkarni P, Gandhi S, Sundaram J, Paranjape A, Shetty A, Bhagwanani K, Biju H, Badhe P Abstract Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive heterogeneous group of neurological disorders with a growing rate of prevalence. Recently, cellular therapy is emerging as a potential novel treatment strategy for cerebral palsy. The various mechanisms by which cellular therapy works include neuroprotection, immunomodulation, neurorestoration, and neurogenesis. We conducted an open label, nonrandomized study on 40 cases of cerebral palsy with an aim of evaluating the benefit of cellular therapy in combination with rehabilitation. These cases were administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally. The follow-up was carried out at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. Adverse events of the treatment were also monitored in this duration. Overall, at six months, 95% of patients showed improvements. The study population was further divided into diplegic, quadriplegic, and miscellaneous group of cerebral palsy. On statistical analysis, a significant association was established between the symptomatic improvements and cell therapy in diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PET-CT scan done in 6 patients showed metabolic improvements in areas of the brain correlating to clinical improvements. The results of this study demonstrate that cellular therapy may accelerate the development, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life of patients with cerebral palsy. PMID: 25788947 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Human allogeneic AB0/Rh-identical umbilical cord blood cells in the treatment of juvenile patients with cerebral palsy. Cytotherapy. 2015 Jul;17(7):969-78 Authors: Romanov YA, Tarakanov OP, Radaev SM, Dugina TN, Ryaskina SS, Darevskaya AN, Morozova YV, Khachatryan WA, Lebedev KE, Zotova NS, Burkova AS, Sukhikh GT, Smirnov VN Abstract BACKGROUND AIMS: The term "cerebral palsy" (CP) encompasses many syndromes that emerge from brain damage at early stages of ontogenesis and manifest as the inability to retain a normal body position or perform controlled movements. Existing methods of CP treatment, including various rehabilitation strategies and surgical and pharmacological interventions, are mostly palliative, and there is no specific therapy focused on restoring injured brain function. METHODS: During a post-registration clinical investigation, the safety and efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-unmatched umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells were studied in 80 pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and associated neurological complications. Patients received up to 6 intravenous infusions of AB0/Rh-identical, red blood cell-depleted UCB cells at an average dose of 250 × 10(6) viable cells per infusion. RESULTS: Patients were followed for 3-36 months, and multiple cell infusions did not cause any adverse effects. In contrast, in most patients who received four or more UCB cell infusions, positive dynamics related to significant improvements in neurological status and/or cognitive functions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that multiple intravenous infusions of allogeneic AB0/Rh-identical UCB cells may be a safe and effective procedure and could be included in treatment and rehabilitation programs for juvenile patients with cerebral palsy. PMID: 25791070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Ameliorate Motor Deficits in Rabbits in a Cerebral Palsy Model. Dev Neurosci. 2015;37(4-5):349-62 Authors: Drobyshevsky A, Cotten CM, Shi Z, Luo K, Jiang R, Derrick M, Tracy ET, Gentry T, Goldberg RN, Kurtzberg J, Tan S Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) has a significant impact on both patients and society, but therapy is limited. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC), containing various stem and progenitor cells, have been used to treat various brain genetic conditions. In small animal experiments, HUCBC have improved outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. Clinical trials using HUCBC are underway, testing feasibility, safety and efficacy for neonatal injury as well as CP. We tested HUCBC therapy in a validated rabbit model of CP after acute changes secondary to HI injury had subsided. Following uterine ischemia at 70% gestation, we infused HUCBC into newborn rabbit kits with either mild or severe neurobehavioral changes. Infusion of high-dose HUCBC (5 × 10(6) cells) dramatically altered the natural history of the injury, alleviating the abnormal phenotype including posture, righting reflex, locomotion, tone, and dystonia. Half the high dose showed lesser but still significant improvement. The swimming test, however, showed that joint function did not restore to naïve control function in either group. Tracing HUCBC with either MRI biomarkers or PCR for human DNA found little penetration of HUCBC in the newborn brain in the immediate newborn period, suggesting that the beneficial effects were not due to cellular integration or direct proliferative effects but rather to paracrine signaling. This is the first study to show that HUCBC improve motor performance in a dose-dependent manner, perhaps by improving compensatory repair processes. PMID: 25791742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Delayed post-treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improves motor function after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015 Sep;68:56-72 Authors: Cameron SH, Alwakeel AJ, Goddard L, Hobbs CE, Gowing EK, Barnett ER, Kohe SE, Sizemore RJ, Oorschot DE Abstract Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of striatal injury and may lead to cerebral palsy. This study investigated whether delayed administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), at one week after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia, was neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improved motor function. The effect of a subcutaneous injection of a high-dose, or a low-dose, of MSCs was investigated in stereological studies. Postnatal day (PN) 7 pups were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. At PN14, pups received treatment with either MSCs or diluent. A subset of high-dose pups, and their diluent control pups, were also injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), every 24h, on PN15, PN16 and PN17. This permitted tracking of the migration and survival of neuroblasts originating from the subventricular zone into the adjacent injured striatum. Pups were euthanized on PN21 and the absolute number of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons was measured after immunostaining for DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32), double immunostaining for BrdU and DARPP-32, and after cresyl violet staining alone. The absolute number of striatal immunostained calretinin interneurons was also measured. There was a statistically significant increase in the absolute number of DARPP-32-positive, BrdU/DARPP-32-positive, and cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons, and fewer striatal calretinin interneurons, in the high-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group compared to their diluent counterparts. A high-dose of MSCs restored the absolute number of these neurons to normal uninjured levels, when compared with previous stereological data on the absolute number of cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons in the normal uninjured brain. For the low-dose experiment, in which cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny neurons alone were measured, there was a lower statistically significant increase in their absolute number in the MSC group compared to their diluent controls. Investigation of behavior in another cohort of animals showed that delayed administration of a high-dose of bone marrow-derived MSCs, at one week after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia, improved motor function on the cylinder test. Thus, delayed therapy with a high- or low-dose of adult MSCs, at one week after injury, is effective in restoring the loss of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia and a high-dose of MSCs improved motor function. PMID: 25828540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles MicroRNA-9 promotes the neuronal differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by activating autophagy. Neural Regen Res. 2015 Feb;10(2):314-20 Authors: Zhang GY, Wang J, Jia YJ, Han R, Li P, Zhu DN Abstract MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) has been shown to promote the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells, but the precise mechanism is unclear. Our previous study confirmed that increased autophagic activity improved the efficiency of neuronal differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Accumulating evidence reveals that miRNAs adjust the autophagic pathways. This study used miR-9-1 lentiviral vector and miR-9-1 inhibitor to modulate the expression level of miR-9. Autophagic activity and neuronal differentiation were measured by the number of light chain-3 (LC3)-positive dots, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3, and the expression levels of the neuronal markers enolase and microtubule-associated protein 2. Results showed that LC3-positive dots, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3, and expression of neuron specific enolase and microtubule-associated protein 2 increased in the miR-9(+) group. The above results suggest that autophagic activity increased and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were prone to differentiate into neuronal cells when miR-9 was overexpressed, demonstrating that miR-9 can promote neuronal differentiation by increasing autophagic activity. PMID: 25883633 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Involvement of Immune Responses in the Efficacy of Cord Blood Cell Therapy for Cerebral Palsy. Stem Cells Dev. 2015 Oct 01;24(19):2259-68 Authors: Kang M, Min K, Jang J, Kim SC, Kang MS, Jang SJ, Lee JY, Kim SH, Kim MK, An SA, Kim M Abstract This study evaluated the efficacy of umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell for patients with cerebral palsy (CP) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial and also assessed factors and mechanisms related to the efficacy. Thirty-six children (ages 6 months to 20 years old) with CP were enrolled and treated with UCB or a placebo. Muscle strength and gross motor function were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Along with function measurements, each subject underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment. Cytokine and receptor levels were quantitated in serial blood samples. The UCB group showed greater improvements in muscle strength than the controls at 1 (0.94 vs. -0.35, respectively) and 3 months (2.71 vs. 0.65) after treatment (Ps<0.05). The UCB group also showed greater improvements in gross motor performance than the control group at 6 months (8.54 vs. 2.60) after treatment (P<0.01). Additionally, positron emission tomography scans revealed decreased periventricular inflammation in patients administered UCB, compared with those treated with a placebo. Correlating with enhanced gross motor function, elevations in plasma pentraxin 3 and interleukin-8 levels were observed for up to 12 days after treatment in the UCB group. Meanwhile, increases in blood cells expressing Toll-like receptor 4 were noted at 1 day after treatment in the UCB group, and they were correlated with increased muscle strength at 3 months post-treatment. In this trial, treatment with UCB alone improved motor outcomes and induced systemic immune reactions and anti-inflammatory changes in the brain. Generally, motor outcomes were positively correlated with the number of UCB cells administered: a higher number of cells resulted in better outcomes. Nevertheless, future trials are needed to confirm the long-term efficacy of UCB therapy, as the follow-up duration of the present trial was short. PMID: 25977995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Abbreviated exposure to hypoxia is sufficient to induce CNS dysmyelination, modulate spinal motor neuron composition, and impair motor development in neonatal mice. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0128007 Authors: Watzlawik JO, Kahoud RJ, O'Toole RJ, White KA, Ogden AR, Painter MM, Wootla B, Papke LM, Denic A, Weimer JM, Carey WA, Rodriguez M Abstract Neonatal white matter injury (nWMI) is an increasingly common cause of cerebral palsy that results predominantly from hypoxic injury to progenitor cells including those of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Existing mouse models of nWMI utilize prolonged periods of hypoxia during the neonatal period, require complex cross-fostering and exhibit poor growth and high mortality rates. Abnormal CNS myelin composition serves as the major explanation for persistent neuro-motor deficits. Here we developed a simplified model of nWMI with low mortality rates and improved growth without cross-fostering. Neonatal mice are exposed to low oxygen from postnatal day (P) 3 to P7, which roughly corresponds to the period of human brain development between gestational weeks 32 and 36. CNS hypomyelination is detectable for 2-3 weeks post injury and strongly correlates with levels of body and brain weight loss. Immediately following hypoxia treatment, cell death was evident in multiple brain regions, most notably in superficial and deep cortical layers as well as the subventricular zone progenitor compartment. PDGFαR, Nkx2.2, and Olig2 positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cell were significantly reduced until postnatal day 27. In addition to CNS dysmyelination we identified a novel pathological marker for adult hypoxic animals that strongly correlates with life-long neuro-motor deficits. Mice reared under hypoxia reveal an abnormal spinal neuron composition with increased small and medium diameter axons and decreased large diameter axons in thoracic lateral and anterior funiculi. Differences were particularly pronounced in white matter motor tracts left and right of the anterior median fissure. Our findings suggest that 4 days of exposure to hypoxia are sufficient to induce experimental nWMI in CD1 mice, thus providing a model to test new therapeutics. Pathological hallmarks of this model include early cell death, decreased OPCs and hypomyelination in early postnatal life, followed by dysmyelination, abnormal spinal neuron composition, and neuro-motor deficits in adulthood. PMID: 26020269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in neurological disorders: A clinical study. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2015 Apr;52(2):140-6 Authors: Miao X, Wu X, Shi W Abstract We investigated the intrathecally administrated unbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) by lumbar puncture and assessed the technical difficulties and effects in various neurological conditions. One hundred patients underwent subarachnoid placement of UC-MSCs between December 2006 and May 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Medicine. Technical difficulties in patients in the form of localization of subarachnoid space, number of attempts, and post-procedural complications were evaluated. Functional evaluation was done using Hauser Ambulation Index (HAI) by the stem cell transplant team on a regular basis. All patients were followed-up for more than 1 yr after the treatment. Clinical symptoms, related biochemical index and photographic examinations were observed regularly. We encountered technical difficulties in 31 patients (31%) in the form of general anesthesia supplementation and difficulty localizing the lumbar space. Side effects (headache, low-grade fever, low back pain and lower limb pain) were observed in 22 (22%) patients, which were treated with symptomatic therapy within 48 h. One year after the treatment, functional indices improved in 47 patients (47%): 12 patients with spinal cord injury, 11 patients with cerebral palsy, 9 patients with post-traumatic brain syndrome, 9 patients with post-brain infarction syndrome, 3 patients with spinocerebellar ataxias, and 3 patients with motor neuron disease. In conclusion, intrathecal administration of UC-MSCs is a safe and effective way to treat neurological disorders. Our encouraging results of intrathecal administration of UC-MSCs indicate the potential of restoration of lost tissue and improvement of function in patients with profound neurological defects and inefficient conventional cure. These data support expanded double-blind, placebo-controlled studies for this treatment modality. PMID: 26118125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Safety of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells Therapy in Patients with Severe Cerebral Palsy: A Retrospective Study. Stem Cells Int. 2015;2015:325652 Authors: Feng M, Lu A, Gao H, Qian C, Zhang J, Lin T, Zhao Y Abstract This retrospective study aimed to assess the safety of patients with severe cerebral palsy (CP), who received allogeneic umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCBSCs) treatment from August 2009 to December 2012 in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine. A total of 47 patients with average age of 5.85 ± 6.12 years were evaluated in this study. There was no significant association with allogeneic UCBSCs treatments found in the data of the laboratory index . No casualties occurred. Some adverse events during treatments were found in 26 (55.3%) patients, including fever (42.6%) and vomiting (21.2%). Intrathecal infusion and the ages at the initiation of treatment (≤10 years old) were risk factors for the occurrence of adverse events by logistic regression analysis. However, all adverse events disappeared after symptomatic treatment. No treatment related serious adverse events were found in follow-up visits within 6 months. In conclusion, allogeneic UCBSCs treatment was relatively safe for severe CP patients. PMID: 26236347 [PubMed]
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Related Articles A Need for Renewed and Cohesive US Policy on Cord Blood Banking. Stem Cell Rev. 2015 Dec;11(6):789-97 Authors: Matsumoto MM, Matthews KR Abstract Stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood (CB) are used to treat more than 80 different diseases and are a standard treatment for many types of leukemias, lymphomas, myelodysplasias, and inherited immune system disorders. CB transplants have been carried out in humans for over 25 years, and hundreds of clinical trials are currently underway investigating CB's therapeutic potential for a wide range of disorders, including autism, diabetes, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury. Extensive storage facilities have been established in the United States and around the world to collect, test, and freeze CB for later use in medical procedures. However, a divide between two different banking models-public versus private-has emerged, presenting several policy challenges. While the Food and Drug Administration currently regulates CB storage and use in the United States, other state and federal guidelines on CB education, awareness, and ethical considerations remain variable, and no mandatory international guidelines exist. In addition, federal funding for an important CB collection initiative that specifically targets minority populations is set to expire by the end of FY2015. To help organize and coordinate efforts across the United States and other nations, policymakers should implement regulations for: high quality standards for both private and public CB banks, a commitment to ethical practices, and an investment in educational campaigns and training programs for all steps of the CB banking process. PMID: 26239848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles In the Know and in the News: How Science and the Media Communicate About Stem Cells, Autism and Cerebral Palsy. Stem Cell Rev. 2016 Feb;12(1):1-7 Authors: Sharpe K, Di Pietro N, Illes J Abstract Stem cell research has generated considerable attention for its potential to remediate many disorders of the central nervous system including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) that place a high burden on individual children, families and society. Here we characterized messaging about the use of stem cells for ASD and CP in news media articles and concurrent dissemination of discoveries through conventional science discourse. We searched LexisNexis and Canadian Newsstand for news articles from the US, UK, Canada and Australia in the period between 2000 and 2014, and PubMed for peer reviewed articles for the same 10 years. Using in-depth content analysis methods, we found less cautionary messaging about stem cells for ASD and CP in the resulting sample of 73 media articles than in the sample of 87 science papers, and a privileging of benefits over risk. News media also present stem cells as ready for clinical application to treat these neurodevelopmental disorders, even while the science literature calls for further research. Investigative news reports that explicitly quote researchers, however, provide the most accurate information to actual science news. The hope, hype, and promise of stem cell interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders, combined with the extreme vulnerability of these children and their families, creates a perfect storm in which journalists and stem cell scientists must commit to a continued, if not even more robust, partnership to promote balanced and accurate messaging. PMID: 26454430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Cell-based strategies to reconstitute vital functions in preterm infants with organ failure. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Feb;31:99-111 Authors: Bohlin K Abstract Infants born preterm face a number of challenges. Depending on the degree of prematurity, they are at a risk of developing several specific conditions and diseases related to organ immaturity and complications of long-term neonatal intensive care. Various organ systems are affected, such as the lung, resulting in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); the vascular system, resulting in pulmonary hypertension; the brain, with the risk of intracranial hemorrhage; the eye with retinopathy of prematurity; and the gut, manifesting in the severe complication of necrotizing enterocolitis. A common hallmark for all these prematurity-related conditions is that inflammation seems to be a major driving force in the pathogenesis, and that injury repair is essential for recovery and long-term health. In addition, the available treatment options are often only supportive, not curative. This chapter reviews the recent advances of stem cell therapy that have opened up new possibilities to restore organ function following prematurity. PMID: 26527306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles How to make an oligodendrocyte. Development. 2015 Dec 01;142(23):3983-95 Authors: Goldman SA, Kuypers NJ Abstract Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, an insulating sheath required for the saltatory conduction of electrical impulses along axons. Oligodendrocyte loss results in demyelination, which leads to impaired neurological function in a broad array of diseases ranging from pediatric leukodystrophies and cerebral palsy, to multiple sclerosis and white matter stroke. Accordingly, replacing lost oligodendrocytes, whether by transplanting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) or by mobilizing endogenous progenitors, holds great promise as a therapeutic strategy for the diseases of central white matter. In this Primer, we describe the molecular events regulating oligodendrocyte development and how our understanding of this process has led to the establishment of methods for producing OPCs and oligodendrocytes from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as directly from somatic cells. In addition, we will discuss the safety of engrafted stem cell-derived OPCs, as well as approaches by which to modulate their differentiation and myelinogenesis in vivo following transplantation. PMID: 26628089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Administration of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treatment of Cerebral Palsy Patients: A Proof of Concept. J Stem Cells. 2016;11(1):37-49 Authors: Bansal H, Singh L, Verma P, Agrawal A, Leon J, Sundell IB, Koka PS Abstract Background: Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. Autologous bone marrow stem cells may be a better cell source and have been studied for the treatment of cerebral palsy because of their functions in tissue repair and the regulation of immunological processes. Methods: To assess autologous marrow stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 10 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this clinical study with 24 months follow-up. A total of 10 cerebral palsy patients received autologous bone marrow cells transplantation (4.5 × 108 mononuclear cells; 90% viability) into the subarachnoid cavity and rehabilitation. Results: We recorded the gross motor function measurement scores, manual ability function measurement score, and adverse events up to 24 months post-treatment. The gross motor function measurement scores were significantly higher at month 6 post-treatment compared with the baseline scores and were stable up to 24 months follow-up. The increase in manual ability and communication function measurement scores at 6 months were not significant when compared to the baseline score. All the 10 patients survived and none of the patients experienced any serious adverse events or complications. Conclusion: Our results indicated that bone marrow derived MNCs are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. Further randomized clinical trials are necessary to establish the efficacy of this procedure. PMID: 28296863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Induction of Neurorestoration From Endogenous Stem Cells. Cell Transplant. 2016;25(5):863-82 Authors: Yu JH, Seo JH, Lee JY, Lee MY, Cho SR Abstract Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the subventricular zone lining the ventricles of the adult brain. The resident stem/progenitor cells can be stimulated in vivo by neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and/or physical exercise. In both animals and humans, the differentiation and survival of neurons arising from the subventricular zone may also be regulated by the trophic factors. Since stem/progenitor cells present in the adult brain and the production of new neurons occurs at specific sites, there is a possibility for the treatment of incurable neurological diseases. It might be feasible to induce neurogenesis, which would be particularly efficacious in the treatment of striatal neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease, as well as cerebrovascular diseases such as ischemic stroke and cerebral palsy, conditions that are widely seen in the clinics. Understanding of the molecular control of endogenous NSC activation and progenitor cell mobilization will likely provide many new opportunities as therapeutic strategies. In this review, we focus on endogenous stem/progenitor cell activation that occurs in response to exogenous factors including neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and an enriched environment. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that functional brain repair through induced neurorestoration from endogenous stem cells may soon be a clinical reality. PMID: 26787093 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Stem cells therapy in cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Brain Dev. 2016 Sep;38(8):699-705 Authors: Kułak-Bejda A, Kułak P, Bejda G, Krajewska-Kułak E, Kułak W Abstract The aim of this study was to systematically present the best available stem cell therapies for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The databases Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for RCTs were searched for studies published from 1967 to August 2015. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials, uncontrolled trials, cohort studies, open-label studies, and a meta-analysis were analysed. Of 360 articles, seven fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one RCT and six were open-label trials. In these studies, one application of stem cells for children with CP was typical, and the total number of cells administered to patients ranged from 10(6) to 10(8)/kg. Different routes of cell delivery were used, though in most studies motor development was applied as an indicator of primary outcomes. In three articles, neuroimaging studies were also implemented to confirm the efficacy of the therapies. Observation periods varied from 3months to 5years, and patients' tolerance of the therapy was generally good. Stem cell therapy may improve some symptoms in patients with CP, though larger studies are needed to examine the impact of stem cell therapy upon CP. PMID: 27004672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Stem cell therapy for cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2016 05;58(5):424 Authors: Dan B PMID: 27103186 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Human iPSC-Derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by Increasing TIMP-1 Secretion. Cell Rep. 2016 05 10;15(6):1303-15 Authors: Jiang P, Chen C, Liu XB, Pleasure DE, Liu Y, Deng W Abstract Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is less understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros) and demonstrated that immature astrocytes, as opposed to mature ones, promote oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promoted myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia and have important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis. PMID: 27134175 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Finding a new therapeutic approach for no-option Parkinsonisms: mesenchymal stromal cells for progressive supranuclear palsy. J Transl Med. 2016 05 10;14(1):127 Authors: Canesi M, Giordano R, Lazzari L, Isalberti M, Isaias IU, Benti R, Rampini P, Marotta G, Colombo A, Cereda E, Dipaola M, Montemurro T, Viganò M, Budelli S, Montelatici E, Lavazza C, Cortelezzi A, Pezzoli G Abstract BACKGROUND: The trophic, anti-apoptotic and regenerative effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) may reduce neuronal cell loss in neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: We used MSC as a novel candidate therapeutic tool in a pilot phase-I study for patients affected by progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a rare, severe and no-option form of Parkinsonism. Five patients received the cells by infusion into the cerebral arteries. Effects were assessed using the best available motor function rating scales (UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr, PSP rating scale), as well as neuropsychological assessments, gait analysis and brain imaging before and after cell administration. RESULTS: One year after cell infusion, all treated patients were alive, except one, who died 9 months after the infusion for reasons not related to cell administration or to disease progression (accidental fall). In all treated patients motor function rating scales remained stable for at least six-months during the one-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated for the first time that MSC administration is feasible in subjects with PSP. In these patients, in whom deterioration of motor function is invariably rapid, we recorded clinical stabilization for at least 6 months. These encouraging results pave the way to the next randomized, placebo-controlled phase-II study that will definitively provide information on the efficacy of this innovative approach. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01824121. PMID: 27160012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Concise Review: Stem Cell Interventions for People With Cerebral Palsy: Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016 Aug;5(8):1014-25 Authors: Novak I, Walker K, Hunt RW, Wallace EM, Fahey M, Badawi N Abstract UNLABELLED: : Evidence for stem cells as a potential intervention for cerebral palsy is emerging. Our objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of stem cells for improving motor and cognitive function of people with cerebral palsy. Searches were conducted in October 2015 in CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Libraries. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of stem cells for cerebral palsy were included. Two authors independently decided upon included trials, extracted data, quality, and risk of bias. The primary outcome was gross motor function. Secondary outcomes were cognitive function and adverse events (AEs). Effects were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a random-effects model. Five trials comprising 328 participants met inclusion criteria. Four cell types were studied: olfactory ensheathing, neural, neural progenitors, and allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCBs). Transplantation procedures differed from central nervous system neurosurgical transplantation to intravenous/arterial infusion. Participants were followed short-term for only 6 months. Evidence of variable quality indicated a small statistically significant intervention effect from stem cells on gross motor skills (SMD 1.27; 95% CI 0.22, 2.33), with UCBs most effective. There were insufficient and heterogeneous data to compare cognitive effects. Serious AEs were rare (n = 4/135 [3%] stem cells; n = 3/139 [2%] controls). Stem cells appeared to induce short-term improvements in motor skills. Different types of stem cell interventions were compared, meaning the data were heterogeneous and are a study limitation. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted, using rigorous methodologies. SIGNIFICANCE: Stem cells are emerging as a scientifically plausible treatment and possible cure for cerebral palsy, but are not yet proven. The lack of valid animal models has significantly hampered the scope of clinical trials. Despite the state of current treatment evidence, parents remain optimistic about the potential improvements from stem cell intervention and feel compelled to exhaust all therapeutic options, including stem cell tourism. Receiving unproven therapies from unvalidated sources is potentially dangerous. Thus it is essential that researchers and clinicians stay up to date. A systematic review and meta-analysis summarizing and aggregating current research data may provide more conclusive evidence to inform treatment decision making and help direct future research. PMID: 27245364 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles A Dichotomy of Information-Seeking and Information-Trusting: Stem Cell Interventions and Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Stem Cell Rev. 2016 08;12(4):438-47 Authors: Sharpe K, Di Pietro N, Jacob KJ, Illes J Abstract Parents and primary caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are faced with difficult treatment choices and management options for their children. The potential of stem cell technologies as an interventional strategy for CP and ASD has gained attention in the last decade. Information about these interventions varies in quality, resulting in a complex landscape for parent decision making for a child's care. Further complicating this landscape are clinics that advertise these interventions as a legitimate treatment for a fee. In this study, we surveyed individuals who considered taking their child with ASD or CP abroad for stem cell interventions on their use of different sources of stem cell related health information and their level of trust in these sources. Participants reported that while the Internet was their most frequent source of information, it was not well-trusted. Rather, information sources trusted most were researchers and the science journals in which they publish, other parents of children with CP and ASD, and healthcare providers. These findings highlight a dichotomy between information-seeking preferences and information-trusted sources. We discuss the challenges of health science communication and present innovative opportunities to increase communication with trusted and reliable sources as part of an integrated multi-pronged approach. PMID: 27286955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Preterm white matter brain injury is prevented by early administration of umbilical cord blood cells. Exp Neurol. 2016 09;283(Pt A):179-87 Authors: Li J, Yawno T, Sutherland A, Loose J, Nitsos I, Bischof R, Castillo-Melendez M, McDonald CA, Wong FY, Jenkin G, Miller SL Abstract Infants born very preterm are at high risk for neurological deficits including cerebral palsy. In this study we assessed the neuroprotective effects of umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) and optimal administration timing in a fetal sheep model of preterm brain injury. 50 million allogeneic UCBCs were intravenously administered to fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) at 12h or 5d after acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induced by umbilical cord occlusion. The fetal brains were collected at 10d after HI. HI (n=7) was associated with reduced number of oligodendrocytes (Olig2+) and myelin density (CNPase+), and increased density of activated microglia (Iba-1+) in cerebral white matter compared to control fetuses (P<0.05). UCBCs administered at 12h, but not 5d after HI, significantly protected white matter structures and suppressed cerebral inflammation. Activated microglial density showed a correlation with decreasing oligodendrocyte number (P<0.001). HI caused cell death (TUNEL+) in the internal capsule and cell proliferation (Ki-67+) in the subventricular zone compared to control (P<0.05), while UCBCs at 12h or 5d ameliorated these effects. Additionally, UCBCs at 12h induced a significant systemic increase in interleukin-10 at 10d, and reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) following HI (P<0.05). UCBC administration at 12h after HI reduces preterm white matter injury, via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. PMID: 27317990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Treatment of Cerebral Palsy with Stem Cells: A Report of 17 Cases. Int J Stem Cells. 2016 May 30;9(1):90-5 Authors: Abi Chahine NH, Wehbe TW, Hilal RA, Zoghbi VV, Melki AE, Habib EB Abstract Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a disabling condition that affects a child's life and his/her family irreversibly. It is usually a non-progressive condition but improvement over time is rarely seen. The condition can be due to prenatal hypoxia, metabolic, genetic, infectious, traumatic or other causes. It is therefore a heterogeneous group that results in functional motor disability associated with different degrees of cognitive abnormalities. There are no treatments that can cure or even improve CP and the best available approach aims at functional, social and nutritional supportive care and counseling. In this paper, we report 17 sequential patients with CP treated with intrathecal administration of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BMMC). All patients had an uneventful post-injection course with 73% of the evaluable patients treated having a good response using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The average improvement was 1.3 levels on the GMFCS with cognitive improvements as well. PMID: 27426090 [PubMed]
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Related Articles The Role of Stem Cells in the Treatment of Cerebral Palsy: a Review. Mol Neurobiol. 2017 09;54(7):4963-4972 Authors: Kiasatdolatabadi A, Lotfibakhshaiesh N, Yazdankhah M, Ebrahimi-Barough S, Jafarabadi M, Ai A, Sadroddiny E, Ai J Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neuromuscular disease due to injury in the infant's brain. The CP disorder causes many neurologic dysfunctions in the patient. Various treatment methods have been used for the management of CP disorder. However, there has been no absolute cure for this condition. Furthermore, some of the procedures which are currently used for relief of symptoms in CP cause discomfort or side effects in the patient. Recently, stem cell therapy has attracted a huge interest as a new therapeutic method for treatment of CP. Several investigations in animal and human with CP have demonstrated positive potential of stem cell transplantation for the treatment of CP disorder. The ultimate goal of this therapeutic method is to harness the regenerative capacity of the stem cells causing a formation of new tissues to replace the damaged tissue. During the recent years, there have been many investigations on stem cell therapy. However, there are still many unclear issues regarding this method and high effort is needed to create a technology as a perfect treatment. This review will discuss the scientific background of stem cell therapy for cerebral palsy including evidences from current clinical trials. PMID: 27520277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Neonatal Encephalopathy: Update on Therapeutic Hypothermia and Other Novel Therapeutics. Clin Perinatol. 2016 Sep;43(3):485-500 Authors: McAdams RM, Juul SE Abstract Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard treatment for newborns at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with intrapartum hypoxia-related NE. Term and late preterm infants with moderate to severe encephalopathy show improved survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age after TH. TH can increase survival without increasing major disability, rates of an IQ less than 70, or cerebral palsy. Neonates with severe NE remain at risk of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment. This review discusses the evidence supporting TH for term or near term neonates with NE. PMID: 27524449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Accelerated generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells by forced expression of Sox10 and Olig2. Sci China Life Sci. 2016 Nov;59(11):1131-1138 Authors: Li P, Li M, Tang X, Wang S, Zhang YA, Chen Z Abstract Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) hold great promise for treatment of dysmyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy. Recent studies on generation of human OPCs mainly use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or neural stem cells (NSCs) as starter cell sources for the differentiation process. However, NSCs are restricted in availability and the present method for generation of oligodendrocytes (OLs) from ESCs often requires a lengthy period of time. Here, we demonstrated a protocol to efficiently derive OPCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by forced expression of two transcription factors (2TFs), Sox10 and Olig2. With this method, PDGFRα+ OPCs can be obtained in 14 days and O4+ OPCs in 56 days. Furthermore, OPCs may be able to differentiate to mature OLs that could ensheath axons when co-cultured with rat cortical neurons. The results have implications in the development of autologous cell therapies. PMID: 27785726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles MOG-IgG in NMO and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. Part 3: Brainstem involvement - frequency, presentation and outcome. J Neuroinflammation. 2016 11 01;13(1):281 Authors: Jarius S, Kleiter I, Ruprecht K, Asgari N, Pitarokoili K, Borisow N, Hümmert MW, Trebst C, Pache F, Winkelmann A, Beume LA, Ringelstein M, Stich O, Aktas O, Korporal-Kuhnke M, Schwarz A, Lukas C, Haas J, Fechner K, Buttmann M, Bellmann-Strobl J, Zimmermann H, Brandt AU, Franciotta D, Schanda K, Paul F, Reindl M, Wildemann B, in cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS) Abstract BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) are present in a subset of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-negative patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis. Little is known so far about brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency, clinical and paraclinical features, course, outcome, and prognostic implications of brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive ON and/or myelitis. METHODS: Retrospective case study. RESULTS: Among 50 patients with MOG-IgG-positive ON and/or myelitis, 15 (30 %) with a history of brainstem encephalitis were identified. All were negative for AQP4-IgG. Symptoms included respiratory insufficiency, intractable nausea and vomiting (INV), dysarthria, dysphagia, impaired cough reflex, oculomotor nerve palsy and diplopia, nystagmus, internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), facial nerve paresis, trigeminal hypesthesia/dysesthesia, vertigo, hearing loss, balance difficulties, and gait and limb ataxia; brainstem involvement was asymptomatic in three cases. Brainstem inflammation was already present at or very shortly after disease onset in 7/15 (47 %) patients. 16/21 (76.2 %) brainstem attacks were accompanied by acute myelitis and/or ON. Lesions were located in the pons (11/13), medulla oblongata (8/14), mesencephalon (cerebral peduncles; 2/14), and cerebellar peduncles (5/14), were adjacent to the fourth ventricle in 2/12, and periaqueductal in 1/12; some had concomitant diencephalic (2/13) or cerebellar lesions (1/14). MRI or laboratory signs of blood-brain barrier damage were present in 5/12. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was found in 11/14 cases, with neutrophils in 7/11 (3-34 % of all CSF white blood cells), and oligoclonal bands in 4/14. Attacks were preceded by acute infection or vaccination in 5/15 (33.3 %). A history of teratoma was noted in one case. The disease followed a relapsing course in 13/15 (87 %); the brainstem was involved more than once in 6. Immunosuppression was not always effective in preventing relapses. Interferon-beta was followed by new attacks in two patients. While one patient died from central hypoventilation, partial or complete recovery was achieved in the remainder following treatment with high-dose steroids and/or plasma exchange. Brainstem involvement was associated with a more aggressive general disease course (higher relapse rate, more myelitis attacks, more frequently supratentorial brain lesions, worse EDSS at last follow-up). CONCLUSIONS: Brainstem involvement is present in around one third of MOG-IgG-positive patients with ON and/or myelitis. Clinical manifestations are diverse and may include symptoms typically seen in AQP4-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica, such as INV and respiratory insufficiency, or in multiple sclerosis, such as INO. As MOG-IgG-positive brainstem encephalitis may take a serious or even fatal course, particular attention should be paid to signs or symptoms of additional brainstem involvement in patients presenting with MOG-IgG-positive ON and/or myelitis. PMID: 27802825 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Neuroregenerative potential of intravenous G-CSF and autologous peripheral blood stem cells in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. J Transl Med. 2017 01 21;15(1):16 Authors: Rah WJ, Lee YH, Moon JH, Jun HJ, Kang HR, Koh H, Eom HJ, Lee JY, Lee YJ, Kim JY, Choi YY, Park K, Kim MJ, Kim SH Abstract OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study to assess the neuroregenerative potential of intravenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by infusion of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Children with non-severe CP were enrolled in this study. G-CSF was administered for 5 days, then mPBMCs were collected by apheresis and cryopreserved. One month later (M1), recipients were randomized to receive either mPBMCs or a placebo infusion, and these treatment groups were switched at 7 months (M7) and observed for another 6 months (M13). We assessed the efficacy of treatment by evaluating neurodevelopmental tests, as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging (MRI-DTI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanning to evaluate the anatomical and functional changes in the brain. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients aged 4.3 ± 1.9 (range 2-10) years and weighing 16.6 ± 4.9 (range 11.6-56.0) kg were enrolled in this study. The administration of G-CSF as well as the collection and reinfusion of mPBMCs were safe and tolerable. The yield of mPBMCs was comparable to that reported in studies of pediatric donors without CP and patients with nonhematologic diseases. 42.6% of the patients responded to the treatment with higher neurodevelopmental scores than would normally be expected. In addition, larger changes in neurodevelopment test scores were observed in the 1 month after G-CSF administration (M0-M1) than during the 6 months after reinfusion with mPBMCs or placebo (M1-M7 or M7-M13). Patients who received G-CSF followed by mPBMC infusion at 7 months (T7 group) demonstrated significantly more neurodevelopmental improvement than patients who received G-CSF followed by mPBMC infusion at 1 month (T1 group). In contrast to the results of neurodevelopment tests, the results of MRI-DTI at the end of this study showed greater improvement in the T1 group. Although we observed metabolic changes to the cerebellum, thalamus and cerebral cortex in the 18F-FDG brain PET-CT scans, there were no significant differences in such changes between the mPBMC and placebo group or between the T1 and T7 group. CONCLUSIONS: Neurodevelopmental improvement was seen in response to intravenous G-CSF followed by mPBMC reinfusion, particularly to the G-CSF alone even without mPBMC reinfusion. Further studies using a larger number of mPBMCs for the infusion which could be collected by repeated cycles of apheresis or using repeated cycles of G-CSF alone, are needed to clarify the effect of mPBMC reinfusion or G-CSF alone (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02983708. Registered 5 December, 2016, retrospectively registered). PMID: 28109298 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Comparative analysis of curative effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell and bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation for spastic cerebral palsy. J Transl Med. 2017 02 24;15(1):48 Authors: Liu X, Fu X, Dai G, Wang X, Zhang Z, Cheng H, Zheng P, An Y Abstract BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) are both used to treat spastic cerebral palsy. However, the differences in therapeutic effect remain unknown. METHODS: A total of 105 patients with spastic cerebral palsy were enrolled and randomly assigned to three groups: the BMMSC group, the BMMNC group and the control group. Patients in both transplantation groups received four intrathecal cell injections. Patients in the control group received Bobath therapy. The gross motor function measure (GMFM) and the fine motor function measure (FMFM) were used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy before transplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months after transplantation. RESULTS: Three months after cell transplantation, scores in the A dimension of GMFM and the A and C dimensions of FMFM scores in the BMMSC group are all higher than those of the BMMNC and the control groups (P < 0.05). Six months after cell transplantation, scores in the A, B dimensions of GMFM and the A, B, C, D, and E dimensions of FMFM scores in the BMMSC group are higher than those of the BMMNC and the control groups (P < 0.05). Twelve months after cell transplantation, scores in the A, B, and C dimensions of GMFM and the A, B, C, D, and E dimensions of FMFM scores in the BMMSC group are all higher than those of the BMMNC and the control groups (P < 0.05). No obvious adverse effects were investigated during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: BMMSC transplantation for the treatment of cerebral palsy is safe and feasible, and can improve gross motor and fine motor function significantly. In addition, compared with BMMNC, the motor function of children improved significantly in terms of gross motor and fine motor functions. PMID: 28235424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Two-Year Follow-Up Outcomes of Premature Infants Enrolled in the Phase I Trial of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2017 06;185:49-54.e2 Authors: Ahn SY, Chang YS, Kim JH, Sung SI, Park WS Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term safety and outcomes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants enrolled in a previous phase I clinical trial up to 2 years of corrected age (CA). STUDY DESIGN: We assessed serious adverse events, somatic growth, and respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes at visit 1 (4-6 months of CA), visit 2 (8-12 months of CA), and visit 3 (18-24 months of CA) in a prospective longitudinal follow-up study up to 2 years' CA of infants who received MSCs (MSC group). We compared these data with those from a historical case-matched comparison group. RESULTS: One of 9 infants in the MSC group died of Enterobacter cloacae sepsis at 6 months of CA, the remaining 8 infants survived without any transplantation-related adverse outcomes, including tumorigenicity. No infant in the MSC group was discharged with home supplemental oxygen compared with 22% in the comparison group. The average rehospitalization rate in the MSC group was 1.4/patient because of respiratory infections during 2 years of follow-up. The mean body weight of the MSC group at visit 3 was significantly higher compared with that of the comparison group. No infant in the MSC group was diagnosed with cerebral palsy, blindness, or developmental delay; in the comparison group, 1 infant was diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 1 with developmental delay. CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal transplantation of MSCs in preterm infants appears to be safe, with no adverse respiratory, growth, and neurodevelopmental effects at 2 years' CA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01632475. PMID: 28341525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Identifies Iron-Oxide-Labeled Human Neural Stem Cells: Automated Computational Detection. Dev Neurosci. 2016;38(6):445-457 Authors: Baghchechi M, Plaia A, Hamer M, Ghosh N, Ashwal S, Obenaus A Abstract Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Human neural stem cell (hNSC) therapy provides new hope for the treatment of neonatal HII. These multipotent cells can aid in HII recovery by activating multiple reparative mechanisms including secretion of neurotrophic factors that enhance brain repair and plasticity. For clinical use of implanted hNSCs, methods are required to identify, quantify, track, and visualize migration and replication in an automated and reproducible fashion. In the current study, we used a model of unilateral HII in 10-day-old rat pups that were implanted with 250,000 Feridex-labeled hNSCs into the contralateral ventricle 3 days after HII. In addition to standard noninvasively acquired serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences (11.7 and 4.7 T) that included diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging, we also acquired susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) 1-90 days after hNSC implantation. SWI is an advanced MRI method that enhances the visualization of iron-oxide-labeled hNSCs within affected regions of the injured neonatal brain. hNSC contrast was further enhanced by creating minimal intensity projections from the raw SWI magnitude images combined with phase information. Automated computational analysis using hierarchical region splitting (HRS) was applied for semiautomatic detection of hNSCs from SWI images. We found hNSCs in the ipsilateral HII lesion within the striatum and cortex adjacent to the lesion that corresponded to histological staining for iron. Quantitative phase values (radians) obtained from SWI revealed temporally evolving increased phase which reflects a decreased iron oxide content that is possibly related to cell division and the replicative capacity of the implanted hNSCs. SWI images also revealed hNSC migration from the contralateral injection site towards the ipsilateral HII lesion. Our results demonstrate that MRI-based SWI can monitor iron-labeled hNSCs in a clinically relevant manner and that automated computational methods such as HRS can rapidly identify iron-oxide-labeled hNSCs. PMID: 28343216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Outcomes of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for cerebral palsy: an open label uncontrolled clinical trial. BMC Pediatr. 2017 04 12;17(1):104 Authors: Nguyen LT, Nguyen AT, Vu CD, Ngo DV, Bui AV Abstract BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising method for improving motor function of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of autologous bone marrow mononuclear stem cell transplantation in patients with cerebral palsy related to oxygen deprivation. METHODS: An open label uncontrolled clinical trial was carried out at Vinmec International Hospital. The intervention consisted of two administrations of stem cells, the first at baseline and the second 3 months later. Improvement was monitored at 3 months and 6 months after the first administration of stem cells, using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Modified Ashworth Score which measures muscle tone. RESULTS: No severe complications were recorded during the study. After transplantation, 12 patients encountered fever without infections and 9 patients experienced vomiting which was easily managed with medications. Gross motor function was markedly improved 3 months or 6 months after stem cell transplantation than at baseline. The post-transplantation GMFM-88 total score, each of its domains and the GMFM-66 percentile were all significantly higher (p-value < 0.001). Muscle spasticity also reduced significantly after transplantation (p-value < 0.001). The therapy was equally effective regardless of sex, age and GMFCS level (p-value > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation appears to be a safe and effective therapy for patients with cerebral palsy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02569775 . Retrospectively registered on October 15, 2015. PMID: 28403842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Perinatal Brain Injury As a Consequence of Preterm Birth and Intrauterine Inflammation: Designing Targeted Stem Cell Therapies. Front Neurosci. 2017;11:200 Authors: Paton MCB, McDonald CA, Allison BJ, Fahey MC, Jenkin G, Miller SL Abstract Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of preterm birth and brain injury. Bacterial invasion of the chorion and amnion, and/or the placenta, can lead to a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn has significant adverse consequences for the developing fetal brain. Accordingly, there is a strong causal link between chorioamnionitis, preterm brain injury and the pathogenesis of severe postnatal neurological deficits and cerebral palsy. Currently there are no treatments to protect or repair against brain injury in preterm infants born after pregnancy compromised by intrauterine infection. This review describes the injurious cascade of events in the preterm brain in response to a severe fetal inflammatory event. We will highlight specific periods of increased vulnerability, and the potential effects of therapeutic intervention with cell-based therapies. Many clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of stem cells to treat patients with cerebral palsy. Stem cells, obtained from umbilical cord tissue and cord blood, normally discarded after birth, are emerging as a safe and potentially effective therapy. It is not yet known, however, which stem cell type(s) are the most efficacious for administration to preterm infants to treat brain injury-mediated inflammation. Individual stem cell populations found in cord blood and tissue, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), have a number of potential benefits that may specifically target preterm inflammatory-induced brain injury. MSCs have strong immunomodulatory potential, protecting against global and local neuroinflammatory cascades triggered during infection to the fetus. EPCs have angiogenic and vascular reparative qualities that make them ideal for neurovascular repair. A combined therapy using both MSCs and EPCs to target inflammation and promote angiogenesis for re-establishment of vital vessel networks is a treatment concept that warrants further investigation. PMID: 28442989 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Intravenous injection of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells attenuates reactive gliosis and hypomyelination in a neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage model. Neuroscience. 2017 07 04;355:175-187 Authors: Mukai T, Mori Y, Shimazu T, Takahashi A, Tsunoda H, Yamaguchi S, Kiryu S, Tojo A, Nagamura-Inoue T Abstract Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a frequent complication of preterm newborns, resulting in cerebral palsy and cognitive handicap as well as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and periventricular leukomalacia. In this study, we investigated the restorative effect on neonatal IVH by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) cultured in serum-free medium (RM medium) for clinical application. UC-MSCs were cultured with αMEM medium supplemented with FBS or RM. A neonatal IVH mouse model at postnatal day 5 was generated by intraventricular injection of autologous blood, and mice were intravenously administered 1×105 UC-MSCs two days after IVH. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed at postnatal day 15, 22 and neurological behavioral measurements were performed at postnatal day 23, accompanied by histopathological analysis and cytokine bead assays in serum after IVH with or without UC-MSCs. Both UC-MSCs cultured with αMEM and RM met the criteria of MSCs and improved behavioral outcome of IVH mice. Moreover the RM group exhibited significant behavioral improvement compared to the control group. Histopathological analysis revealed UC-MSCs cultured with RM significantly attenuated periventricular reactive gliosis, hypomyelination, and periventricular cell death observed after IVH. Furthermore, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor and hepatocyte growth factor were elevated in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue of neonatal IVH model mice 24h after UC-MSCs administration. These results suggest UC-MSCs attenuate neonatal IVH by protecting gliosis and apoptosis of the injured brain, and intravenous injection of UC-MSCs cultured in RM may be feasible for neonatal IVH in clinic. PMID: 28504197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles A review of the emerging potential therapy for neurological disorders: human embryonic stem cell therapy. Am J Stem Cells. 2017;6(1):1-12 Authors: Shroff G, Dhanda Titus J, Shroff R Abstract The first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line was developed in the late nineties. hESCs are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiate into all the three embryonic germ layers. Further, the differentiation of hESC lines into neural precursor cells and neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes showed their potential in treating several incurable neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will discuss the global scenario of research and therapeutic use of hESCs in the treatment of neurological disorders. Following this, we will discuss the development of a unique hESC line, how it differs from the other available hESC lines and its use in the treatment of neurological disorders. hESCs were isolated from mixture of neuronal and non-neuronal progenitor cells in their pre progenitor state in a Good Laboratory Practices, Good Tissue Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices compliant laboratory. Blastomere cells have served as a source to derive the hESCs and the xeno-free culture was demonstrated to be more safe and effective in clinical therapeutic application of hESCs. All the patients showed a remarkable improvement in their conditions and no serious adverse events were reported. This study concluded that hESC lines could be scalable and used in the treatment of various neurological disorders such as SCI, CP, and PD. PMID: 28533935 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Cell-Based Therapy Using Umbilical Cord Blood for Novel Indications in Regenerative Therapy and Immune Modulation: An Updated Systematic Scoping Review of the Literature. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017 Oct;23(10):1607-1613 Authors: Rizk M, Aziz J, Shorr R, Allan DS Abstract Cell-based therapy using umbilical cord blood (UCB) is being used increasingly in novel applications. To balance heightened public expectations and ensure appropriateness of emerging cell-based treatment choices, regular evidence-based assessment of novel UCB-derived therapies is needed. We performed a systematic search of the literature and identified 57 studies (814 patients) for analysis. Sixteen of these studies (353 patients) included a control group for comparison. The most commonly reported novel indication for therapy was neurologic diseases (25 studies, 476 patients), including studies of cerebral palsy (12 studies, 276 patients). Other indications included diabetes mellitus (9 studies, 149 patients), cardiac and vascular diseases (7 studies, 24 patients), and hepatic diseases (4 studies, 106 patients). Most studies administered total nucleated cells, mononuclear cells, or CD34-selected cells (31 studies, 513 patients), whereas 20 studies described the use of UCB-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. The majority of reports (46 studies, 627 patients) described cellular products obtained from allogeneic sources, whereas 11 studies (187 patients) used autologous products. We identified 3 indications where multiple prospective controlled studies have been published: 4 of 4 studies reported clinical benefit in cerebral palsy, 1 of 3 studies reported benefit for cirrhosis, and 1 of 3 studies reported biochemical response in type 1 diabetes), although heterogeneity among the studies precluded meaningful pooled analysis of results. We anticipate a more clear understanding of the clinical benefit for specific indications once more controlled studies are reported. Patients should continue to be enrolled on registered clinical trials for novel therapies. Blood establishments, transplantation centers, and regulatory bodies need to prepare for greater clinical demand. PMID: 28602892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Outcomes of intrathecal baclofen therapy in patients with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug;96(34):e7472 Authors: Yoon YK, Lee KC, Cho HE, Chae M, Chang JW, Chang WS, Cho SR Abstract Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been known to reduce spasticity which did not respond to oral medications and botulinum toxin treatment. However, few results have been reported comparing the effects of ITB therapy in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury. This study aimed to investigate beneficial and adverse effects of ITB bolus injection and pump therapy in patients with CP and to compare outcomes to patients with acquired brain injury such as traumatic brain injury and hypoxic brain injury. ITB test trials were performed in 37 patients (19 CP and 18 acquired brain injury). Based on ambulatory function, CP patients were divided into 2 groups: 11 patients with nonambulatory CP and 8 patients with ambulatory CP. Change of spasticity was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale. Additional positive or negative effects were also evaluated after ITB bolus injection. In patients who received ITB pump implantation, outcomes of spasticity, subjective satisfaction and adverse events were evaluated until 12 months post-treatment. After ITB bolus injection, 32 patients (86.5%) (CP 84.2% versus acquired brain injury 88.9%) showed a positive response of reducing spasticity. However, 8 patients with CP had negative adverse effects. Particularly, 3 ambulatory CP patients showed standing impairment and 1 ambulatory CP patient showed impaired gait pattern such as foot drop because of excessive reduction of lower extremity muscle tone. Ambulatory CP patients received ITB pump implantation less than patients with acquired brain injury after ITB test trials (P = .003 by a chi-squared test). After the pump implantation, spasticity was significantly reduced within 1 month and the effect maintained for 12 months. Seventeen patients or their caregivers (73.9%) were very satisfied, whereas 5 patients (21.7%) suffered from adverse events showed no subjective satisfaction. In conclusion, ITB therapy was effective in reducing spasticity in patients with CP and acquired brain injury. Before ITB pump implantation, it seems necessary to perform the ITB bolus injection to verify beneficial effects and adverse effects especially in ambulatory CP. PMID: 28834868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Stem cells and cell-based therapies for cerebral palsy: a call for rigor. Pediatr Res. 2018 01;83(1-2):345-355 Authors: Jantzie LL, Scafidi J, Robinson S Abstract Cell-based therapies hold significant promise for infants at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) from perinatal brain injury (PBI). PBI leading to CP results from multifaceted damage to neural cells. Complex developing neural networks are injured by neural cell damage plus unique perturbations in cell signaling. Given that cell-based therapies can simultaneously repair multiple injured neural components during critical neurodevelopmental windows, these interventions potentially offer efficacy for patients with CP. Currently, the use of cell-based interventions in infants at risk for CP is limited by critical gaps in knowledge. In this review, we will highlight key questions facing the field, including: Who are optimal candidates for treatment? What are the goals of therapeutic interventions? What are the best strategies for agent delivery, including timing, dosage, location, and type? And, how are short- and long-term efficacy reliably tracked? Challenges unique to treating PBI with cell-based therapies, and lessons learned from cell-based therapies in closely related neurological disorders in the mature central nervous system, will be reviewed. Our goal is to update pediatric specialists who may be counseling families about the current state of the field. Finally, we will evaluate how rigor can be increased in the field to ensure the safety and best interests of this vulnerable patient population. PMID: 28922350 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Umbilical cord blood cells for treatment of cerebral palsy; timing and treatment options. Pediatr Res. 2018 01;83(1-2):333-344 Authors: McDonald CA, Fahey MC, Jenkin G, Miller SL Abstract Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children, and there is no cure. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapy for the treatment of children with cerebral palsy is currently being assessed in clinical trials. Although there is much interest in the use of UCB stem cells for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Further, UCB contains many stem and progenitor cells of interest, and we will point out that individual cell types within UCB may elicit specific effects. UCB is a clinically proven source of hemotopoietic stem cells (HSCs). It also contains mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and immunosupressive cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and monocyte-derived supressor cells. Each of these cell types may be individual candidates for the prevention of brain injury following hypoxic and inflammatory events in the perinatal period. We will discuss specific properties of cell types in UCB, with respect to their therapeutic potential and the importance of optimal timing of administration. We propose that tailored cell therapy and targeted timing of administration will optimize the results for future clinical trials in the neuroprotective treatment of perinatal brain injury. PMID: 28937975 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Future perspectives of cell therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Res. 2018 01;83(1-2):356-363 Authors: Nabetani M, Shintaku H, Hamazaki T Abstract Neonatal ischemic brain injury causes permanent motor-deficit cerebral palsy. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a very serious condition that can result in death and disability. In 1997, we reported that irreversible neuronal cell damage is induced by the elevation of intracellular Ca ion concentration that has occurred in sequence after excess accumulation of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate during ischemia. We also reported that hypothermia was effective in treating ischemic brain damage in rats by suppressing energy loss and raising intracellular Ca ion concentration. Following the 2010 revised International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation guideline, our group developed the Guideline for the treatment of Hypothermia in Japan, and we started online case registry in January 2012. However, therapeutic hypothermia must be initiated within the first 6 h after birth. By contrast, cell therapy may have a much longer therapeutic time window because it might reduce apoptosis/oxidative stress and enhance the regenerative process. In 2014, we administered autologous umbilical cord blood stem cell (UCBC) therapy for neonatal HIE, for the first time in Japan. We enrolled five full-term newborns with moderate-to-severe HIE. Our autologous UCBC therapy is leading to new protocols for the prevention of ischemic brain damage. PMID: 29016557 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Effect of Autologous Cord Blood Infusion on Motor Function and Brain Connectivity in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017 Dec;6(12):2071-2078 Authors: Sun JM, Song AW, Case LE, Mikati MA, Gustafson KE, Simmons R, Goldstein R, Petry J, McLaughlin C, Waters-Pick B, Chen LW, Wease S, Blackwell B, Worley G, Troy J, Kurtzberg J Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition affecting young children that causes lifelong disabilities. Umbilical cord blood cells improve motor function in experimental systems via paracrine signaling. After demonstrating safety, we conducted a phase II trial of autologous cord blood (ACB) infusion in children with CP to test whether ACB could improve function (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01147653; IND 14360). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of a single intravenous infusion of 1-5 × 107 total nucleated cells per kilogram of ACB, children ages 1 to 6 years with CP were randomly assigned to receive ACB or placebo at baseline, followed by the alternate infusion 1 year later. Motor function and magnetic resonance imaging brain connectivity studies were performed at baseline, 1, and 2 years post-treatment. The primary endpoint was change in motor function 1 year after baseline infusion. Additional analyses were performed at 2 years. Sixty-three children (median age 2.1 years) were randomized to treatment (n = 32) or placebo (n = 31) at baseline. Although there was no difference in mean change in Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66) scores at 1 year between placebo and treated groups, a dosing effect was identified. In an analysis 1 year post-ACB treatment, those who received doses ≥2 × 107 /kg demonstrated significantly greater increases in GMFM-66 scores above those predicted by age and severity, as well as in Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 Gross Motor Quotient scores and normalized brain connectivity. Results of this study suggest that appropriately dosed ACB infusion improves brain connectivity and gross motor function in young children with CP. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:2071-2078. PMID: 29080265 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles A proteomic investigation into mechanisms underpinning corticosteroid effects on neural stem cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2018 01;86:30-40 Authors: Al-Mayyahi RS, Sterio LD, Connolly JB, Adams CF, Al-Tumah WA, Sen J, Emes RD, Hart SR, Chari DM Abstract Corticosteroids (CSs) are widely used clinically, for example in pediatric respiratory distress syndrome, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of stem cell transplant populations in neural cell therapy. However, such treatment can be associated with adverse effects such as impaired neurogenesis and myelination, and increased risk of cerebral palsy. There is increasing evidence that CSs can adversely influence key biological properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) but the molecular mechanisms underpinning such effects are largely unknown. This is an important issue to address given the key roles NSCs play during brain development and as transplant cells for regenerative neurology. Here, we describe the use of label-free quantitative proteomics in conjunction with histological analyses to study CS effects on NSCs at the cellular and molecular levels, following treatment with methylprednisolone (MPRED). Immunocytochemical staining showed that both parent NSCs and newly generated daughter cells expressed the glucocorticoid receptor, with nuclear localisation of the receptor induced by MPRED treatment. MPRED markedly decreased NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation while accelerating the maturation of oligodendrocytes, without concomitant effects on cell viability and apoptosis. Parallel proteomic analysis revealed that MPRED induced downregulation of growth associated protein 43 and matrix metallopeptidase 16 with upregulation of the cytochrome P450 family 51 subfamily A member 1. Our findings support the hypothesis that some neurological deficits associated with CS use may be mediated via effects on NSCs, and highlight putative target mechanisms underpinning such effects. PMID: 29128319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Clemastine rescues myelination defects and promotes functional recovery in hypoxic brain injury. Brain. 2018 Jan 01;141(1):85-98 Authors: Cree BAC, Niu J, Hoi KK, Zhao C, Caganap SD, Henry RG, Dao DQ, Zollinger DR, Mei F, Shen YA, Franklin RJM, Ullian EM, Xiao L, Chan JR, Fancy SPJ Abstract Hypoxia can injure brain white matter tracts, comprised of axons and myelinating oligodendrocytes, leading to cerebral palsy in neonates and delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) in adults. In these conditions, white matter injury can be followed by myelin regeneration, but myelination often fails and is a significant contributor to fixed demyelinated lesions, with ensuing permanent neurological injury. Non-myelinating oligodendrocyte precursor cells are often found in lesions in plentiful numbers, but fail to mature, suggesting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation arrest as a critical contributor to failed myelination in hypoxia. We report a case of an adult patient who developed the rare condition DPHL and made a nearly complete recovery in the setting of treatment with clemastine, a widely available antihistamine that in preclinical models promotes oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. This suggested possible therapeutic benefit in the more clinically prevalent hypoxic injury of newborns, and we demonstrate in murine neonatal hypoxic injury that clemastine dramatically promotes oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation, myelination, and improves functional recovery. We show that its effect in hypoxia is oligodendroglial specific via an effect on the M1 muscarinic receptor on oligodendrocyte precursor cells. We propose clemastine as a potential therapy for hypoxic brain injuries associated with white matter injury and oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation arrest. PMID: 29244098 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Neuroprotective effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on periventricular leukomalacia-like brain injury in neonatal rats. Inflamm Regen. 2017;37:1 Authors: Morioka C, Komaki M, Taki A, Honda I, Yokoyama N, Iwasaki K, Iseki S, Morio T, Morita I Abstract Background: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of multifactorial brain injury that causes cerebral palsy in premature infants. To date, effective therapies for PVL have not been available. In this study, we examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess neuroprotective property in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neonatal rat PVL-like brain injury. Methods: Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs) were used in this study. Four-day-old rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (15 mg/kg) to cause the PVL-like brain injury and were treated immediately after the LPS-injection with UCMSCs, conditioned medium prepared from MSCs (UCMSC-CM) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-pretreated MSC (IFN-γ-UCMSC-CM). To assess systemic reaction to LPS-infusion, IFN-γ in sera was measured by ELISA. The brain injury was evaluated by immunostaining of myelin basic protein (MBP) and caspase-3. RT-PCR was used to quantitate pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the brain injury, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) to evaluate anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory molecules in UCMSCs, respectively. A cytokine and growth factor array was employed to investigate the cytokine secretion profiles of UCMSCs. Results: Elevated serum IFN-γ was observed in LPS-infused rats. The expression of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1ß, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were increased in the brain by LPS-infusion in comparison to saline-infused control. LPS-infusion increased caspase-3-positive cells and decreased MBP-positive area in neonatal rat brains. A cytokine and growth factor array demonstrated that UCMSCs secreted various cytokines and growth factors. UCMSCs significantly suppressed IL-1ß expression in the brains and reversed LPS-caused decrease in MBP-positive area. UCMSC-CM did not reverse MBP-positive area in the injured brain, while IFN-γ-UCMSC-CM significantly increased MBP-positive area compared to control (no treatment). IFN-γ-pretreatment increased TSG-6 and IDO expression in UCMSCs. Conclusion: We demonstrated that bolus intraperitoneal infusion of LPS caused PVL-like brain injury in neonatal rats and UCMSCs infusion ameliorated dysmyelination in LPS-induced neonatal rat brain injury. Conditioned medium prepared from IFN-γ-pretreated UCMSCs significantly reversed the brain damage in comparison with UCMSC-CM, suggesting that the preconditioning of UCMSCs would improve their neuroprotective effects. The mechanisms underline the therapeutic effects of MSCs on PVL need continued investigation to develop a more effective treatment. PMID: 29259700 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Surgical treatment of neglected hip fracture in children with cerebral palsy: case report and review of the literature. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2017 Sep-Dec;14(3):317-323 Authors: Toro G, Moretti A, Toro G, Tirelli A, Calabrò G, Toro A, Iolascon G Abstract Case: A clinical case of a 15-year-old cerebral palsy child with a Sandhu type 2 neglected femoral neck fracture is presented. The patient was treated using cannulated screws and cancellous bone graft augmented with mesenchymal stem cells. At 6 months after the surgery complete fracture healing was observed. Conclusion: To early diagnose this fractures, it is mandatory to perform a comprehensive clinical and radiological evaluation including also a second level imaging. The use of cannulated screws with cancellous bone graft and MSCs is a viable treatment option in these patients. PMID: 29354160 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Effects of umbilical cord blood cells, and subtypes, to reduce neuroinflammation following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. J Neuroinflammation. 2018 Feb 17;15(1):47 Authors: McDonald CA, Penny TR, Paton MCB, Sutherland AE, Nekkanti L, Yawno T, Castillo-Melendez M, Fahey MC, Jones NM, Jenkin G, Miller SL Abstract BACKGROUND: It is well understood that hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury during the highly vulnerable perinatal period can lead to cerebral palsy, the most prevalent cause of chronic disability in children. Recently, human clinical trials have reported safety and some efficacy following treatment of cerebral palsy using umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells. UCB is made up of many different cell types, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), T regulatory cells (Tregs), and monocyte-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). How each cell type contributes individually towards reducing neuroinflammation and/or repairing brain injury is not known. In this study, we examined whether human (h) UCB, or specific UCB cell types, could reduce peripheral and cerebral inflammation, and promote brain repair, when given early after perinatal HI brain injury. METHODS: HI brain injury was induced in postnatal day (PND) 7 rat pups and cells were administered intraperitoneally on PND 8. Behavioral testing was performed 7 days post injury, and then, brains and spleens were collected for analysis. RESULTS: We found in vitro that all UCB cell types, except for EPCs, were immunomodulatory. Perinatal HI brain injury induced significant infiltration of CD4+ T cells into the injured cerebral hemisphere, and this was significantly reduced by all hUCB cell types tested. Compared to HI, UCB, Tregs, and EPCs were able to reduce motor deficits, reduce CD4+ T cell infiltration into the brain, and reduce microglial activation. In addition to the beneficial effects of UCB, EPCs also significantly reduced cortical cell death, returned CD4+ T cell infiltration to sham levels, and reduced the peripheral Th1-mediated pro-inflammatory shift. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that cells found in UCB is able to mediate neuroinflammation and is an effective neuroprotective therapy. Our study also shows that particular cells found in UCB, namely EPCs, may have an added advantage over using UCB alone. This work has the potential to progress towards tailored UCB therapies for the treatment of perinatal brain injury. PMID: 29454374 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Dose-Dependent Effect of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neonatal Stroke Mice. Front Neurol. 2018;9:133 Authors: Tanaka E, Ogawa Y, Mukai T, Sato Y, Hamazaki T, Nagamura-Inoue T, Harada-Shiba M, Shintaku H, Tsuji M Abstract Neonatal brain injury induced by stroke causes significant disability, including cerebral palsy, and there is no effective therapy for stroke. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. In this study, we examined the safety and efficacy of intravenously administered human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) in neonatal stroke mice. Pups underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at postnatal day 12 (P12), and low-dose (1 × 104) or high-dose (1 × 105) UC-MSCs were administered intravenously 48 h after the insult (P14). To evaluate the effect of the UC-MSC treatment, neurological behavior and cerebral blood flow were measured, and neuroanatomical analysis was performed at P28. To investigate the mechanisms of intravenously injected UC-MSCs, systemic blood flowmetry, in vivo imaging and human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measurements were performed. Functional disability was significantly improved in the high-dose UC-MSC group when compared with the vehicle group, but cerebral blood flow and cerebral hemispheric volume were not restored by UC-MSC therapy. The level of exogenous human BDNF was elevated only in the cerebrospinal fluid of one pup 24 h after UC-MSC injection, and in vivo imaging revealed that most UC-MSCs were trapped in the lungs and disappeared in a week without migration toward the brain or other organs. We found that systemic blood flow was stable over the 10 min after cell administration and that there were no differences in mortality among the groups. Immunohistopathological assessment showed that the percent area of Iba1-positive staining in the peri-infarct cortex was significantly reduced with the high-dose UC-MSC treatment compared with the vehicle treatment. These results suggest that intravenous administration of UC-MSCs is safe for a mouse model of neonatal stroke and improves dysfunction after middle cerebral artery occlusion by modulating the microglial reaction in the peri-infarct cortex. PMID: 29568282 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantations for cerebral palsy. Am J Transl Res. 2018;10(3):901-906 Authors: Dong H, Li G, Shang C, Yin H, Luo Y, Meng H, Li X, Wang Y, Lin L, Zhao M Abstract This study reports a case of a 4-year-old boy patient with abnormalities of muscle tone, movement and motor skills, as well as unstable gait leading to frequent falls. The results of the electroencephalogram (EEG) indicate moderately abnormal EEG, accompanied by irregular seizures. Based on these clinical characteristics, the patient was diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) in our hospital. In this study, the patient was treated with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation therapy. This patient received UC-MSC transplantation 3 times (5.3*107) in total. After three successive cell transplantations, the patient recovered well and showed obvious improvements in EEG and limb strength, motor function, and language expression. However, the improvement in intelligence quotient (IQ) was less obvious. These results indicate that UC-MSC transplantation is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy. PMID: 29636880 [PubMed]
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Related Articles A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion for Children With Cerebral Palsy. Cell Transplant. 2018 Feb;27(2):325-334 Authors: Huang L, Zhang C, Gu J, Wu W, Shen Z, Zhou X, Lu H Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common disability which results in permanent chronic motor disability appearing in early childhood. Recently human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (hUCB-MSC) infusion has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for CP, and the treatment efficacy remains to be confirmed by clinical trials. All 54 patients received basic rehabilitation as a background treatment. The infusion group comprising 27 patients received 4 infusions of hUCB-MSCs (intravenous infusions at a fixed dose of 5 × 107) and basic rehabilitation treatment, whereas 27 patients in the control group received 0.9% normal saline and basic rehabilitation treatment. Several indices were tested from baseline up to 24 months posttreatment regarding efficacy and safety evaluations, including the gross motor function measurement 88 (GMFM-88) scores, the comprehensive function assessment (CFA), lab tests, electroencephalogram (EEG), routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and adverse events. The changes in the total proportion of GMFM-88 and total scores of CFA in the hUCB-MSC infusion group were significantly higher than that in control group at 3, 6, 12, 24 months posttreatment. Less diffuse slow waves were noticed after hUCB-MSC infusion in patients with slowing of EEG background rhythms at baseline. Based on the routine MRI exams, improvements in cerebral structures were rare after treatment. Serious adverse events were not observed during the whole study period. The results of the study indicated that hUCB-MSC infusion with basic rehabilitation was safe and effective in improving gross motor and comprehensive functions in children with CP. PMID: 29637820 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles The Effect of Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report. Int J Stem Cells. 2018 May 30;11(1):141-147 Authors: Okur SÇ, Erdoğan S, Demir CS, Günel G, Karaöz E Abstract Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability reason of childhood that occurs secondarily to non-progressive damage in the brain whose development is still ongoing. Methods: 6-year-old dystonic-spastic male CP patient received allogenic mesenchymal stem cells treatment four times as 1×10⁶/kg in intrathecal and intravenous administration of Umbilical Cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) ways. Before and after the treatment, the patient was followed-up with FIM (Functional Independent Measurement), GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System 88), Tardieu Scale, TCMS (Trunk Control Measurement Scale), MACS (Manual Ability Classification Scale), CFSS (Communication Function Classification System) for 18 months and received intensive rehabilitation. Results: Improvements were observed especially in functional scales except for the Tardieu Scale, and no adverse effects were detected aside from a slight pain in the back. Conclusion: Wider future case studies on UC-MSCs will enable us to assess the efficacy of UC-MSCs which have positive impacts especially on functional scales. PMID: 29699386 [PubMed]
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Related Articles The Significance of Single-Cell Biomedicine in Stem Cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1068:187-195 Authors: Zhuge W, Yan F, Zhu Z, Wang X Abstract Clinical application of stem cells (SCs) progresses significantly in the treatment of a large number of diseases, e.g. leukemia, respiratory diseases, kidney disease, cerebral palsy, autism, or autoimmune diseases. Of those, the population, biological phenotypes, and functions of individual SCs are mainly concerned, due to the lack of cell separation and purification processes. The single-cell technology, including microfluidic technology and single-cell genome amplification technology, is widely used to study SCs and gains some recognitions. The present review will address the importance of single-cell technologies in the recognition and heterogeneity of SCs and highlight the significance of current single-cell approaches in the understanding of SC phenotypes. We also discuss the values of single-cell studies to overcome the bottleneck in explore of biological mechanisms and reveal the therapeutic potentials of SCs in diseases, especially tumor-related diseases, as new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID: 29943306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Comparison of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy in a private cord blood bank to an epidemiological sample. Res Dev Disabil. 2018 Sep;80:153-160 Authors: Mazonson P, Kane M, Colberg K, Harris H, Brown H, Mohr A, Santas C, Sandler A Abstract BACKGROUND: Although cord blood (CB) stem cell research is being conducted for treatment of cerebral palsy (CP), little is known about children with CP and stored CB. AIMS: To compare demographic and clinical characteristics of children with CP and stored CB to children with CP identified in a population-based study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The Longitudinal Umbilical Stem cell monitoring and Treatment REsearch (LUSTRE®) Registry recruited children from the largest US private CB bank. Demographics, co-morbidities, and gross motor function (GMFCS level and walking ability) were collected and, where possible, compared with the CDC's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: 114 LUSTRE participants were compared to 451 ADDM participants. LUSTRE participants were more likely to be white, but sex distribution was similar. Co-morbidities (autism and epilepsy) and functional mobility were also similar. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The results of this analysis suggest that while children diagnosed with CP and with access to stored CB differ from a broader population sample in terms of demographics, they have similar clinical severity and comorbidity profiles. As such, LUSTRE may serve as a valuable source of data for the characterization of individuals with CP, including individuals who have or will receive CB infusions. PMID: 30015273 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles The effects of bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation on the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018 Aug 14;16(1):164 Authors: Nguyen TL, Nguyen HP, Nguyen TK Abstract BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QOL) is an important factor in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNCs) on the QOL of children with CP. METHODS: From December 2015 to December 2016, 30 children with CP aged from 2 to 15 years received two intrathecal infusions of BM MNCs, one at baseline and the other 3 months later, at Vinmec International Hospital. The motor function and muscle tone of the patients were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 and Modified Ashworth Score, respectively. Their QOL was assessed at baseline and 6 months after the first BM MNC transplant using the Vietnamese version of the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for children (CP QOL-Child)-the parental proxy report, which comprises seven domains. Nineteen mothers (mean age: 32.9±4.9 years) and 11 fathers (mean age: 36.1±6.8 years) were invited to complete the CP QOL-Child assessment before and after the transplantations, Paired t-tests and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the changes in QOL and GMFM scores and to identify the key factors correlated with the QOL score. RESULTS: Significant changes were observed in the children's gross motor function and muscle spasticity, as evidenced by the GMFM-88 total score, scores for each of its domains, the GMFM-66 percentile and the muscle tone (P < 0.001). Six months after the transplantations, the QOL scores of children with CP were markedly increased (P < 0.001) for all the domains, except for the domain of access to services. In the multivariate regression analysis, significant associations were found between higher age of children and higher QOL except for feeling about functioning and pain and impact of disability domains. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was negatively correlated with the score of pain and impact of disability domain, while the GMFM-88 scores were positively correlated with the QOL in terms of feelings about functioning and family health domain (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The QOL of the children with CP was noticeably improved 6 months after BM MNC transplantation and was accompanied by improvements in gross motor function and muscle tone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02574923 . Registered on October 14, 2015. PMID: 30107811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles The neurorestorative effect of human amniotic fluid stem cells on the chronic phase of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in mice. Pediatr Res. 2018 Aug 10;: Authors: Otani T, Ochiai D, Masuda H, Abe Y, Fukutake M, Matsumoto T, Miyakoshi K, Tanaka M Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of cerebral palsy. Increasing evidence has suggested that mesenchymal stem cells have a favorable effect on HIE. However, the efficacy of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS) for HIE, especially in the chronic phase, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the neurorestorative effect of hAFS on the chronic phase of HIE. METHODS: hAFS were isolated from AF cells as CD117-positive cells. HI was induced in 9-day-old mice. Animals intranasally received hAFS or phosphate-buffered saline at 10 days post HI and were harvested for histological analysis after functional tests at 21 days post HI. We also implanted PKH26-positive hAFS to assess their migration to the brain. Finally, we determined gene expressions of trophic factors in hAFS co-cultured with HI brain extract. RESULTS: hAFS improved sensorimotor deficits in HIE by gray and white matter restoration and neuroinflammation reduction followed by migration to the lesion. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) gene expressions in hAFS were elevated when exposed to HI-induced brain extract. CONCLUSION: hAFS induced functional recovery by exerting neurorestorative effects in HIE mice, suggesting that intranasal administration of hAFS could be a novel treatment for HIE, especially in the chronic phase. PMID: 30120407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Improved Bowel Function in Patients with Spina Bifida After Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cell Transplantation: A Report of 2 Cases. Am J Case Rep. 2018 Aug 25;19:1010-1018 Authors: Liem NT, Chinh VD, Thinh NT, Minh ND, Duc HM Abstract BACKGROUND Bowel dysfunction is observed in 42.2-71.2% of patients with spina bifida. Traditional treatments yield limited results. The objective of this paper is to report on improvement in bowel function in 2 children with spina bifida following bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells transplantation. CASE REPORT Two patients - 14 years old and 11 years old - with bowel dysfunction after myelomeningocele repair underwent 2 BMMNC transplantations without complications. Those patients had normal defecation, assessed through follow-ups of 21 months and 16 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS BMMNC transplantation can improve bowel function, as demonstrated in 2 patients with spina bifida. PMID: 30143601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Human Umbilical Cord Blood Therapy Protects Cerebral White Matter from Systemic LPS Exposure in Preterm Fetal Sheep. Dev Neurosci. 2018;40(3):258-270 Authors: Paton MCB, Allison BJ, Li J, Fahey MC, Sutherland AE, Nitsos I, Bischof RJ, Dean JM, Moss TJM, Polglase GR, Jenkin G, McDonald CA, Miller SL Abstract BACKGROUND: Infants born preterm following exposure to in utero inflammation/chorioamnionitis are at high risk of brain injury and life-long neurological deficits. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of early intervention umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapy in a large animal model of preterm brain inflammation and injury. We hypothesised that UCB treatment would be neuroprotective for the preterm brain following subclinical fetal inflammation. METHODS: Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.65 gestation were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 150 ng, 055:B5) intravenously over 3 consecutive days, followed by 100 million human UCB mononuclear cells 6 h after the final LPS dose. Controls were administered saline instead of LPS and cells. Ten days after the first LPS dose, the fetal brain and cerebrospinal fluid were collected for analysis of subcortical and periventricular white matter injury and inflammation. RESULTS: LPS administration increased microglial aggregate size, neutrophil recruitment, astrogliosis and cell death compared with controls. LPS also reduced total oligodendrocyte count and decreased mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. UCB cell therapy attenuated cell death and inflammation, and recovered total and mature oligodendrocytes, compared with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: UCB cell treatment following inflammation reduces preterm white matter brain injury, likely mediated via anti-inflammatory actions. PMID: 30179864 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles A New Approach to Cerebral Palsy Treatment: Discussion of the Effective Components of Umbilical Cord Blood and its Mechanisms of Action. Cell Transplant. 2018 Nov 01;:963689718809658 Authors: Jiao Y, Li XY, Liu J Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) includes a group of persistent non-progressive disorders affecting movement, muscle tone, and/or posture. The total economic loss during the life-span of an individual with CP places a heavy financial burden on such patients and their families worldwide; however, a complete cure is still lacking. Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-based interventions are emerging as a scientifically plausible treatment and possible cure for CP. Stem cells have been used in many experimental CP animal models and achieved good results. Compared with other types of stem cells, those from UCB have advantages in terms of treatment safety and efficacy, ethics, non-neoplastic proliferation, accessibility, ease of preservation, and regulation of immune responses, based on findings in animal models and clinical trials. Currently, the use of UCB-based interventions for CP is limited as the components of UCB are complex and possess different therapeutic mechanisms. These can be categorized by three aspects: homing and neuroregeneration, trophic factor secretion, and neuroprotective effects. Our review summarizes the features of active components of UCB and their therapeutic mechanism of action. This review highlights current research findings and clinical evidence regarding UCB that contribute to treatment suggestions, inform decision-making for therapeutic interventions, and help to direct future research. PMID: 30384766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Severe-combined immunodeficient rats can be used to generate a model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury to facilitate studies of engrafted human neural stem cells. PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0208105 Authors: Beldick SR, Hong J, Altamentova S, Khazaei M, Hundal A, Zavvarian MM, Rumajogee P, Chio J, Fehlings MG Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses a group of non-progressive brain disorders that are often acquired through perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Injury leads to a cascade of cell death events, resulting in lifetime motor and cognitive deficits. There are currently no treatments that can repair the resulting brain damage and improve functional outcomes. To date, preclinical research using neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation as a therapy for HI brain injury has shown promise. To translate this treatment to the clinic, it is essential that human-derived NPCs also be tested in animal models, however, a major limitation is the high risk of xenograft rejection. A solution is to transplant the cells into immune-deficient rodents, but there are currently no models of HI brain injury established in such a cohort of animals. Here, we demonstrate that a model of HI brain injury can be generated in immune-deficient Prkdc knockout (KO) rats. Long-term deficits in sensorimotor function were similar between KO and wildtype (WT) rats. Interestingly, some aspects of the injury were more severe in KO rats. Additionally, human induced pluripotent stem cell derived (hiPSC)-NPCs had higher survival at 10 weeks post-transplant in KO rats when compared to their WT counterparts. This work establishes a reliable model of neonatal HI brain injury in Prkdc KO rats that will allow for future transplantation, survival, and long-term evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hiPSC-NPCs for neonatal brain damage. This model will enable critical preclinical translational research using human NPCs. PMID: 30485360 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Mesenchymal stromal cells as a potential therapeutic for neurological disorders. Regen Ther. 2018 Dec;9:32-37 Authors: Mukai T, Tojo A, Nagamura-Inoue T Abstract Several studies have reported that mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) restore neurological damage through their secretion of paracrine factors or their differentiation to neuronal cells. Based on these studies, many clinical trials have been conducted using MSCs for neurological disorders, and their safety and efficacy have been reported. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to MSCs, especially umbilical cord derived-MSCs (UC-MSCs), in terms of characteristics, isolation, and cryopreservation, and discuss the recent progress in regenerative therapies using MSCs for various neurological disorders. PMID: 30525073 [PubMed]
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Related Articles Administration of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells Contributed to the Reduction of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Neonatal Rats. Front Neurol. 2018;9:987 Authors: Sato Y, Ueda K, Kondo T, Hattori T, Mikrogeorgiou A, Sugiyama Y, Suzuki T, Yamamoto M, Hirata H, Hirakawa A, Nakanishi K, Tsuji M, Hayakawa M Abstract Background/Objective: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) causes neonatal death and permanent neurological deficits. Cell therapy using various cell sources has been recently identified as a novel therapy for perinatal HI. Among the available types of cell sources, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) have unique features for clinical application. For example, stem cells can be collected after admission, thus enabling us to perform autologous transplantation. This study aimed to investigate whether the administration of BMMNCs ameliorated HI brain injury in a neonatal rat model. Methods: Seven-day-old rats underwent left carotid artery ligation and were exposed to 8% oxygen for 60 min. BMMNCs were collected from the femurs and tibias of juvenile rats using the Ficoll-Hypaque technique and injected intravenously 24 h after the insult (1 × 105 cells). Active caspase-3, as an apoptosis marker, and ED1, as an activated microglia/macrophage marker, were evaluated immunohistochemically 48 h after the insult (vehicle, n = 9; BMMNC, n = 10). Behavioral assessments using the rotarod treadmill, gait analysis, and active avoidance tests were initiated 3 weeks after the insult (sham, n = 9, vehicle, n = 8; BMMNC, n = 8). After these behavioral tests (6 weeks after the insult), we evaluated the volumes of their hippocampi, cortices, thalami, striata, and globus pallidus. Results: The mean cell densities of the sum of four parts that were positive for active caspase-3 significantly decreased in the BMMNC group (p < 0.05), whereas in the hippocampi, cortices, thalami, and striata cell densities decreased by 42, 60, 56, and 47%, respectively, although statistical significance was not attained. The number of ED1 positive cells for the sum of the four parts also significantly decreased in the BMMNC group compared to the vehicle group (p < 0.05), whereas in each of the four parts the decrease was 35, 39, 47, and 36%, respectively, although statistical significance was not attained. In gait analysis, the BMMNC normalized the contact area of the affected hind paw widened by HI. The volumes of the affected striata and globus pallidus were significantly larger in the BMMNC group than in the control group. Conclusion: These results indicated that the injection of BMMNCs ameliorated HI brain injury in a neonatal rat model. PMID: 30559704 [PubMed]
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