Cancer Stem Cell Treatment

Autologous Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer is available at SIRM

Cancer represents one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. More than half of patients suffering from cancer succumb to their condition. The primary approaches to treating cancer are surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These treatments have resulted in significant benefits to patients with the majority of tumor types, and the clinical outcomes have become more satisfactory. It is recognized that multidisciplinary treatments should be used in cancer treatments, another option proposed for this is immunotherapy. The combination of the traditional methods of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy with immunotherapy, is a new way for anti-cancer therapies to reduce the mortality of cancer patients. The dysfunction of the antigen-specific T cells required to kill the cancer leads to cancer cells being able to grow in cancer patients. Active and adoptive T cell immunotherapies generate T cells that can target cancer cells.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells that function as antigen-presenting cells. They are able to activate naive CD4+ T helper cells and unprimed CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Active immunotherapy, represented by DC-based regimens, has been used to produce tumor-specific antigen-presenting cells and to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against cancer cells. DCs can capture antigens, process them, and present them with co-stimulation cytokines/messengers to initiate an immune response, like inducing primary T-cell responses.

Adoptive immunotherapy, as conducted at our facility, is a personalized therapy that uses a patient’s own anti-tumor immune cells to kill cancer cells and may be used to treat several types of cancer, and represents another therapeutic approach against cancer. To date, the adoptive immunotherapy approach is one of the most effective methods for using the body’s immune system to treat cancer. To be used clinically, protocols for the development of these functional DCs must be established for in-clinic use via defined, xenobiotic-free medium conditions.

The purpose of the present study is to determine the cellular immune response in terms of the delayed-type hyper-sensitivity (DTH) skin test and evaluate the subjective clinical outcome and safety of the regimen in cancer patients receiving a DC vaccine.

Vaccination against a single antigen is available using purified and synthetic products, but these have disadvantages because it is unknown which of the identified antigens have the potential to induce an effective antitumor immune response. This study uses unfractionated, autologous, tumor-derived antigens in the form oftumor cell lysates which circumvents this disadvantage.

Tumor lysates as addressed in this protocol, contain multiple known as well as unknown antigens that can be presented to T cells by both MHC class I- and class II-pathways. Therefore, lysate-loaded DCs are more likely to induce the more preferred polyclonal expansion of T cells, including MHC class II restricted T-helper cells. These have been recognized to play an important role in the activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), probably the most important cells in effecting an antitumor immune response. The generation of CTL clones with multiple specificities may be an advantage in heterogeneous tumors and could also reduce the risk of tumor escape variants. Furthermore, lysate from the autologous tumor can be used independently of the HLA type of the patient. A drawback of unfractionated tumor antigens is the possibility of inducing an autoimmune reactivity to epitopes that are shared by normal tissues. However, in clinical trials using lysate or whole tumor cells as the source of antigen, no clinically relevant autoimmune responses have ever been detected.

Personalized dendritic cell vaccines for cancer, via adoptive immunotherapy, are successfully developed and autologously administered to patients coming to Asia, and more specifically, within the Philippines at the Subic Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The results of this case study of cancer and immunotherapy via pulsed dendritic cells, can serve as another example of safety for future cancer vaccine development.

Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer:
Related Articles Second neoplasms in adult patients submitted to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Med Clin (Barc). 2018 06 08;150(11):421-427 Authors: Torrent A, Ferrá C, Morgades M, Jiménez MJ, Sancho JM, Vives S, Batlle M, Moreno M, Xicoy B, Oriol A, Ibarra G, Ribera JM Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients submitted to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of late complications, such as second neoplasm (SN). The incidence and risk factors of SN in patients receiving HSCT at a single centre were analysed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The follow-up of adult patients who received a first HSCT (autologous [auto-HSCT] or allogeneic [allo-HSCT]) between January 2000 and December 2015 was reviewed. We collected their demographic characteristics, the primary disease and type of HSCT, and analysed the cumulative incidence of SN and their risk factors. RESULTS: Of 699 transplanted patients (auto-HSCT, n=451; allo-HSCT, n=248), 42 (6%) developed SN (17 haematological and 25 solid), 31 post-auto-HSCT and 11 post-allo-HSCT. Haematologic SN were more frequent after auto-HSCT than after allo-HSCT. The median time between HSCT and SN was 4.09 years [range 0.07-13.15], with no differences between auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT. The cumulative incidence of SN was 5% (95% CI 3-6) at 5 years, 7% (95% CI 5-10) at 10 years and 11% (95% CI 8-15) at 15 years, without differences according to the type of HSCT. Only the age over 40 years correlated with an increased risk of SN. CONCLUSIONS: In this series, the incidence of post-HSCT SN was similar to that previously described. Patients submitted to an auto-HSCT showed a higher frequency of haematologic SN. A higher incidence of SN was detected in patients older than 40 at the time of HSCT. PMID: 28874263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Resveratrol activation of AMPK-dependent pathways is neuroprotective in human neural stem cells against amyloid-beta-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Neurochem Int. 2018 05;115:1-10 Authors: Chiang MC, Nicol CJ, Cheng YC Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive memory loss resulting in dementia. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disease, and are thought to promote inflammation and oxidative stress leading to neurodegeneration in the neocortex and hippocampus of the AD brains. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, and cell survival in response to inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms by which AMPK achieves these beneficial effects in human neural stem cells (hNSCs) exposed to Aβ is still not well understood. Resveratrol is a potent activator of AMPK suggesting it may have therapeutic potential against AD. Therefore, we will test the hypothesis that the AMPK activator resveratrol protects against Aβ mediated neuronal impairment (inflammation and oxidative stress) in hNSCs. Here, Aβ-treated hNSCs had significantly decreased cell viability that correlated with increased TNF-α and IL-1β inflammatory cytokine expression. Co-treatment with resveratrol significantly abrogated the Aβ-mediated effects in hNSCs, and was effectively blocked by the addition of the AMPK-specific antagonist (Compound C). These results suggest the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol are mediated by an AMPK-dependent pathway. In addition, resveratrol rescued the transcript expression levels of inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK) in Aβ-treated hNSCs. NF-κB is a transcription factor with a key role in the expression of a variety of genes involved in inflammatory responses. Resveratrol prevented the Aβ-mediated increases in NF-κB mRNA and protein levels, and its nuclear translocation in hNSCs. Co-treatment with resveratrol also significantly restored iNOS and COX-2 levels in Aβ-treated hNSCs. Furthermore, hNSCs co-treated with resveratrol were significantly rescued from Aβ-induced oxidative stress, which correlated with reversal of the Aβ-induced mRNA decrease in oxidative defense genes (SOD-1, NRF2, Gpx1, Catalase, GSH and HO-1). Taken together, these novel findings show that activation of AMPK-dependent signaling by resveratrol rescues Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity in hNSCs, and provides evidence supporting a neuroprotective role for AMPK activating drugs in Aβ-related diseases such as AD. PMID: 28989083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Phase I Trial of DNX-2401 for Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Newly Diagnosed in Pediatric Patients. Neurosurgery. 2018 11 01;83(5):1050-1056 Authors: Tejada S, Alonso M, Patiño A, Fueyo J, Gomez-Manzano C, Diez-Valle R Abstract BACKGROUND: There are no effective treatments for diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs); these tumors cannot be surgical resected, and diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, tumor tissues for molecular studies and pathologic diagnosis are infrequent. New clinical trials are investigating novel medications and therapeutic techniques in an effort to improve treatment of patients with DIPGs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety, tolerability, and toxicity of an oncolytic adenovirus, DNX-2401, injected into the cerebellar peduncle in pediatric subjects with DIPG and to collect tumor samples of this type of tumor. METHODS: Phase I, single-center, uncontrolled trial. A tumor biopsy will be performed through the cerebellar peduncle, and DNX-2401 will be injected immediately after the biopsy. Standard therapy consisting of radiotherapy and chemotherapy will follow in 2 to 6 wk. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Improvement of overall survival and quality of life in patients with DIPG and collection of tumor specimens to study the molecular profiling of these tumors. DISCUSSION: The aims of this trial are to contribute to the sample collection of DIPG and to offer treatment during the tumor tissue biopsy using the virus. If this virus works as expected, it could kill the tumor cells with no damage to healthy tissue, functioning as a targeted therapy. It is important to note that edema has not been observed with this virus in all trials performed to date. The information obtained through this and other similar studies may be useful for developing or improving new therapies in the battle against DIPG. PMID: 29088386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles High-Throughput Screening Approach for Identifying Compounds That Inhibit Nonhomologous End Joining. SLAS Discov. 2018 08;23(7):624-633 Authors: Bredemeyer AL, Edwards BS, Haynes MK, Morales AJ, Wang Y, Ursu O, Waller A, Sklar LA, Sleckman BP Abstract DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired primarily by homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Compounds that modulate HR have shown promise as cancer therapeutics. The V(D)J recombination reaction, which assembles antigen receptor genes in lymphocytes, is initiated by the introduction of DNA DSBs at two recombining gene segments by the RAG endonuclease, followed by the NHEJ-mediated repair of these DSBs. Here, using HyperCyt automated flow cytometry, we develop a robust high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for NHEJ that utilizes engineered pre-B-cell lines where the V(D)J recombination reaction can be induced and monitored at a single-cell level. This approach, novel in processing four 384-well plates at a time in parallel, was used to screen the National Cancer Institute NeXT library to identify compounds that inhibit V(D)J recombination and NHEJ. Assessment of cell light scattering characteristics at the primary HTS stage (83,536 compounds) enabled elimination of 60% of apparent hits as false positives. Although all the active compounds that we identified had an inhibitory effect on RAG cleavage, we have established this as an approach that could identify compounds that inhibit RAG cleavage or NHEJ using new chemical libraries. PMID: 29232168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Association of aplastic anaemia and lymphoma: a report from the severe aplastic anaemia working party of the European Society of Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation. Br J Haematol. 2019 01;184(2):294-298 Authors: Rovó A, Kulasekararaj A, Medinger M, Chevallier P, Ribera JM, Peffault de Latour R, Knol C, Iacobelli S, Kanfer E, Bruno B, Maury S, Quarello P, Koh MBC, Schouten H, Blau IW, Tichelli A, Hill A, Risitano A, Passweg J, Marsh J, Dreger P, Dufour C, Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Party of the EBMT PMID: 29265360 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Self-assembling toxin-based nanoparticles as self-delivered antitumoral drugs. J Control Release. 2018 03 28;274:81-92 Authors: Sánchez-García L, Serna N, Álamo P, Sala R, Céspedes MV, Roldan M, Sánchez-Chardi A, Unzueta U, Casanova I, Mangues R, Vázquez E, Villaverde A Abstract Loading capacity and drug leakage from vehicles during circulation in blood is a major concern when developing nanoparticle-based cell-targeted cytotoxics. To circumvent this potential issue it would be convenient the engineering of drugs as self-delivered nanoscale entities, devoid of any heterologous carriers. In this context, we have here engineered potent protein toxins, namely segments of the diphtheria toxin and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin as self-assembling, self-delivered therapeutic materials targeted to CXCR4+ cancer stem cells. The systemic administration of both nanostructured drugs in a colorectal cancer xenograft mouse model promotes efficient and specific local destruction of target tumor tissues and a significant reduction of the tumor volume. This observation strongly supports the concept of intrinsically functional protein nanoparticles, which having a dual role as drug and carrier, are designed to be administered without the assistance of heterologous vehicles. PMID: 29408658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles TGFβ signaling hyperactivation-induced tumorigenicity during the derivation of neural progenitors from mouse ESCs. J Mol Cell Biol. 2018 06 01;10(3):216-228 Authors: Yang X, Wang R, Wang X, Cai G, Qian Y, Feng S, Tan F, Chen K, Tang K, Huang X, Jing N, Qiao Y Abstract Clinical therapies of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs)-based transplantation have been hindered by frequent development of teratomas or tumors in animal models and clinical patients. Therefore, clarifying the mechanism of carcinogenesis in stem cell therapy is of great importance for reducing the risk of tumorigenicity. Here we differentiate Oct4-GFP mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and find that a minority of Oct4+ cells are continuously sustained at Oct4+ state. These cells can be enriched and proliferated in a standard ESC medium. Interestingly, the differentiation potential of these enriched cells is tightly restricted with much higher tumorigenic activity, which are thus defined as differentiation-resistant ESCs (DR-ESCs). Transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses show that DR-ESCs are characterized by primordial germ cell-like gene signatures (Dazl, Rec8, Stra8, Blimp1, etc.) and specific epigenetic patterns distinct from mESCs. Moreover, the DR-ESCs possess germ cell potential to generate Sycp3+ haploid cells and are able to reside in sperm-free spermaduct induced by busulfan. Finally, we find that TGFβ signaling is overactivated in DR-ESCs, and inhibition of TGFβ signaling eliminates the tumorigenicity of mESC-derived NPCs by inducing the full differentiation of DR-ESCs. These data demonstrate that these TGFβ-hyperactivated germ cell-like DR-ESCs are the main contributor for the tumorigenicity of ESCs-derived target cell therapy and that inhibition of TGFβ signaling in ESC-derived NPC transplantation could drastically reduce the risk of tumor development. PMID: 29481611 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Immunologic targeting of CD30 eliminates tumourigenic human pluripotent stem cells, allowing safer clinical application of hiPSC-based cell therapy. Sci Rep. 2018 02 27;8(1):3726 Authors: Sougawa N, Miyagawa S, Fukushima S, Kawamura A, Yokoyama J, Ito E, Harada A, Okimoto K, Mochizuki-Oda N, Saito A, Sawa Y Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising candidate cells for cardiomyogenesis in the failing heart. However, teratoma/tumour formation originating from undifferentiated iPSCs contaminating the graft is a critical concern for clinical application. Here, we hypothesized that brentuximab vedotin, which targets CD30, induces apoptosis in tumourigenic cells, thus increasing the safety of iPSC therapy for heart failure. Flow cytometry analysis identified consistent expression of CD30 in undifferentiated human iPSCs. Addition of brentuximab vedotin in vitro for 72 h efficiently induced cell death in human iPSCs, associated with a significant increase in G2/M phase cells. Brentuximab vedotin significantly reduced Lin28 expression in cardiomyogenically differentiated human iPSCs. Transplantation of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) without treatment into NOG mice consistently induced teratoma/tumour formation, with a substantial number of Ki-67-positive cells in the graft at 4 months post-transplant, whereas iPSC-derived CMs treated with brentuximab vedotin prior to the transplantation did not show teratoma/tumour formation, which was associated with absence of Ki-67-positive cells in the graft over the same period. These findings suggest that in vitro treatment with brentuximab vedotin, targeting the CD30-positive iPSC fraction, reduced tumourigenicity in human iPSC-derived CMs, potentially providing enhanced safety for iPSC-based cardiomyogenesis therapy in clinical scenarios. PMID: 29487310 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Cabozantinib Affects Osteosarcoma Growth Through A Direct Effect On Tumor Cells and Modifications In Bone Microenvironment. Sci Rep. 2018 03 08;8(1):4177 Authors: Fioramonti M, Fausti V, Pantano F, Iuliani M, Ribelli G, Lotti F, Pignochino Y, Grignani G, Santini D, Tonini G, Vincenzi B Abstract Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone. Due to its high heterogeneity and to survival signals from bone microenvironment, OS can resist to standard treatments, therefore novel therapies are needed. c-MET oncogene, a tyrosine-kinase receptor, plays a crucial role in OS initiation and progression. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of c-MET inhibitor cabozantinib (CBZ) on OS both directly and through its action on bone microenvironment. We tested different doses of CBZ in in vitro models of OS alone or in co-culture with bone cells in order to reproduce OS-tumor microenvironment interactions. CBZ is able to decrease proliferation and migration of OS cells, inhibiting ERK and AKT signaling pathways. Furthermore, CBZ leads to the inhibition of the proliferation of OS cells expressing receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), due to its effect on bone microenvironment, where it causes an overproduction of osteoprotegerin and a decrease of production of RANK ligand by osteoblasts. Overall, our data demonstrate that CBZ might represent a new potential treatment against OS, affecting both OS cells and their microenvironment. In this scenario, RANK expression in OS cells could represent a predictive factor of better response to CBZ treatment. PMID: 29520051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Inhibition of DNMT suppresses the stemness of colorectal cancer cells through down-regulating Wnt signaling pathway. Cell Signal. 2018 Jul;47:79-87 Authors: Li S, Han Z, Zhao N, Zhu B, Zhang Q, Yang X, Sheng D, Hou J, Guo S, Wei L, Zhang L Abstract Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory reveals a new insight into the understanding of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recently, DNA methylation is suggested to be a potential epigenetic mechanism for maintenance of CSCs. What's more, studies have shown that DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is essential for CSCs and deletion of DNMT can reduce tumorigenesis by limiting CSC pool. Therefore, targeting the epigenetic modifiers especially DNA methylation offers an optional strategy for treating human cancers. In the present study we found that DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AzaDC) markedly reduced colorectal CSC abundance in vitro and suppressed liver metastatic tumor growth in vivo. And 5-AzaDC inhibited the expression of active β-catenin and down-regulated the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt inhibitors were frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in colorectal cancer; however analysis of TCGA data base showed that only the expression of SFRP1 was significantly reduced in tumors compared to normal tissues. In addition, restoring of SFRP1 expression inhibited the stem cell-like potential of colorectal cancer cells. Our results indicated that inhibition of DNMT blocked the self-renewal of colorectal CSCs and SFRP1 was essential for the maintenance of colorectal CSCs. PMID: 29601907 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles A Distinct DNA Methylation Shift in a Subset of Glioma CpG Island Methylator Phenotypes during Tumor Recurrence. Cell Rep. 2018 Apr 10;23(2):637-651 Authors: de Souza CF, Sabedot TS, Malta TM, Stetson L, Morozova O, Sokolov A, Laird PW, Wiznerowicz M, Iavarone A, Snyder J, deCarvalho A, Sanborn Z, McDonald KL, Friedman WA, Tirapelli D, Poisson L, Mikkelsen T, Carlotti CG, Kalkanis S, Zenklusen J, Salama SR, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Noushmehr H Abstract Glioma diagnosis is based on histomorphology and grading; however, such classification does not have predictive clinical outcome after glioblastomas have developed. To date, no bona fide biomarkers that significantly translate into a survival benefit to glioblastoma patients have been identified. We previously reported that the IDH mutant G-CIMP-high subtype would be a predecessor to the G-CIMP-low subtype. Here, we performed a comprehensive DNA methylation longitudinal analysis of diffuse gliomas from 77 patients (200 tumors) to enlighten the epigenome-based malignant transformation of initially lower-grade gliomas. Intra-subtype heterogeneity among G-CIMP-high primary tumors allowed us to identify predictive biomarkers for assessing the risk of malignant recurrence at early stages of disease. G-CIMP-low recurrence appeared in 9.5% of all gliomas, and these resembled IDH-wild-type primary glioblastoma. G-CIMP-low recurrence can be characterized by distinct epigenetic changes at candidate functional tissue enhancers with AP-1/SOX binding elements, mesenchymal stem cell-like epigenomic phenotype, and genomic instability. Molecular abnormalities of longitudinal G-CIMP offer possibilities to defy glioblastoma progression. PMID: 29642018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Human Multilineage-differentiating Stress-Enduring Cells Exert Pleiotropic Effects to Ameliorate Acute Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model. Cell Transplant. 2018 06;27(6):979-993 Authors: Yabuki H, Wakao S, Kushida Y, Dezawa M, Okada Y Abstract Posttransplantation lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries affect both patient survival and graft function. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of infused human multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, a novel, easily harvested type of nontumorigenic endogenous reparative stem cell, against acute IR lung injury in a rat model. After a 2-h warm IR injury induction in a left rat lung, human Muse cells, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and vehicle were injected via the left pulmonary artery after reperfusion. Functionality, histological findings, and protein expression were subsequently assessed in the injured lung. In vitro, we also compared human Muse cells with human MSCs in terms of migration abilities and the secretory properties of protective substances. The arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, left lung compliance, and histological injury score on hematoxylin-eosin sections were significantly better in the Muse group relative to the MSC and vehicle groups. Compared to MSCs, human Muse cells homed more efficiently to the injured lung, where they suppressed the apoptosis and stimulated proliferation of host alveolar cells. Human Muse cells also migrated to serum from lung-injured model rats and produced beneficial substances (keratinocyte growth factor [KGF], hepatocyte growth factor, angiopoietin-1, and prostaglandin E2) in vitro. Western blot of lung tissue confirmed high expression of KGF and their target molecules (interleukin-6, protein kinase B, and B-cell lymphoma-2) in the Muse group. Thus, Muse cells efficiently ameliorated lung IR injury via pleiotropic effects in a rat model. These findings support further investigation on the use of human Muse cells for lung IR injury. PMID: 29707971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Identification of inhibitors synergizing gemcitabine sensitivity in the squamous subtype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Apoptosis. 2018 06;23(5-6):343-355 Authors: Er JL, Goh PN, Lee CY, Tan YJ, Hii LW, Mai CW, Chung FF, Leong CO Abstract Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive cancer with a high chance of recurrence, limited treatment options, and poor prognosis. A recent study has classified pancreatic cancers into four molecular subtypes: (1) squamous, (2) immunogenic, (3) pancreatic progenitor and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine. Among all the subtypes, the squamous subtype has the worst prognosis. This study aims to utilize large scale genomic datasets and computational systems biology to identify potential drugs targeting the squamous subtype of PDAC through combination therapy. Using the transcriptomic data available from the International Cancer Genome Consortium, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and Connectivity Map, we identified 26 small molecules that could target the squamous subtype of PDAC. Among them include inhibitors targeting the SRC proto-oncogene (SRC) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2). Further analyses demonstrated that the SRC inhibitors (dasatinib and PP2) and MEK1/2 inhibitor (pimasertib) synergized gemcitabine sensitivity specifically in the squamous subtype of PDAC cells (SW1990 and BxPC3), but not in the PDAC progenitor cells (AsPC1). Further analysis revealed that the synergistic effects are dependent on SRC or MEK1/2 activities, as overexpression of SRC or MEK1/2 completely abrogated the synergistic effects SRC inhibitors (dasatinib and PP2) and MEK1/2 inhibitor (pimasertib). In contrast, no significant toxicity was observed in the MRC5 human lung fibroblast and ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Together, our findings suggest that combinations of SRC or MEK inhibitors with gemcitabine possess synergistic effects on the squamous subtype of PDAC cells and warrant further investigation. PMID: 29740790 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Down-regulating IL-6/GP130 targets improved the anti-tumor effects of 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer. Apoptosis. 2018 06;23(5-6):356-374 Authors: Li S, Tian J, Zhang H, Zhou S, Wang X, Zhang L, Yang J, Zhang Z, Ji Z Abstract Recent studies have confirmed that IL-6/GP130 targets are closely associated with tumor growth, metastasis and drug resistance. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most common chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer but is limited due to chemoresistance and high cytotoxicity. Bazedoxifene (BZA), a third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator, was discovered by multiple ligand simultaneous docking and drug repositioning approaches to have a novel function as an IL-6/GP130 target inhibitor. Thus, we speculated that in colon cancer, the anti-tumor efficacy of 5-FU might be increased in combination with IL-6/GP130 inhibitors. CCK8 assay and colony formation assay were used to detect the cell proliferation and colony formation. We measured the IC50 value of 5-FU alone and in combination with BZA by cell viability inhibition. Cell migration and invasion ability were tested by scratch migration assays and transwell invasion assays. Flow cytometric analysis for cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect Bad, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 mRNA expression and western blotting (WB) assay analyzed protein expression of Bad/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Further mechanism study, WB analysis detected the key proteins level in IL-6/GP130 targets and JAK/STAT3, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. A colon cancer xenograft model was used to further confirm the efficacy of 5-FU and BZA in vivo. The GP130, P-STAT3, P-AKT, and P-ERK expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry in the xenograft tumor. BZA markedly potentiates the anti-tumor function of 5-FU in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, 5-FU activation is reduced following exogenous IL-6 treatment in cells. Further mechanistic studies determined that BZA treatment enhanced 5-FU anti-tumor activation by inhibiting the IL-6/GP130 signaling pathway and the phosphorylation status of the downstream effectors AKT, ERK and STAT3. In contrast, IL-6 can attenuate 5-FU function via activating IL-6R/GP130 signaling and the P-AKT, P-ERK and P-STAT3 levels. This study firstly verifies that targeting IL-6/GP130 signaling can increase the anti-tumor function of 5-FU; in addition, this strategy can sensitize cancer cell drug sensitivity, implying that blocking IL-6/GP130 targets can reverse chemoresistance. Therefore, combining 5-FU and IL-6/GP130 target inhibitors may be a promising approach for cancer treatment. PMID: 29777330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Group I Paks support muscle regeneration and counteract cancer-associated muscle atrophy. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018 08;9(4):727-746 Authors: Cerquone Perpetuini A, Re Cecconi AD, Chiappa M, Martinelli GB, Fuoco C, Desiderio G, Castagnoli L, Gargioli C, Piccirillo R, Cesareni G Abstract BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration. METHODS: We examined Pak1 expression levels in the mouse Tibialis Anterior muscles during cancer cachexia induced by grafting colon adenocarcinoma C26 cells and in vitro by dexamethasone treatment. We investigated whether the overexpression of Pak1 counteracts muscle wasting in C26-bearing mice and in vitro also during interleukin-6 (IL6)-induced or dexamethasone-induced C2C12 atrophy. Moreover, we analysed the involvement of group I Paks on myogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro using the group I chemical inhibitor IPA-3. RESULTS: We found that Pak1 expression levels are reduced during cancer-induced cachexia in the Tibialis Anterior muscles of colon adenocarcinoma C26-bearing mice and in vitro during dexamethasone-induced myotube atrophy. Electroporation of muscles of C26-bearing mice with plasmids directing the synthesis of PAK1 preserves fiber size in cachectic muscles by restraining the expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 and possibly by inducing myogenin expression. Consistently, the overexpression of PAK1 reduces the dexamethasone-induced expression of MuRF1 in myotubes and increases the phospho-FOXO3/FOXO3 ratio. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of PAK1 counteracts atrophy in vitro by restraining the IL6-Stat3 signalling pathway measured in luciferase-based assays and by reducing rates of protein degradation in atrophying myotubes exposed to IL6. On the other hand, we observed that the inhibition of group I Paks has no effect on myotube atrophy in vitro and is associated with impaired muscle regeneration in vivo and in vitro. In fact, we found that mice treated with the group I inhibitor IPA-3 display a delayed recovery from cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. This is consistent with in vitro experiments showing that IPA-3 impairs myogenin expression and myotube formation in vessel-associated myogenic progenitors, C2C12 myoblasts, and satellite cells. Finally, we observed that IPA-3 reduces p38α/β phosphorylation that is required to proceed through various stages of satellite cells differentiation: activation, asymmetric division, and ultimately myotube formation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide novel evidence that is consistent with group I Paks playing a central role in the regulation of muscle homeostasis, atrophy and myogenesis. PMID: 29781585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles A Multiplexed Screening Assay to Evaluate Chemotherapy-Induced Myelosuppression Using Healthy Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow. SLAS Discov. 2018 08;23(7):687-696 Authors: Javarappa KK, Tsallos D, Heckman CA Abstract Myelosuppression is a major side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients and can result in infections, bleeding complications, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, as well as limit the drug dose and frequency of administration. Chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression is caused by the disruption of normal hematopoiesis. Thus, prior understanding of the adverse effects of chemotherapies on hematopoietic cells is essential to minimize the side effects of cancer treatment. Traditional methods such as colony-forming assays for studying chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression are time-consuming and labor intensive. High-throughput flow cytometry technologies and methods to detect rare hematopoietic cell populations are critical in advancing our understanding of how different blood cell types in complex biological samples respond to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present study, hematopoietic progenitor cells were induced to differentiate into megakaryocytes and myeloid lineage cells. The expanded cells were then used in a multiplexed assay to monitor the dose-response effects of multiple chemotherapies on different stages of megakaryocyte differentiation and myeloid cell populations in a 96-well plate format. The assay offers an alternative method to evaluate the myelosuppressive potential of novel chemotherapeutic drugs compared to traditional lower throughput and labor-intensive assays. PMID: 29865911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Loss of Estrogen-Regulated MIR135A1 at 3p21.1 Promotes Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer. Cancer Res. 2018 09 01;78(17):4915-4928 Authors: Zhang W, Wu M, Chong QY, Zhang M, Zhang X, Hu L, Zhong Y, Qian P, Kong X, Tan S, Li G, Ding K, Lobie PE, Zhu T Abstract The dysregulation of miRNAs has been increasingly recognized as a critical mediator of cancer development and progression. Here, we show that frequent deletion of the MIR135A1 locus is associated with poor prognosis in primary breast cancer. Forced expression of miR-135a decreased breast cancer progression, while inhibition of miR-135a with a specific miRNA sponge elicited opposing effects, suggestive of a tumor suppressive role of miR-135a in breast cancer. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) bound the promoter of MIR135A1 for its transcriptional activation, whereas tamoxifen treatment inhibited expression of miR-135a in ERα+ breast cancer cells. miR-135a directly targeted ESR1, ESRRA, and NCOA1, forming a negative feedback loop to inhibit ERα signaling. This regulatory feedback between miR-135a and ERα demonstrated that miR-135a regulated the response to tamoxifen. The tamoxifen-mediated decrease in miR-135a expression increased the expression of miR-135a targets to reduce tamoxifen sensitivity. Consistently, miR-135a expression was downregulated in ERα+ breast cancer cells with acquired tamoxifen resistance, while forced expression of miR-135a partially resensitized these cells to tamoxifen. Tamoxifen resistance mediated by the loss of miR-135a was shown to be partially dependent on the activation of the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways by miR-135a-targeted genes. Taken together, these results indicate that deletion of the MIR135A1 locus and decreased miR-135a expression promote ERα+ breast cancer progression and tamoxifen resistance.Significance: Loss of miR-135a in breast cancer disrupts an estrogen receptor-induced negative feedback loop, perpetuating disease progression and resistance to therapy.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/17/4915/F1.large.jpg Cancer Res; 78(17); 4915-28. ©2018 AACR. PMID: 29945962 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Rosiglitazone rescues human neural stem cells from amyloid-beta induced ER stress via PPARγ dependent signaling. Exp Cell Res. 2018 09 15;370(2):312-321 Authors: Lin CH, Nicol CJB, Cheng YC, Chen SJ, Yen CH, Huang RN, Chiang MC Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) belongs to a family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors known to regulate many crucial physiological and pathological conditions. Indeed, altered PPARγ transcriptional activity contributes to metabolic syndromes (obesity and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus), stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Various studies suggest that PPARγ agonists influence neuronal deficits in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients and rodent models of AD. Expression of amyloid-beta (Aβ), a neuropathological marker associated with the pathogenesis of AD neuronal impairment, is inversely correlated with the activation of PPARγ-dependent neuroprotective responses. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms by which the effects of PPARγ agonists in AD remain to be clarified. Here, we explore the PPARγ signaling pathways and networks that protect against Aβ-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (e.g., caspase 4, Bip, CHOP, ASK1 and ER calcium), cell death (e.g., viability and cytochrome c) and mitochondrial deficiency (e.g., maximal respiratory function, COX activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential) events in the human neural stem cells (hNSCs) treated with Aβ. Co-treatment with GW9662 (an antagonist of PPARγ) effectively blocked these protective effects by rosiglitazone, providing strong evidence that PPARγ-dependent signaling rescues hNSCs from Aβ-mediated toxicity. Together, our data suggest activation of PPARγ pathway might be critical to protecting against AD-related ER stress, ER disequilibrium and mitochondrial deficiency. These findings also improve our understanding of the role of PPARγ in hNSCs, and may aid in the development and implementation of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AD. PMID: 29964054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Acute Respiratory Failure in Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Study. Crit Care Med. 2018 10;46(10):e967-e974 Authors: Rowan CM, McArthur J, Hsing DD, Gertz SJ, Smith LS, Loomis A, Fitzgerald JC, Nitu ME, Moser EAS, Duncan CN, Mahadeo KM, Moffet J, Hall MW, Pinos EL, Tamburro RF, Cheifetz IM, Investigators of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Network Abstract OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is common in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and has a high mortality. However, respiratory prognostic markers have not been adequately evaluated for this population. Our objectives are to assess respiratory support strategies and indices of oxygenation and ventilation in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and investigate how these strategies are associated with mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter investigation. SETTING: Twelve U.S. pediatric centers. PATIENTS: Pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with respiratory failure. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-two subjects were identified. PICU mortality was 60.4%. Nonsurvivors had higher peak oxygenation index (38.3 [21.3-57.6] vs 15.0 [7.0-30.7]; p < 0.0001) and oxygen saturation index (24.7 [13.8-38.7] vs 10.3 [4.6-21.6]; p < 0.0001), greater days with FIO2 greater than or equal to 0.6 (2.4 [1.0-8.5] vs 0.8 [0.3-1.6]; p < 0.0001), and more days with oxygenation index greater than 18 (1.4 [0-6.0] vs 0 [0-0.3]; p < 0.0001) and oxygen saturation index greater than 11 (2.0 [0.5-8.8] vs 0 [0-1.0]; p < 0.0001). Nonsurvivors had higher maximum peak inspiratory pressures (36.0 cm H2O [32.0-41.0 cm H2O] vs 30.0 cm H2O [27.0-35.0 cm H2O]; p < 0.0001) and more days with peak inspiratory pressure greater than 31 cm H2O (1.0 d [0-4.0 d] vs 0 d [0-1.0 d]; p < 0.0001). Tidal volume per kilogram was not different between survivors and nonsurvivors. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with respiratory failure in the PICU, impaired oxygenation and use of elevated ventilator pressures were common and associated with increased mortality. PMID: 29965835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles SMAD4 Suppresses WNT-Driven Dedifferentiation and Oncogenesis in the Differentiated Gut Epithelium. Cancer Res. 2018 09 01;78(17):4878-4890 Authors: Perekatt AO, Shah PP, Cheung S, Jariwala N, Wu A, Gandhi V, Kumar N, Feng Q, Patel N, Chen L, Joshi S, Zhou A, Taketo MM, Xing J, White E, Gao N, Gatza ML, Verzi MP Abstract The cell of origin of colon cancer is typically thought to be the resident somatic stem cells, which are immortal and escape the continual cellular turnover characteristic of the intestinal epithelium. However, recent studies have identified certain conditions in which differentiated cells can acquire stem-like properties and give rise to tumors. Defining the origins of tumors will inform cancer prevention efforts as well as cancer therapies, as cancers with distinct origins often respond differently to treatments. We report here a new condition in which tumors arise from the differentiated intestinal epithelium. Inactivation of the differentiation-promoting transcription factor SMAD4 in the intestinal epithelium was surprisingly well tolerated in the short term. However, after several months, adenomas developed with characteristics of activated WNT signaling. Simultaneous loss of SMAD4 and activation of the WNT pathway led to dedifferentiation and rapid adenoma formation in differentiated tissue. Transcriptional profiling revealed acquisition of stem cell characteristics, and colabeling indicated that cells expressing differentiated enterocyte markers entered the cell cycle and reexpressed stem cell genes upon simultaneous loss of SMAD4 and activation of the WNT pathway. These results indicate that SMAD4 functions to maintain differentiated enterocytes in the presence of oncogenic WNT signaling, thus preventing dedifferentiation and tumor formation in the differentiated intestinal epithelium.Significance: This work identifies a mechanism through which differentiated cells prevent tumor formation by suppressing oncogenic plasticity. Cancer Res; 78(17); 4878-90. ©2018 AACR. PMID: 29986996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Therapeutic Targeting of the Premetastatic Stage in Human Lung-to-Brain Metastasis. Cancer Res. 2018 09 01;78(17):5124-5134 Authors: Singh M, Venugopal C, Tokar T, McFarlane N, Subapanditha MK, Qazi M, Bakhshinyan D, Vora P, Murty NK, Jurisica I, Singh SK Abstract Brain metastases (BM) result from the spread of primary tumors to the brain and are a leading cause of cancer mortality in adults. Secondary tissue colonization remains the main bottleneck in metastatic development, yet this "premetastatic" stage of the metastatic cascade, when primary tumor cells cross the blood-brain barrier and seed the brain before initiating a secondary tumor, remains poorly characterized. Current studies rely on specimens from fully developed macrometastases to identify therapeutic options in cancer treatment, overlooking the potentially more treatable "premetastatic" phase when colonizing cancer cells could be targeted before they initiate the secondary brain tumor. Here we use our established brain metastasis initiating cell (BMIC) models and gene expression analyses to characterize premetastasis in human lung-to-BM. Premetastatic BMIC engaged invasive and epithelial developmental mechanisms while simultaneously impeding proliferation and apoptosis. We identified the dopamine agonist apomorphine to be a potential premetastasis-targeting drug. In vivo treatment with apomorphine prevented BM formation, potentially by targeting premetastasis-associated genes KIF16B, SEPW1, and TESK2 Low expression of these genes was associated with poor survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results illuminate the cellular and molecular dynamics of premetastasis, which is subclinical and currently impossible to identify or interrogate in human patients with BM. These data present several novel therapeutic targets and associated pathways to prevent BM initiation.Significance: These findings unveil molecular features of the premetastatic stage of lung-to-brain metastases and offer a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent brain metastases. Cancer Res; 78(17); 5124-34. ©2018 AACR. PMID: 29986997 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Altered Cell-Cycle Control, Inflammation, and Adhesion in High-Risk Persistent Bronchial Dysplasia. Cancer Res. 2018 09 01;78(17):4971-4983 Authors: Merrick DT, Edwards MG, Franklin WA, Sugita M, Keith RL, Miller YE, Friedman MB, Dwyer-Nield LD, Tennis MA, O'Keefe MC, Donald EJ, Malloy JM, van Bokhoven A, Wilson S, Koch PJ, O'Shea C, Coldren C, Orlicky DJ, Lu X, Baron AE, Hickey G, Kennedy TC, Powell R, Heasley L, Bunn PA, Geraci M, Nemenoff RA Abstract Persistent bronchial dysplasia is associated with increased risk of developing invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. In this study, we hypothesized that differences in gene expression profiles between persistent and regressive bronchial dysplasia would identify cellular processes that underlie progression to SCC. RNA expression arrays comparing baseline biopsies from 32 bronchial sites that persisted/progressed to 31 regressive sites showed 395 differentially expressed genes [ANOVA, FDR ≤ 0.05). Thirty-one pathways showed significantly altered activity between the two groups, many of which were associated with cell-cycle control and proliferation, inflammation, or epithelial differentiation/cell-cell adhesion. Cultured persistent bronchial dysplasia cells exhibited increased expression of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), which was associated with multiple cell-cycle pathways. Treatment with PLK1 inhibitor induced apoptosis and G2-M arrest and decreased proliferation compared with untreated cells; these effects were not seen in normal or regressive bronchial dysplasia cultures. Inflammatory pathway activity was decreased in persistent bronchial dysplasia, and the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate was more common in regressive bronchial dysplasia. Regressive bronchial dysplasia was also associated with trends toward overall increases in macrophages and T lymphocytes and altered polarization of these inflammatory cell subsets. Increased desmoglein 3 and plakoglobin expression was associated with higher grade and persistence of bronchial dysplasia. These results identify alterations in the persistent subset of bronchial dysplasia that are associated with high risk for progression to invasive SCC. These alterations may serve as strong markers of risk and as effective targets for lung cancer prevention.Significance: Gene expression profiling of high-risk persistent bronchial dysplasia reveals changes in cell-cycle control, inflammatory activity, and epithelial differentiation/cell-cell adhesion that may underlie progression to invasive SCC. Cancer Res; 78(17); 4971-83. ©2018 AACR. PMID: 29997230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Real‑world multiple myeloma management practice patterns and outcomes in selected Central and Eastern European countries. Pol Arch Intern Med. 2018 09 28;128(9):500-511 Authors: Coriu D, Dytfeld D, Niepel D, Spicka I, Markuljak I, Mihaylov G, Ostojic-Kolonic S, Fink L, Toka KS, Björklöf K Abstract Introduction Multiple myeloma (MM) treatment has evolved substantially in recent years. Solid data on the impact of treatment strategies on patient outcomes beyond clinical trials are scarce, especially in budget‑restricted environments with limited access to new treatments. Objectives This study investigated treatment practices, patterns, and outcomes in real‑world clinical practice in Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Patients and methods This was a noninterventional, observational chart review comprising a cross‑sectional and a retrospective longitudinal phase observing adult patients with symptomatic MM at all stages of therapy. Results The study revealed structural differences in clinical practice compared with a similarly designed study previously conducted in 7 Western European countries. Stem cell transplantation was performed in less than half of newly diagnosed eligible patients. The most frequently used first‑line regimens were bortezomib based, with frequent bortezomib retreatment after the first relapse. Lenalidomide‑based regimens were predominant in the third and subsequent lines of therapy. Depth of response decreased with each treatment line, with half of patients achieving at least very good partial response (≥VGPR) in the first line, while only one‑fourth achieved ≥VGPR in the third or subsequent lines. Time to progression was longer in patients with better response levels. Conclusions Inadequate access to advanced antimyeloma regimens and-in some countries-stem cell transplantation highlights the challenges of MM treatment in the region. Information on real‑world patient management and its outcomes can provide valuable input for decision makers to effectively allocate limited resources. PMID: 30057386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: A Review in Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia. Target Oncol. 2018 08;13(4):525-532 Authors: Al-Salama ZT Abstract The intravenous CD22-directed antibody drug conjugate inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa®) is approved in several countries including in the USA, EU and Japan, as monotherapy for the treatment of adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). In adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell ALL who had received one or two prior treatment regimens, inotuzumab ozogamicin was associated with significantly higher rates of complete remission (including complete remission with incomplete haematological recovery) [CR/CRi] than standard therapy in the pivotal INO-VATE ALL trial. Inotuzumab ozogamicin was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS), duration of remission and higher haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) rates than standard therapy. Although there was no significant between-group difference in overall survival duration as per the study design, the 2-year survival probability in the inotuzumab ozogamicin arm was twice that in the control arm. Inotuzumab ozogamicin had an acceptable tolerability profile. Thus, inotuzumab ozogamicin is an important new treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory CD22-positive B-cell ALL. PMID: 30090971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Jakinibs for the treatment of immune dysregulation in patients with gain-of-function signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) or STAT3 mutations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 11;142(5):1665-1669 Authors: Forbes LR, Vogel TP, Cooper MA, Castro-Wagner J, Schussler E, Weinacht KG, Plant AS, Su HC, Allenspach EJ, Slatter M, Abinun M, Lilic D, Cunningham-Rundles C, Eckstein O, Olbrich P, Guillerman RP, Patel NC, Demirdag YY, Zerbe C, Freeman AF, Holland SM, Szabolcs P, Gennery A, Torgerson TR, Milner JD, Leiding JW PMID: 30092289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Sunitinib induces early histomolecular changes in a subset of renal cancer cells that contribute to resistance. FASEB J. 2019 01;33(1):1347-1359 Authors: Lichner Z, Saleeb R, Butz H, Ding Q, Nofech-Mozes R, Riad S, Farag M, Varkouhi AK, Dos Santos CC, Kapus A, Yousef GM Abstract Sunitinib is the standard-of-care, first-line treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Characteristics of treatment-resistant RCC have been described; however, complex tumor adaptation mechanisms obstruct the identification of significant operators in resistance. We hypothesized that resistance is a late manifestation of early, treatment-induced histomolecular alterations; therefore, studying early drug response may identify drivers of resistance. We describe an epithelioid RCC growth pattern in RCC xenografts, which emerges in sunitinib-sensitive tumors and is augmented during resistance. This growth modality is molecularly and morphologically related to the RCC spheroids that advance during in vitro treatment. Based on time-lapse microscopy, mRNA and microRNA screening, and tumor behavior-related characteristics, we propose that the spheroid and adherent RCC growth patterns differentially respond to sunitinib. Gene expression analysis indicated that sunitinib promoted spheroid formation, which provided a selective survival advantage under treatment. Functional studies confirm that E-cadherin is a key contributor to the survival of RCC cells under sunitinib treatment. In summary, we suggest that sunitinib-resistant RCC cells exist in treatment-sensitive tumors and are histologically identifiable.-Lichner, Z., Saleeb, R., Butz, H., Ding, Q., Nofech-Mozes, R., Riad, S., Farag, M., Varkouhi, A. K., dos Santos, C. C., Kapus, A., Yousef, G. M. Sunitinib induces early histomolecular changes in a subset of renal cancer cells that contribute to resistance. PMID: 30148679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Joint Modeling of Immune Reconstitution Post Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Patients With Acute Leukemia Comparing CD34+-Selected to CD3/CD19-Depleted Grafts in a Retrospective Multicenter Study. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1841 Authors: Salzmann-Manrique E, Bremm M, Huenecke S, Stech M, Orth A, Eyrich M, Schulz A, Esser R, Klingebiel T, Bader P, Herrmann E, Koehl U Abstract Rapid immune reconstitution (IR) following stem cell transplantation (SCT) is essential for a favorable outcome. The optimization of graft composition should not only enable a sufficient IR but also improve graft vs. leukemia/tumor effects, overcome infectious complications and, finally, improve patient survival. Especially in haploidentical SCT, the optimization of graft composition is controversial. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of graft manipulation on IR in 40 patients with acute leukemia in remission. We examined the cell recovery post haploidentical SCT in patients receiving a CD34+-selected or CD3/CD19-depleted graft, considering the applied conditioning regimen. We used joint model analysis for overall survival (OS) and analyzed the dynamics of age-adjusted leukocytes; lymphocytes; monocytes; CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+ T cells; natural killer (NK) cells; and B cells over the course of time after SCT. Lymphocytes, NK cells, and B cells expanded more rapidly after SCT with CD34+-selected grafts (P = 0.036, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). Contrarily, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells recovered delayer in the CD34 selected group (P = 0.026). Furthermore, reduced intensity conditioning facilitated faster immune recovery of lymphocytes and T cells and their subsets (P < 0.001). However, the immune recovery for NK cells and B cells was comparable for patients who received reduced-intensity or full preparative regimens. Dynamics of all cell types had a significant influence on OS, which did not differ between patients receiving CD34+-selected and those receiving CD3/CD19-depleted grafts. In conclusion, cell reconstitution dynamics showed complex diversity with regard to the graft manufacturing procedure and conditioning regimen. PMID: 30154788 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Economic Burden of Veno-occlusive Disease in Patients With B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in the United States. Clin Ther. 2018 10;40(10):1711-1719.e1 Authors: Zhang X, Song X, Lopez-Gonzalez L, Jariwala-Parikh K, Romanov V, Cong Z Abstract PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence, inpatient mortality, and economic burden of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) in adults with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the United States. METHODS: Using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits Database, data for patients with B-cell ALL from April 1, 2009, to October 31, 2016, were extracted by using diagnosis codes. VOD was identified based on clinical criteria and expert opinions. Patients with VOD were followed up from diagnosis of VOD until the earliest occurrence of inpatient death, end of continuous enrollment, end of study period, or for a maximum of 100days. The incidence of VOD and VOD-associated inpatient mortality were calculated. VOD-related health care costs based on paid adjudicated claims were calculated. FINDINGS: Of the 2571 adults with B-cell ALL, the overall incidence of VOD was low at 3.4% (88 of 2571). Of these patients with VOD, 52% (46 of 88) experienced multiorgan failure and were identified as having severe VOD. VOD was only identified in patients having undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (5.4% [88 of 1624]). The inpatient mortality rate of those with any VOD over the 100-day postindex period was 26.1%, and the inpatient mortality was even higher for patients with severe VOD (37.0%). Total mean (SD) medical costs per patient during the 100 days' post-VOD diagnosis were $55,975 ($160,335); mean (SD) costs per patient were ∼4-fold higher for severe ($86,953 [$206,906]) versus nonsevere ($22,047 [$72,847]) VOD. IMPLICATIONS: Clinical criteria were used to identify VOD events and thus VOD might be underdiagnosed. The mortality of VOD also might be underestimated because only inpatient deaths are captured in the data. The incidence and mortality of VOD could also be underestimated because we focused on adult patients who might receive reduced-intensity treatment. The economic burden of VOD may be underestimated because the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System code specific for defibrotide was not available, and thus the cost for defibrotide might not be included. Finally, as the study population consisted of patients with commercial or Medicare supplemental insurance, results may not be generalizable to all patients with VOD in the United States. Although VOD occurred infrequently in adults with B-cell ALL, it was associated with high inpatient mortality and substantial costs. Patients with severe VOD were associated with highest mortality and highest costs. Given the clinical and economic burden associated with VOD, it is important that patients at high risk for VOD be identified and treated to minimize this risk. PMID: 30196935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Addition of eltrombopag to immunosuppressive therapy in patients with newly diagnosed aplastic anemia. Cancer. 2018 11 01;124(21):4192-4201 Authors: Assi R, Garcia-Manero G, Ravandi F, Borthakur G, Daver NG, Jabbour E, Burger J, Estrov Z, Dinardo CD, Alvarado Y, Hendrickson S, Ferrajoli A, Wierda W, Cortes J, Kantarjian H, Kadia TM Abstract BACKGROUND: The immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells is implicated in the pathophysiology of aplastic anemia (AA). Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) using antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine is successful in this setting. Eltrombopag is active in patients with refractory AA, presumably by increasing the bone marrow progenitors. METHODS: This phase 2 trial initially was designed to evaluate standard IST in newly diagnosed patients with severe AA and later was amended to add eltrombopag to simultaneously address immune destruction and stem cell depletion. The primary outcome was the overall response rate (ORR) at 3 months and 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients were enrolled: 17 (45%) received IST alone and 21 (55%) received additional eltrombopag. The ORR was 74%. Patients receiving IST plus eltrombopag had a similar ORR (76% vs 71%; P = .72), complete remission rate (38% vs 29%; P = .73), and median time to response (84 days vs 57 days; P = .30) compared with those receiving IST alone. The 2-year overall survival rate in the IST group was 91% compared with 82% for those patients treated with IST plus eltrombopag (P = .82). No cumulative toxicities were noted after the addition of eltrombopag. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of eltrombopag to standard IST was well tolerated and resulted in similar responses. PMID: 30307606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Optimal frontline management of mantle cell lymphoma: can we agree? Expert Rev Hematol. 2018 12;11(12):911-914 Authors: Tang C, Kuruvilla J PMID: 30336708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Tumour-infiltrating neutrophils counteract anti-VEGF therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2019 01;120(1):69-78 Authors: Schiffmann LM, Fritsch M, Gebauer F, Günther SD, Stair NR, Seeger JM, Thangarajah F, Dieplinger G, Bludau M, Alakus H, Göbel H, Quaas A, Zander T, Hilberg F, Bruns CJ, Kashkar H, Coutelle O Abstract BACKGROUND: Immune infiltration is implicated in the development of acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic cancer therapy. We therefore investigated the correlation between neutrophil infiltration in metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and survival after treatment with bevacizumab. Our study identifies CD177+ tumour neutrophil infiltration as an adverse prognostic factor for bevacizumab treatment. We further demonstrate that a novel anti-VEGF/anti-Ang2 compound (BI-880) can overcome resistance to VEGF inhibition in experimental tumour models. METHODS: A total of 85 metastatic CRC patients were stratified into cohorts that had either received chemotherapy alone (n = 39) or combined with bevacizumab (n = 46). Tumour CD177+ neutrophil infiltration was correlated to clinical outcome. The impact of neutrophil infiltration on anti-VEGF or anti-VEGF/anti-Ang2 therapy was studied in both xenograft and syngeneic tumour models by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The survival of bevacizumab-treated CRC patients in the presence of CD177+ infiltrates was significantly reduced compared to patients harbouring CD177- metastases. BI-880 treatment reduced the development of hypoxia associated with bevacizumab treatment and improved vascular normalisation in xenografts. Furthermore, neutrophil depletion or BI-880 treatment restored treatment sensitivity in a syngeneic tumour model of anti-VEGF resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implicate CD177 as a biomarker for bevacizumab and suggest VEGF/Ang2 inhibition as a strategy to overcome neutrophil associated resistance to anti-angiogenic treatment. PMID: 30377339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles The role of transplantation in Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2019 01;184(1):93-104 Authors: Broccoli A, Zinzani PL Abstract Autologous stem cell transplantation is the standard salvage strategy for young and fit patients with Hodgkin lymphoma failing induction therapy, and is effective in nearly 50% of cases. The quality of response at transplantation is the most relevant prognostic aspect, as patients in complete response can obtain better outcomes. Therefore, first-line salvage treatments applied before transplantation need to produce high quality responses without excessive myelotoxicity and without affecting peripheral blood stem cell mobilisation. In this sense, the incorporation of new agents active in Hodgkin lymphoma, such as brentuximab vedotin and anti-programmed death 1 antibodies, in conventional regimens, may help to enhance complete remission rates. Working on conditioning regimen and applying a post-autologous consolidation treatment (for example with brentuximab vedotin) are two ways for improving transplant outcomes, particularly in patients displaying high-risk features for early relapse or progression. Allogeneic transplantation maintains its curative potential also in the era of new drugs, although its most correct timing and the most suitable sequence of post-autologous salvage treatments still remain to be determined. PMID: 30407612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles A case of KMT2A-SEPT9 fusion-associated acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018 12;4(6): Authors: Forlenza CJ, Zhang Y, Yao J, Benayed R, Steinherz P, Ramaswamy K, Kessel R, Roshal M, Shukla N Abstract Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) constitutes ∼5%-15% of cases of non-Down syndrome AML in children, and in the majority of cases, chimeric oncogenes resulting from recurrent gene rearrangements are identified. Based on these rearrangements, several molecular subsets have been characterized providing important prognostic information. One such subset includes a group of patients with translocations involving the KMT2A gene, which has been associated with various fusion partners in patients with AMKL. Here we report the molecular findings of a 2-yr-old girl with AMKL and t(11;17)(q23;25) found to have a KMT2A-SEPT9 fusion identified through targeted RNA sequencing. A KMT2A-SEPT9 fusion in this subset of patients has not previously been reported. PMID: 30455225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Resveratrol Reduced Liver Damage After Liver Resection in a Rat Model by Upregulating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and Inhibiting the Acetylation of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1). Med Sci Monit. 2019 May 01;25:3212-3220 Authors: Yu S, Zhou X, Xiang H, Wang S, Cui Z, Zhou J Abstract BACKGROUND Liver failure after resection for liver cancer is associated with increased patient mortality. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the protective effects of resveratrol, a natural plant-derived compound, on liver injury in a rat model of partial hepatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=60) were divided into the sham group (n=20), the liver resection group (n=20), and the liver resection plus resveratrol-treated group (n=20). Liver resection removed 2/3 of the liver resection; resveratrol was given at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day from one week before surgery until death. Liver injury was assessed by serum liver function tests, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT) and total bilirubin, histological examination of the rat liver, and liver cell apoptosis using the TUNEL assay. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and acetylated HMGB1 (Ac-HMGB1) expression were detected by Western blot. Normal human liver cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells were incubated with acetylated HMGB1, and albumin production and ammonia elimination assays were performed. RESULTS Resveratrol reduced postoperative liver injury as shown by reduced ALT, AST, γ-GT, and total bilirubin levels, maintained liver structure, and reduced cell apoptosis. Resveratrol treatment reduced the expression and acetylation levels of HMGB1 via the SIRT1 signaling pathway. Resveratrol reversed Ac-HMGB1 induced dysfunction in liver cells cultured in vitro. CONCLUSIONS Resveratrol reduced liver damage after liver resection in a rat model by upregulating SIRT1 and reducing the acetylation of HMGB1. PMID: 31041919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Multiple myeloma with IGH-FGFR3 rearrangement progressing as testicular plasmacytoma during carfilzomib treatment. Ann Hematol. 2019 Oct;98(10):2463-2465 Authors: Nakamura N, Maruyama D, Maeshima AM, Saito Y, Fujino T, Ito Y, Hatta S, Makita S, Fukuhara S, Munakata W, Suzuki T, Fujimoto H, Izutsu K PMID: 31240468 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Ileostomy for steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Hematol. 2019 Oct;98(10):2407-2419 Authors: Turki AT, Bayraktar E, Basu O, Benkö T, Yi JH, Kehrmann J, Tzalavras A, Liebregts T, Beelen DW, Steckel NK Abstract Steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the gastrointestinal tract associates with important morbidity and mortality. While high-dose steroids are the established first-line therapy in GVHD, no second-line therapy is generally accepted. In this analysis of 65 consecutive patients with severe, steroid-resistant, intestinal GVHD (92% stage 4), additional ileostomy surgery significantly reduced overall mortality (hazard ratio 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.81; p = 0.003) compared to conventional GVHD therapy. Median overall survival was 16 months in the ileostomy cohort compared to 4 months in the conventional therapy cohort. In the ileostomy cohort, both infectious- and GVHD-associated mortality were reduced (40% versus 77%). Significantly declined fecal volumes (p = 0.001) after surgery provide evidence of intestinal adaptation following ileostomy. Correlative studies indicated ileostomy-induced immune-modulation with a > 50% decrease of activated T cells (p = 0.04) and an increase in regulatory T cells. The observed alterations of the patients' gut microbiota may also contribute to ileostomy's therapeutic effect. These data show that ileostomy induced significant clinical responses in patients with steroid-resistant GVHD along with a reduction of pro-inflammatory immune cells and changes of the intestinal microbiota. Ileostomy is a treatment option for steroid-resistant acute GVHD of the gastrointestinal tract that needs further validation in a prospective clinical trial. PMID: 31338570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Comparison of quality of life and health behaviors in survivors of acute leukemia and the general population. Ann Hematol. 2019 Oct;98(10):2357-2366 Authors: Suh KJ, Shin DY, Kim I, Yoon SS, Lee JO, Bang SM, Byun JM, Kim KH, Park JH, Park SM, Kim Y, Yun YH, Koh Y Abstract We aimed to compare the health-related quality of life and health behaviors of acute leukemia (AL) survivors with that of the general population from two cohorts. AL survivors (n = 149) completed a set of questionnaires to evaluate quality of life, mental status, and health behaviors. AL survivors had more physical and mental difficulties (problems with usual activities, 15% vs. 5%, p < 0.001; anxiety or depression, 24% vs. 9%, p < 0.001; pain, 35% vs. 20%, p = 0.002) and more financial difficulties (p < 0.001) than the general population. Survivors who received stem cell transplantation (SCT) had significantly worse problems with role functioning, fatigue, pain, dyspnea, and insomnia, and had higher depression scores than chemotherapy group (p = 0.024). In terms of health behaviors, AL survivors had lower rates of smoking and drinking and higher influenza vaccination rates than the general population. However, only 17% of survivors had been recommended to receive screening for other cancers from health-care providers, and 67% thought their risk for other cancers was equal or lower than that of the general population. Cancer screening rates were even lower in the SCT group than in the chemotherapy group (p = 0.041). Our study indicates that clinicians should establish more appropriate survivorship care plans. PMID: 31338572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Pomalidomide-based maintenance post-autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: a case series. Ann Hematol. 2019 Oct;98(10):2457-2459 Authors: Atieh T, Hubben A, Faiman B, Valent J, Samaras CJ, Khouri J PMID: 31392460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Trends in the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Europe: a report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Ann Hematol. 2019 Oct;98(10):2389-2398 Authors: Giebel S, Boumendil A, Labopin M, Seesaghur A, Baron F, Ciceri F, Esteve J, Gorin NC, Savani B, Schmid C, Wetten S, Mohty M, Nagler A Abstract Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is considered an effective way to prevent relapse in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study aimed to assess general trends in the use of various types of HSCTs performed between 2001 and 2015 in Europe, based on data reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. We also evaluated HSCT rates with respect to ALL incidence in selected countries. Altogether, 15,346 first allogeneic (n = 13,460) or autologous (n = 1886) HSCTs were performed in the study period. Comparing 2013-2015 and 2001-2003, the number of allogeneic HSCTs performed in first complete remission increased by 136%, most prominently for transplantations from unrelated (272%) and mismatched related donors (339%). The number of HSCTs from matched sibling donors increased by 42%, while the total number of autologous HSCTs decreased by 70%. Increased use of allogeneic HSCT was stronger for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive (166%) than for Ph-negative ALL (38%) and for patients aged > 55 years (599%) than for younger adults (59%). The proportion of allogeneic HSCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) increased from 6 to 27%. The age-standardized rates of allogeneic HSCT per ALL incidence varied strongly among countries. Our analysis showed a continued trend toward increased allogeneic HSCT use for adults with ALL, which may be attributed to increasing availability of unrelated donors, wider use of RIC regimens, and improving efficacy of pretransplant therapy, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors for Ph-positive ALL. Allogeneic HSCT remains a major tool in the fight against ALL in adults. PMID: 31392462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Functional roles of circular RNAs during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Mol Cancer. 2019 Sep 16;18(1):138 Authors: Shang BQ, Li ML, Quan HY, Hou PF, Li ZW, Chu SF, Zheng JN, Bai J Abstract Cancer has become a major health issue worldwide, contributing to a high mortality rate. Tumor metastasis is attributed to the death of most patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a vital role in inducing metastasis. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their characteristics, such as cell-to-cell adhesion and cell polarity, and cells gain motility, migratory potential, and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are closely associated with tumor metastasis and patient prognosis, as revealed by increasing lines of evidence. CircRNA is a type of single-stranded RNA that forms a covalently closed continuous loop. CircRNAs are insensitive to ribonucleases and are widespread in body fluids. This work is the first review on EMT-related circRNAs. In this review, we briefly discuss the characteristics and functions of circRNAs. The correlation of circRNAs with EMT has been reported, and we discuss the ways circRNAs can regulate EMT progression through EMT transcription factors, EMT-related signaling pathways, and other mechanisms. This work summarizes current studies on EMT-related circRNAs in various cancers and provides a theoretical basis for the use of EMT-related circRNAs in targeted management and therapy. PMID: 31526370 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Mesenchymal stem versus stromal cells: International Society for Cellular Therapy Mesenchymal Stromal Cell committee position statement on nomenclature. Cytotherapy. 2019 Sep 13;: Authors: Viswanathan S, Shi Y, Galipeau J, Krampera M, Leblanc K, Martin I, Nolta J, Phinney DG, Sensebe L Abstract The International Society for Cellular Therapy's Mesenchymal Stromal Cell (ISCT MSC) committee offers a position statement to clarify the nomenclature of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The ISCT MSC committee continues to support the use of the acronym "MSCs" but recommends this be (i) supplemented by tissue-source origin of the cells, which would highlight tissue-specific properties; (ii) intended as MSCs unless rigorous evidence for stemness exists that can be supported by both in vitro and in vivo data; and (iii) associated with robust matrix of functional assays to demonstrate MSC properties, which are not generically defined but informed by the intended therapeutic mode of actions. PMID: 31526643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles An anticancer Os(II) bathophenanthroline complex as a human breast cancer stem cell-selective, mammosphere potent agent that kills cells by necroptosis. Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 16;9(1):13327 Authors: Novohradsky V, Markova L, Kostrhunova H, Trávníček Z, Brabec V, Kasparkova J Abstract Conventional chemotherapy is mostly effective in the treatment of rapidly-dividing differentiated tumor cells but has limited application toward eliminating cancer stem cell (CSC) population. The presence of a very small number of CSCs may contribute to the development of therapeutic resistance, metastases, and relapse. Thus, treatment failure by developing novel anticancer drugs capable of effective targeting of CSCs is at present a major challenge for research focused on chemotherapy of cancer. Here, we show that Os(II) complex 2 [Os(η6-pcym)(bphen)(dca)]PF6 (pcym = p-cymene, bphen = bathophenanthroline, and dca = dichloroacetate), is capable of efficient and selective killing CSCs in heterogeneous populations of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and SKBR-3. Notably, its remarkable submicromolar potency to kill CSCs is considerably higher than that of its Ru analog, [Ru(η6-pcym)(bphen)(dca)]PF6 (complex 1) and salinomycin, one of the most selective CSC-targeting compounds hitherto identified. Furthermore, Os(II) complex 2 reduces the formation, size, and viability of three-dimensional mammospheres which more closely reflect the tumor microenvironment than cells in traditional two-dimensional cultures. The antiproliferation studies and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry suggest that Os(II) complex 2 induces human breast cancer stem cell death predominantly by necroptosis, a programmed form of necrosis. The results of this study demonstrate the promise of Os(II) complex 2 in treating human breast tumors. They also represent the foundation for further preclinical and clinical studies and applications of Os(II) complex 2 to comply with the emergent need for human breast CSCs-specific chemotherapeutics capable to treat chemotherapy-resistant and relapsed human breast tumors. PMID: 31527683 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Acute respiratory failure and the kinetics of neutrophil recovery in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation: a multicenter study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2019 Sep 16;: Authors: Moffet JR, Mahadeo KM, McArthur J, Hsing DD, Gertz SJ, Smith LS, Loomis A, Fitzgerald JC, Nitu ME, Duncan CN, Hall MW, Pinos EL, Tamburro RF, Simmons R, Troy J, Cheifetz IM, Rowan CM, Investigators of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Network Abstract In this multicenter study, we investigated the kinetics of neutrophil recovery in relation to acuity and survival among 125 children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) who required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Recovery of neutrophils, whether prior to or after initiation of IMV, was associated with a significantly decreased risk of death relative to never achieving neutrophil recovery. A transient increase in acuity (by oxygenation index and vasopressor requirements) occurred among a subset of the patients who achieved neutrophil recovery after initiation of IMV; 61.5% of these patients survived to discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Improved survival among patients who subsequently achieved neutrophil recovery on IMV was not limited to those with peri-engraftment respiratory distress syndrome. The presence of a respiratory pathogen did not affect the risk of death while on IMV but was associated with an increased length of IMV (p < 0.01). Among patients undergoing HCT who develop respiratory failure and require advanced therapeutic support, neutrophil recovery at time of IMV and/or presence of a respiratory pathogen should not be used as determining factors when counseling families about survival. PMID: 31527817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Combined immune score of lymphocyte to monocyte ratio and immunoglobulin levels predicts treatment-free survival of multiple myeloma patients after autologous stem cell transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2019 Sep 16;: Authors: Sweiss K, Lee J, Mahmud N, Calip GS, Park Y, Mahmud D, Rondelli D, Patel PR Abstract Outcomes after ASCT are highly variable making it difficult to predict risk of disease progression. We analyzed the impact of clinically available immune-related biomarkers on treatment-free survival (TFS) in 130 patients receiving Mel200 and ASCT. Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), monocyte count (AMC), neutrophil count (ANC), and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were collected on day -2 and 90 of ASCT. The lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios (NLR) were then derived. At Day +90, we found that low ALC (18 versus 23 months, p = 0.04) or AMC (13 versus 25 months, p = 0.02) predicted for worse TFS. A low LMR predicted for worse TFS (16 versus 52 months, p = 0.004). Patients with two or three suppressed Ig levels had worse TFS (17 versus 51 months, p = 0.04). Median TFS for poor (low LMR and 2-3 suppressed Ig), intermediate, and good (high LMR and 0-1 suppressed Ig) risk groups was 7.5 versus 27 versus 79 months, respectively (p = 0.0004). In a multivariate analysis, a low LMR and suppressed Ig levels were strong independent predictors of poor TFS. We propose an immune score combining these available tests to stratify patients at risk for early progression and identify those who may benefit from intensified post-ASCT consolidation or immunotherapy based approaches. PMID: 31527821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles In vitro periodontal ligament cell expansion by co-culture method and formation of multi-layered periodontal ligament-derived cell sheets. Regen Ther. 2019 Dec;11:225-239 Authors: Safi IN, Mohammed Ali Hussein B, Al-Shammari AM Abstract Objective: Per-implantitis is one of the implant treatment complications. Dentists have failed to restore damaged periodontium by using conventional therapies. Tissue engineering (stem cells, scaffold and growth factors) aims to reconstruct natural tissues. The paper aimed to isolate both periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and use them in a co-culture method to create three-layered cell sheets for reconstructing natural periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue. Materials and methods: BMMSCs were isolated from rabbit tibia and femur, and PDLSC culture was established from the lower right incisor. The cells were co-cultured to induce BMMSC differentiation into PDL cells. Cell morphology, stem cells and PDL-specific markers (CD90, CD34, and periostin) were also detected using immunofluorescent assay. Co-cultured cell monolayers were detached using temperature-responsive tissue culture dishes and collagen graft to create the three-layer construct. The 3D-engineered tissue was examined histologically and by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results: BMMSCs co-cultured with PDLSCs successfully induced more PDL cells. The newly induced PDL cells exhibited periostin and CD90 expression. Fluorescence green intensity was measured for the co-cultured cells that were stained with periostin, the mean fluorescence green intensity (periostin expression) was significantly higher for the newly induced PDL cells after 1, 2, and 3 weeks when compared with control (BM-MSCs), at 21 days non-significant difference was measured when compared with control (PDLSCs).The results showed the successful formation of 3D multilayer PDL tissue. Histological cross-section showed cell sheets and the stable adhesion between them. FESEM examination was conducted for the cross-section, showing three-layered cell sheets with stable adhesion between cells. Conclusions: The results of this paper report that the three layered-cell sheets were successfully constructed by the novel use of collagen graft as a scaffold to be used in treatment of periodontitis and to envelop the dental implants to create biohybrid implant. PMID: 31528667 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Mitochondrial fission promotes self-renewal and tumorigenic potential in prostate cancer. Mol Cell Oncol. 2019;6(5):e1644598 Authors: Civenni G, Carbone GM, Catapano CV Abstract The emergence of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) limit the efficacy of prostate cancer treatment. Using genetic knockdown and chemical inhibitors, we demonstrate the critical role of Bromodomain Containing 4 (BRD4) in promoting mitochondrial fission and sustaining CSC expansion. These findings provide a new paradigm for developing novel treatment strategies for prostate cancer. PMID: 31528704 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles The Milk Protein Alpha-Casein Suppresses Triple Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity Via STAT and HIF-1alpha Signalling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells and Fibroblasts. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2019 Sep 12;: Authors: Garner KEL, Hull NJ, Sims AH, Lamb R, Clarke RB Abstract Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal breast cancer subtype. Extended periods of lactation protect against breast cancer development, but the mechanisms underlying this protection are unknown. We examined the effects of the milk protein alpha-casein over expression in the triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. The effects of recombinant alpha-casein added exogenously to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and immortalised human fibroblasts were also investigated. We used transcriptional reporters to understand the signalling pathways downstream of alpha-casein in breast cancer cells and these fibroblasts that were activated by breast cancer cells. To extend our findings to the clinical setting, we analysed public gene expression datasets to further understand the relevance of these signalling pathways in triple negative breast cancer cells and patient samples. Finally, we used small molecular inhibitors to target relevant pathways and highlight these as potential candidates for the treatment of TN breast cancer. High levels of alpha-casein gene expression were predictive of good prognosis across 263 TNBC patient tumour samples. Alpha-casein over expression or exogenous addition reduces cancer stem cell (CSC) activity. HIF-1alpha was identified to be a key downstream target of alpha-casein, in both breast cancer cells and activated fibroblasts, and STAT transcription factors to be upstream of HIF-1alpha. Interestingly, HIF-1alpha is regulated by STAT3 in breast cancer cells, but STAT1 is the regulator of HIF-1alpha in activated fibroblasts. In analysis of 573 TNBC patient samples, alpha-casein expression, inversely correlated to HIF-1alpha, STAT3 and STAT1. STAT1 and STAT3 inhibitors target HIF-1alpha signalling in activated fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells respectively, and also abrogate CSC activities. Our findings provide an explanation for the protective effects of lactation in TNBC. Clinical data correlates high alpha-casein expression with increased recurrence-free survival in TNBC patients. Mechanistically, alpha-casein reduces breast cancer stem cell activity in vitro, and STAT3 and STAT1 were identified as regulators of pro-tumorigenic HIF-1alpha signalling in breast cancer cells and fibroblasts respectively. PMID: 31529195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Fabrication of Ultra-Pure Anisotropic Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles via Simple and Cost-Effective Route: Implications for UTI and EAC Medications. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019 Sep 16;: Authors: Abd Elkodous M, El-Sayyad GS, Abdel Maksoud MIA, Abdelrahman IY, Mosallam FM, Gobara M, El-Batal AI Abstract The purposes of this work are to evaluate the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, anticancer, and antioxidant abilities of anisotropic zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) synthesized by a cost-effective and eco-friendly sol-gel method. The synthesized ZnO NPs were entirely characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, zeta potential, SEM mapping, BET surface analyzer, and EDX elemental analysis. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of ZnO NPs were investigated against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and yeast causing serious diseases like urinary tract infection (UTI). The anticancer activity was performed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Additionally, antioxidant scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was observed. The synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited an absorption peak at 385.0 nm characteristic to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Data obtained from HRTEM, SEM, and XRD confirmed the anisotropic crystalline nature of the prepared ZnO NPs with an average particle size of 68.2 nm. The calculated surface area of the prepared ZnO NPs was 10.62 m2/g and the porosity was 13.16%, while pore volume was calculated to be 0.013 cm3/g and the average pore size was about 3.10 nm. The prepared ZnO NPs showed promising antimicrobial activity against all tested UTI-causing pathogens. It showed a prominent antimicrobial capability against Candida tropicalis with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) reaching 22.4 mm, 13 mm ZOI for Bacillus subtilis, and 12.5 mm ZOI for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, the prepared ZnO NPs showed enhanced biofilm repression of about 79.33%, 72.94%, and 33.68% against B. subtilis, C. tropicalis, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Moreover, the prepared ZnO NPs had a powerful antioxidant property with 33.0% scavenging ability after applied DPPH assay. Surprisingly, upon ZnO NPs treatment, cancer cell viability reduced from 100 to 58.5% after only 24 h due to their unique antitumor activity. Therefore, according to these outstanding properties, this study could give insights for solving serious industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical challenges, particularly in the EAC and UTI medications. PMID: 31529241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles: insights into bystander effects of exosomes after irradiation. Lasers Med Sci. 2019 Sep 16;: Authors: Jabbari N, Karimipour M, Khaksar M, Akbariazar E, Heidarzadeh M, Mojarad B, Aftab H, Rahbarghazi R, Rezaie J Abstract This review article aims to address the kinetic of TDEs in cancer cells pre- and post-radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is traditionally used for the treatment of multiple cancer types; however, there is growing evidence to show that radiotherapy exerts NTEs on cells near to the irradiated cells. In tumor mass, irradiated cells can affect non-irradiated cells in different ways. Of note, exosomes are nano-scaled cell particles releasing from tumor cells and play key roles in survival, metastasis, and immunosuppression of tumor cells. Recent evidence indicated that irradiation has the potential to affect the dynamic of different signaling pathways such as exosome biogenesis. Indeed, exosomes act as intercellular mediators in various cell communication through transmitting bio-molecules. Due to their critical roles in cancer biology, exosomes are at the center of attention. TDEs contain an exclusive molecular signature that they may serve as tumor biomarker in the diagnosis of different cancers. Interestingly, radiotherapy and IR could also contribute to altering the dynamic of exosome secretion. Most probably, the content of exosomes in irradiated cells is different compared to exosomes originated from the non-irradiated BCs. Irradiated cells release exosomes with exclusive content that mediate NTEs in BCs. Considering variation in cell type, IR doses, and radio-resistance or radio-sensitivity of different cancers, there is, however, contradictions in the feature and activity of irradiated exosomes on neighboring cells. PMID: 31529349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Intravenous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Safety, Feasibility, and Effect Size from a Phase I Clinical Trial. Stem Cells. 2019 Sep 17;: Authors: Vahidy FS, Haque ME, Rahbar MH, Zhu H, Rowan P, Aisiku IP, Lee DA, Juneja HS, Alderman S, Barreto AD, Suarez JI, Bambhroliya A, Hasan KM, Kassam MR, Aronowski J, Gee A, Cox CS, Grotta JC, Savitz SI Abstract Cellular therapy is a promising investigational modality to enhance poststroke recovery. We conducted a single-arm, phase I clinical trial to determine the safety and feasibility of intravenous (IV) administration of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Patients with moderate severity of AIS underwent bone marrow harvest followed by IV reinfusion of MNCs within 24-72 hours of onset. A target dose of 10 million cells per kilogram was chosen based on preclinical data. Patients were followed up daily during hospitalization and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months for incidence of adverse events using laboratory, clinical (12 months), and radiological (24 months) parameters. The trial was powered to detect severe adverse events (SAEs) with incidences of at least 10% and planned to enroll 30 patients. Primary outcomes were study-related SAEs and the proportion of patients successfully completing study intervention. A propensity score-based matched control group was used for the estimation of effect size (ES) for day-90 modified Rankin score (mRS). There were no study-related SAEs and, based on a futility analysis, enrolment was stopped after 25 patients. All patients successfully completed study intervention and most received the target dose. Secondary analysis estimated the ES to be a reduction of 1 point (95% confidence interval: 0.33-1.67) in median day-90 mRS for treated patients as compared with the matched control group. Bone marrow harvest and infusion of MNCs is safe and feasible in patients with AIS. The estimated ES is helpful in designing future randomized controlled trials. Stem Cells 2019. PMID: 31529663 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles An update on PTEN modulators - A patent review. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2019 Sep 17;: Authors: Boosani CS, Gunasekar P, Agrawal DK Abstract Introduction: A multitude of cellular and physiological functions have been attributed to the biological activity of PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) such as inhibiting angiogenesis, promoting apoptosis, preventing cell proliferation, and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Based on whether cell growth is needed to be initiated or to be inhibited, enhancing PTEN expression or seeking to inhibit it was pursued. Areas covered: Here the authors provide recent updates to their previous publication on "PTEN modulators: A patent review", and discuss on new specificities that affirm the therapeutic potential of PTEN in promoting neuro-regeneration, stem cell regeneration, autophagy, bone and cartilage regeneration. Also, targeting PTEN appears to be effective in developing new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, macular degeneration, immune disorders, asthma, arthritis, lupus, Crohn's disease, and several cancer types. Expert opinion: PTEN mainly inhibits the PI3k/Akt pathway. However, the PI3k/Akt pathway can be activated by other signaling proteins. Thus, novel treatment strategies that can regulate PTEN alone, or combinational treatment approaches that can induce PTEN and simultaneously affect downstream mediators in the PI3K/Akt pathway, are needed, which were not investigated in detail. Commercial interests associated with molecules that regulate PTEN are discussed here, along with limitations and new possibilities to improve them. PMID: 31530116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles The TLR9 agonist (GNKG168) induces a unique immune activation pattern in vivo in children with minimal residual disease positive acute leukemia: Results of the TACL T2009-008 phase I study. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2019 Sep 18;:1-14 Authors: Ronsley R, Kariminia A, Ng B, Mostafavi S, Reid G, Subrt P, Hijiya N, Schultz KR Abstract Background: Preclinical studies show that TLR9 agonists can eradicate leukemia by induction of immune responses in vivo against AML and ALL. These studies demonstrated that TLR9 agonists induce an immediate NK response followed by adaptive T and B cells responses resulting in long term anti-leukemia immunity. Methods: The Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma Phase I consortium performed a pilot study on 3 patients with MRD positive acute leukemia after an initial remission on conventional chemotherapy (TACL T2009-008) with the TLR 9 agonist (GNKG168). To guide future trial development, we evaluated the impact of GNKG168 by Nanostring on the expression 608 genes before and 8 days after initiation of GNKG168 therapy. Results: Twenty-three out of 578 markers on the nanostring panel showed significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). We focused on 8 markers that had the greatest differences with p < 0.01. Two genes were increased, promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and H-RAS, and 6 were decreased, Single Ig and TIR Domain containing (SIGIRR, IL1R8), interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1RL1, ST2), C-C Motif chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8), interleukin 7 R (IL7R), cluster of differentiation 8B (CD8B), and cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3D). Tumor inhibitory pathways were downregulated including the SIGIRR (IL1R8), important in IL-37 signaling and NK cell inhibition. TLR9 can induce IL-33, which is known to downregulate ST2 (IL1RL1) a receptor for IL-33. Conclusion: GNKG168 therapy is associated with immunologic changes in pediatric leukemia patients. Further work with a larger sample size is required to assess the impact of these changes on disease treatment and persistence of leukemia remission. PMID: 31530240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Epigenetic downregulation of STAT6 increases HIF-1α expression via mTOR/S6K/S6, leading to enhanced hypoxic viability of glioma cells. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2019 Sep 17;7(1):149 Authors: Park SJ, Kim H, Kim SH, Joe EH, Jou I Abstract Multifunctional signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play important roles in cancer. Here, we have shown that STAT6 is epigenetically silenced in some cases of malignant glioblastoma, which facilitates cancer cell survival in a hypoxic microenvironment. This downregulation results from hypermethylation of CpG islands within the STAT6 promoter by DNA methyltransferases. STAT6 interacts with Rheb under hypoxia and inhibits mTOR/S6K/S6 signaling, in turn, inducing increased HIF-1α translation. STAT6 silencing and consequent tumor-promoting effects are additionally observed in glioma stem-like cells (GSC). Despite recent advances in cancer treatment, survival rates have shown little improvement. This is particularly true in the case of glioma, where multimodal treatment and precision medicine is needed. Our study supports the application of epigenetic restoration of STAT6 with the aid of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, such as 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, for treatment of STAT6-silenced gliomas. PMID: 31530290 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Trabectedin reveals a strategy of immunomodulation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Immunol Res. 2019 Sep 17;: Authors: Banerjee P, Zhang R, Ivan C, Galletti G, Clise-Dwyer K, Barbaglio F, Scarfò L, Aracil M, Klein C, Wierda W, Plunkett W, Caligaris Cappio F, Gandhi V, Keating MJ, Bertilaccio MTS Abstract Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell neoplasia characterized by pro-tumor immune dysregulation involving non-malignant cells of the microenvironment, including T lymphocytes and tumor-associated myeloid cells. Although therapeutic agents have improved treatment options for CLL, many patients still fail to respond. Some patients also show immunosuppression. We have investigated trabectedin, a marine-derived compound with cytotoxic activity on macrophages in solid tumors. Here we demonstrate that trabectedin induces apoptosis of human primary leukemic cells and also selected myeloid and lymphoid immunosuppressive cells, mainly through the TRAIL/TNF pathway. Trabectedin modulates transcription and translation of IL-6, CCL2 and IFNα in myeloid cells and FOXP3 in regulatory T cells. Human memory CD8+ T cells downregulate PD-1 and, along with monocytes, exert in vivo antitumor function. In xenograft and immunocompetent CLL mouse models, trabectedin has anti-leukemic effects and antitumor impact on the myeloid and lymphoid cells compartment. It depletes myeloid- derived suppressor cells and tumor-associated macrophages and increases memory T cells. Trabectedin also blocks PD-1/PD-L1 axis by targeting PD-L1+ CLL cells, PD-L1+ monocytes/macrophages, and PD-1+ T cells. Thus trabectedin behaves as an immunomodulatory drug with potentially attractive therapeutic value in the subversion of the protumor microenvironment and in overcoming chemoimmune resistance. PMID: 31530560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Role of miRNA-Regulated Cancer Stem Cells in the Pathogenesis of Human Malignancies. Cells. 2019 Aug 05;8(8): Authors: Khan AQ, Ahmed EI, Elareer NR, Junejo K, Steinhoff M, Uddin S Abstract Recent biomedical discoveries have revolutionized the concept and understanding of carcinogenesis, a complex and multistep phenomenon which involves accretion of genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, and histological changes, with special reference to MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). miRNAs are small noncoding molecules known to regulate expression of more than 60% of the human genes, and their aberrant expression has been associated with the pathogenesis of human cancers and the regulation of stemness features of CSCs. CSCs are the small population of cells present in human malignancies well-known for cancer resistance, relapse, tumorigenesis, and poor clinical outcome which compels the development of novel and effective therapeutic protocols for better clinical outcome. Interestingly, the role of miRNAs in maintaining and regulating the functioning of CSCs through targeting various oncogenic signaling pathways, such as Notch, wingless (WNT)/β-Catenin, janus kinases/ signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ protein kinase B (PI3/AKT), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-kB), is critical and poses a huge challenge to cancer treatment. Based on recent findings, here, we have documented the regulatory action or the underlying mechanisms of how miRNAs affect the signaling pathways attributed to stemness features of CSCs, such as self-renewal, differentiation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, resistance and recurrence etc., associated with the pathogenesis of various types of human malignancies including colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer, etc. We also shed light on the fact that the targeted attenuation of deregulated functioning of miRNA related to stemness in human carcinogenesis could be a viable approach for cancer treatment. PMID: 31530793 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles The Safe and Efficacious Use of Secretome From Fibroblasts and Adipose-derived (but not Bone Marrow-derived) Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Skin Therapeutics. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2019 Aug;12(8):E57-E69 Authors: Maguire G Abstract Stem cell-based products are rapidly emerging in the marketplace as topical skin care and wound care products. Confusion is prevalent among healthcare providers and end-users about these products. Adipose-derived stem cells, fibroblasts, platelets, and bone marrow-derived stem cells are the most common cells used for stem cell therapeutic development, medical procedures, and skin care products. In this review, the significant advantages of adipose-derived stem cells and fibroblasts in terms of safety and efficacy are highlighted and compared to relatively risky platelets and bone marrow stem cells. PMID: 31531174 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Associations between pretherapeutic body mass index, outcome, and cytogenetic abnormalities in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Med. 2019 Sep 18;: Authors: Løhmann DJA, Asdahl PH, Abrahamsson J, Ha SY, Jónsson ÓG, Kaspers GJL, Koskenvuo M, Lausen B, De Moerloose B, Palle J, Zeller B, Sung L, Hasle H Abstract BACKGROUND: Associations between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and leukemia-related factors in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. We investigated associations between pretherapeutic BMI, cytogenetic abnormalities, and outcome in a large multinational cohort of children with AML. METHODS: We included patients, age 2-17 years, diagnosed with de novo AML from the five Nordic countries (2004-2016), Hong Kong (2007-2016), the Netherlands and Belgium (2010-2016), and Canada and USA (1995-2012). BMI standard deviations score for age and sex was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization. Cumulative incidence functions, Kaplan-Meier estimator, Cox regression, and logistic regression were used to investigate associations. RESULTS: In total, 867 patients were included. The median age was 10 years (range 2-17 years). At diagnosis, 32 (4%) were underweight, 632 (73%) were healthy weight, 127 (15%) were overweight, and 76 (9%) were obese. There was no difference in relapse risk, treatment-related mortality or overall mortality across BMI groups. The frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16) increased with increasing BMI. For obese patients, the sex, age, and country adjusted odds ratio of having t(8;21) or inv(16) were 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.8), respectively, compared to healthy weight patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not confirm previous reports of associations between overweight and increased treatment-related or overall mortality in children. Obesity was associated with a higher frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16). AML cytogenetics appear to differ by BMI status. PMID: 31532076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Body Composition in Pediatric Solid Tumors: State of the Science and Future Directions. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2019 Sep 01;2019(54):144-148 Authors: Joffe L, Schadler KL, Shen W, Ladas EJ Abstract Sarcopenia (severe skeletal muscle wasting) and sarcopenic obesity (skeletal muscle wasting in the setting of excess fat) have been increasingly recognized as important prognostic indicators in adult oncology. Unfavorable changes in lean and adipose tissue masses manifest early in therapy and are associated with altered chemotherapy metabolism as well as increased treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Existing literature addresses the role of body composition in children with hematologic malignancies; however, data is lacking among solid tumor patients. Advances in imaging techniques for quantification of tissue compartments potentiate further investigation in this highly understudied area of pediatric oncology. The following review presents an in-depth discussion of body composition analysis and its potential role in the care of pediatric solid tumor patients. Integration of body tissue measurement into standard practice has broad clinical implications and may improve quality of life and treatment outcomes in this at-risk population. PMID: 31532526 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles The Gut Microbiome and Pediatric Cancer: Current Research and Gaps in Knowledge. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2019 Sep 01;2019(54):169-173 Authors: Bhuta R, Nieder M, Jubelirer T, Ladas EJ Abstract The human microbiome consists of trillions of microbial cells that interact with one another and the human host to play a clinically significant role in health and disease. Gut microbial changes have been identified in cancer pathogenesis, at disease diagnosis, during therapy, and even long after completion of treatment. Alterations in the gut microbiome have been linked to treatment-related toxicity and potential long-term morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Such alterations are plausible given immune modulation due to disease as well as exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy, infections, and antibiotics. The following review presents our current scientific understanding on the role of the gut microbiome in pediatric cancer, identifies gaps in knowledge, and suggests future research goals. PMID: 31532533 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Cell-based two-dimensional morphological assessment system to predict cancer drug-induced cardiotoxicity using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019 Sep 15;:114761 Authors: Matsui T, Miyamoto K, Yamanaka K, Okai Y, Kaushik EP, Harada K, Wagoner M, Shinozawa T Abstract Recent developments of novel targeted therapies are contributing to the increased long-term survival of cancer patients; however, drug-induced cardiotoxicity induced by cancer drugs remains a serious problem in clinical settings. Nevertheless, there are few in vitro cell-based assays available to predict this toxicity, especially from the aspect of morphology. Here, we developed a simple two-dimensional (2D) morphological assessment system, 2DMA, to predict drug-induced cardiotoxicity in cancer patients using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) with image-based high-content analysis in a high-throughput manner. To assess the effects of drugs on cardiomyocytes, we treated iPSC-CMs with 28 marketed pharmaceuticals and measured two key parameters: number of cell nuclei and sarcomere morphology. Drugs that significantly perturbed these two parameters at concentrations ≤30 times the human Cmax value were regarded as positive in the test. Based on these criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of the 2DMA system were 81% and 100%, respectively. Moreover, the translational predictability of 2DMA was comparable with that of a three-dimensional cardiotoxicity assay. RNA sequencing further revealed that the expression levels of several genes related to sarcomere components decreased following treatment with sunitinib, suggesting that inhibition of the synthesis of proteins that comprise the sarcomere contributes to drug-induced sarcomere disruption. Based on these features, the 2DMA system provides mechanistic insight with high predictability of cancer drug-induced cardiotoxicity in humans, and could thus contribute to the reduction of drug attrition rates at early stages of drug development. PMID: 31533062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...

Quick Contact Form