Stem Cell Treatments for Autism are currently available at SIRM
About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and vocal patterns that are not synchronized with the caregiver. In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words (echolalia) or reverse pronouns. Joint attention seems to be necessary for functional speech, and deficits in joint attention seem to distinguish infants with ASD. for example, they may look at a pointing hand instead of the pointed-at object, and they consistently fail to point at objects in order to comment on or share an experience. Autistic children may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.
Forms of repetitive or restricted behavior (RBS-R):
- Stereotypy is repetitive movement, such as hand flapping, making sounds, head rolling, or body rocking.
- Compulsive behavior is intended and appears to follow rules, such as arranging objects in stacks or lines.
- Sameness is resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted.
- Ritualistic behavior involves an unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual. This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.
- Restricted behavior is limited in focus, interest, or activity, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game.
- Self-injury includes movements that injure or can injure the person, such as eye poking, skin picking, hand biting, and head banging. A 2007 study reported that self-injury at some point affected about 30% of children with ASD.
No single repetitive or self-injurious behavior seems to be specific to autism, but only autism appears to have an elevated pattern of occurrence and severity of these behaviors.
Autism treatment studies and stem cell protocols:
Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to GABAergic neurons with combined medium without the introduction of transcription factors or miRNAs.
Related Articles Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to GABAergic neurons with combined medium without the introduction of transcription factors or miRNAs. Cell Cycle. 2015 Aug 3;14(15):2451-60 Authors: Xu H, Wang Y, He Z, Yang H, Gao WQ Abstract Degeneration or loss of GABAergic neurons frequently may lead to many neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders. So far no clinically effective therapies can slow and halt the progression of these diseases. Cell-replacement therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of these neuropsychiatric diseases. Although increasing evidence showed that mammalian somatic cells can be directly converted into functional neurons using specific transcription factors or miRNAs via virus delivery, the application of these induced neurons is potentially problematic, due to integration of vectors into the host genome, which results in the disruption or dysfunction of nearby genes. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts could be efficiently reprogrammed into GABAergic neurons in a combined medium composed of conditioned medium from neurotrophin-3 modified Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (NT3-OECs) plus SB431542, GDNF and RA. Following 3 weeks of induction, these cells derived from fibroblasts acquired the morphological and phenotypical GABAerigic neuronal properties, as demonstrated by the expression of neuronal markers including Tuj1, NeuN, Neurofilament-L, GABA, GABA receptors and GABA transporter 1. More importantly, these converted cells acquired neuronal functional properties such as synapse formation and increasing intracellular free calcium influx when treated with BayK, a specific activator of L-type calcium channel. Therefore, our findings demonstrate for the first time that fibroblasts can be directly converted into GABAergic neurons without ectopic expression of specific transcription factors or miRNA. This study may provide a promising cell source for the application of cell replacement therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID: 26114472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...