Stem Cell Treatment for Autism

Stem Cell Treatments for Autism are currently available at SIRM

Stem Cell Therapy for Autism Stem Cell Treatment  Autism

Autism Background:

About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and vocal patterns that are not synchronized with the caregiver. In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words (echolalia) or reverse pronouns. Joint attention seems to be necessary for functional speech, and deficits in joint attention seem to distinguish infants with ASD. for example, they may look at a pointing hand instead of the pointed-at object, and they consistently fail to point at objects in order to comment on or share an experience. Autistic children may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.

Repetitive behavior

Forms of repetitive or restricted behavior (RBS-R):

  • Stereotypy is repetitive movement, such as hand flapping, making sounds, head rolling, or body rocking.
  • Compulsive behavior is intended and appears to follow rules, such as arranging objects in stacks or lines.
  • Sameness is resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted.
  • Ritualistic behavior involves an unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual. This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.
  • Restricted behavior is limited in focus, interest, or activity, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game.
  • Self-injury includes movements that injure or can injure the person, such as eye poking, skin picking, hand biting, and head banging. A 2007 study reported that self-injury at some point affected about 30% of children with ASD.

No single repetitive or self-injurious behavior seems to be specific to autism, but only autism appears to have an elevated pattern of occurrence and severity of these behaviors.

Autism treatment studies and stem cell protocols:

Related Articles Truncating Variants in NAA15 Are Associated with Variable Levels of Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Congenital Anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2018 Apr 09;: Authors: Cheng H, Dharmadhikari AV, Varland S, Ma N, Domingo D, Kleyner R, Rope AF, Yoon M, Stray-Pedersen A, Posey JE, Crews SR, Eldomery MK, Akdemir ZC, Lewis AM, Sutton VR, Rosenfeld JA, Conboy E, Agre K, Xia F, Walkiewicz M, Longoni M, High FA, van Slegtenhorst MA, Mancini GMS, Finnila CR, van Haeringen A, den Hollander N, Ruivenkamp C, Naidu S, Mahida S, Palmer EE, Murray L, Lim D, Jayakar P, Parker MJ, Giusto S, Stracuzzi E, Romano C, Beighley JS, Bernier RA, Küry S, Nizon M, Corbett MA, Shaw M, Gardner A, Barnett C, Armstrong R, Kassahn KS, Van Dijck A, Vandeweyer G, Kleefstra T, Schieving J, Jongmans MJ, de Vries BBA, Pfundt R, Kerr B, Rojas SK, Boycott KM, Person R, Willaert R, Eichler EE, Kooy RF, Yang Y, Wu JC, Lupski JR, Arnesen T, Cooper GM, Chung WK, Gecz J, Stessman HAF, Meng L, Lyon GJ Abstract N-alpha-acetylation is a common co-translational protein modification that is essential for normal cell function in humans. We previously identified the genetic basis of an X-linked infantile lethal Mendelian disorder involving a c.109T>C (p.Ser37Pro) missense variant in NAA10, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the N-terminal acetyltransferase A (NatA) complex. The auxiliary subunit of the NatA complex, NAA15, is the dimeric binding partner for NAA10. Through a genotype-first approach with whole-exome or genome sequencing (WES/WGS) and targeted sequencing analysis, we identified and phenotypically characterized 38 individuals from 33 unrelated families with 25 different de novo or inherited, dominantly acting likely gene disrupting (LGD) variants in NAA15. Clinical features of affected individuals with LGD variants in NAA15 include variable levels of intellectual disability, delayed speech and motor milestones, and autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, mild craniofacial dysmorphology, congenital cardiac anomalies, and seizures are present in some subjects. RNA analysis in cell lines from two individuals showed degradation of the transcripts with LGD variants, probably as a result of nonsense-mediated decay. Functional assays in yeast confirmed a deleterious effect for two of the LGD variants in NAA15. Further supporting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency, individuals with copy-number variant (CNV) deletions involving NAA15 and surrounding genes can present with mild intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic features, motor delays, and decreased growth. We propose that defects in NatA-mediated N-terminal acetylation (NTA) lead to variable levels of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, supporting the importance of the NatA complex in normal human development. PMID: 29656860 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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