Stem Cell Treatment for Autism

Stem Cell Treatments for Autism are currently available at SIRM

Stem Cell Therapy for Autism Stem Cell Treatment  Autism

Autism Background:

About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and vocal patterns that are not synchronized with the caregiver. In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words (echolalia) or reverse pronouns. Joint attention seems to be necessary for functional speech, and deficits in joint attention seem to distinguish infants with ASD. for example, they may look at a pointing hand instead of the pointed-at object, and they consistently fail to point at objects in order to comment on or share an experience. Autistic children may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.

Repetitive behavior

Forms of repetitive or restricted behavior (RBS-R):

  • Stereotypy is repetitive movement, such as hand flapping, making sounds, head rolling, or body rocking.
  • Compulsive behavior is intended and appears to follow rules, such as arranging objects in stacks or lines.
  • Sameness is resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted.
  • Ritualistic behavior involves an unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual. This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.
  • Restricted behavior is limited in focus, interest, or activity, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game.
  • Self-injury includes movements that injure or can injure the person, such as eye poking, skin picking, hand biting, and head banging. A 2007 study reported that self-injury at some point affected about 30% of children with ASD.

No single repetitive or self-injurious behavior seems to be specific to autism, but only autism appears to have an elevated pattern of occurrence and severity of these behaviors.

Autism treatment studies and stem cell protocols:

Related Articles Partial loss of psychiatric risk gene Mir137 in mice causes repetitive behavior and impairs sociability and learning via increased Pde10a. Nat Neurosci. 2018 12;21(12):1689-1703 Authors: Cheng Y, Wang ZM, Tan W, Wang X, Li Y, Bai B, Li Y, Zhang SF, Yan HL, Chen ZL, Liu CM, Mi TW, Xia S, Zhou Z, Liu A, Tang GB, Liu C, Dai ZJ, Wang YY, Wang H, Wang X, Kang Y, Lin L, Chen Z, Xie N, Sun Q, Xie W, Peng J, Chen D, Teng ZQ, Jin P Abstract Genetic analyses have linked microRNA-137 (MIR137) to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. miR-137 plays important roles in neurogenesis and neuronal maturation, but the impact of miR-137 loss-of-function in vivo remains unclear. Here we show the complete loss of miR-137 in the mouse germline knockout or nervous system knockout (cKO) leads to postnatal lethality, while heterozygous germline knockout and cKO mice remain viable. Partial loss of miR-137 in heterozygous cKO mice results in dysregulated synaptic plasticity, repetitive behavior, and impaired learning and social behavior. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses revealed that the miR-137 mRNA target, phosphodiesterase 10a (Pde10a), is elevated in heterozygous knockout mice. Treatment with the Pde10a inhibitor papaverine or knockdown of Pde10a ameliorates the deficits observed in the heterozygous cKO mice. Collectively, our results suggest that MIR137 plays essential roles in postnatal neurodevelopment and that dysregulation of miR-137 potentially contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. PMID: 30397325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Human-Derived Brain Models: Windows Into Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Drug Therapies. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2019 May 15;: Authors: Papariello A, Newell-Litwa K Abstract Human-derived neurons and brain organoids have revolutionized our ability to model brain development in a dish. In this review, we discuss the potential for human brain models to advance drug discovery for complex neuropsychiatric disorders. First, we address the advantages of human brain models to screen for new drugs capable of altering CNS activity. Next, we propose an experimental pipeline for using human-derived neurons and brain organoids to rapidly assess drug impact on key events in brain development, including neurite extension, synapse formation, and neural activity. The experimental pipeline begins with automated high content imaging for analysis of neurites, synapses, and neuronal viability. Following morphological examination, multi-well microelectrode array technology examines neural activity in response to drug treatment. These techniques can be combined with high throughput sequencing and mass spectrometry to assess associated transcriptional and proteomic changes. These combined technologies provide a foundation for neuropsychiatric drug discovery and future clinical assessment of patient-specific drug responses. PMID: 31090445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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