Stem Cell Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

Stem Cell Treatment for Alzheimer's

Stem Cell Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease is now available at SIRM

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; it worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.

Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.

Although Alzheimer's disease develops differently for every individual, there are many common symptoms. Early symptoms are often mistakenly thought to be 'age-related' concerns, or manifestations of stress. In the early stages, the most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with tests that evaluate behaviour and thinking abilities, often followed by a brain scan if available.

Stem Cell Treatment for AlzheimersCausation

The cause for most Alzheimer's cases is still essentially unknown (except for 1% to 5% of cases where genetic differences have been identified). Several competing hypotheses exist trying to explain the cause of the disease. The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis, which proposes that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The cholinergic hypothesis has not maintained widespread support, largely because medications intended to treat acetylcholine deficiency have not been very effective. Other cholinergic effects have also been proposed, for example, initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid, leading to generalised neuroinflammation.

A 2004 study found that deposition of amyloid plaques does not correlate well with neuron loss. This observation supports the tau hypothesis, the idea that tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade. In this model, hyperphosphorylated tau begins to pair with other threads of tau. Eventually, they form neurofibrillary tangles inside nerve cell bodies. When this occurs, the microtubules disintegrate, collapsing the neuron's transport system. This may result first in malfunctions in biochemical communication between neurons and later in the death of the cells.

Another hypothesis asserts that the disease may be caused by age-related myelin breakdown in the brain. Demyelination leads to axonal transport disruptions. Iron released during myelin breakdown is hypothesized to cause further damage. Homeostatic myelin repair processes contribute to the development of proteinaceous deposits such as amyloid-beta and tau.

Oxidative stress may be significant in the formation of the pathology.

Alzheimers Stem Cell Treatment and stem cell therapy. Alzheimers treatment studies and stem cell protocols:

Related Articles Exosomes in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Med Sci Monit. 2019 May 06;25:3329-3335 Authors: Jiang L, Dong H, Cao H, Ji X, Luan S, Liu J Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of ß-amyloid peptide 1-42 and phosphorylation of tau protein in the brain. Thus far, the transfer mechanism of these cytotoxic proteins between nerve cells remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (exosomes) originating from cells may play important roles in this transfer process. In addition, several genetic materials and proteins are also involved in intercellular communication by the secretion of the exosomes. That proposes novel avenues for early diagnosis and biological treatment in AD, based on exosome detection and intervention. In this review, exosome-related pathways of cytotoxic protein intercellular transfer in AD, and the effect of membrane proteins on exosomes targeting cells are first introduced. The advances in exosome-related biomarker detection in AD are summarized. Finally, the advantages and challenges of reducing cytotoxic protein accumulation via exosomal intervention for AD treatment are discussed. It is envisaged that future research in exosomes may well provide new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of AD. PMID: 31056537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles An update on PTEN modulators - A patent review. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2019 Sep 17;: Authors: Boosani CS, Gunasekar P, Agrawal DK Abstract Introduction: A multitude of cellular and physiological functions have been attributed to the biological activity of PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) such as inhibiting angiogenesis, promoting apoptosis, preventing cell proliferation, and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Based on whether cell growth is needed to be initiated or to be inhibited, enhancing PTEN expression or seeking to inhibit it was pursued. Areas covered: Here the authors provide recent updates to their previous publication on "PTEN modulators: A patent review", and discuss on new specificities that affirm the therapeutic potential of PTEN in promoting neuro-regeneration, stem cell regeneration, autophagy, bone and cartilage regeneration. Also, targeting PTEN appears to be effective in developing new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, macular degeneration, immune disorders, asthma, arthritis, lupus, Crohn's disease, and several cancer types. Expert opinion: PTEN mainly inhibits the PI3k/Akt pathway. However, the PI3k/Akt pathway can be activated by other signaling proteins. Thus, novel treatment strategies that can regulate PTEN alone, or combinational treatment approaches that can induce PTEN and simultaneously affect downstream mediators in the PI3K/Akt pathway, are needed, which were not investigated in detail. Commercial interests associated with molecules that regulate PTEN are discussed here, along with limitations and new possibilities to improve them. PMID: 31530116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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