Stem Cell Treatment for ALS

ALS Stem Cell Treatment

ALS Stem Cell Treatment

"My life and millions of others are in the hands of Congress. We are already seeing the incredible potential of stem cells to replace what is destroyed in ALS, but we need the federal government to mentor research along in the most responsible, humane way.” Pointing out that, “non-profits like Project A.L.S. and private industry have started stem cell replacement on the right track,”...“do the right thing and take us to the next level with this life-saving science.

Jenifer Estess (1963–2003) founder of Project A.L.S testifying in 2000 before Senator Arlen Specter’s sub-committee on Labor, Health, Human Services and Education

Organizatiom of the Brain: Cell Types

Stem Cell Treatment for ALS

 

ALS Stem Cell Treatment Case Review

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a form of motor neuron disease  caused by the degeneration of upper and lower neurons, located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and the cortical neurons that provide their efferent input.

The condition is often called Lou Gehrig's disease in North America, after the New York Yankees baseball player who was diagnosed with the disease in 1939. The disorder is characterized by rapidly progressive weakness, muscle atrophy and fasciculations, spasticity, dysarthria, dysphagia, and respiratory compromise. Sensory function generally is spared, as is autonomic, and oculomotor activity. ALS is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease

Signs and symptoms

The disorder causes muscle weakness and atrophy throughout the body caused by degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Unable to function, the muscles weaken and atrophy. Affected individuals may ultimately lose the ability to initiate and control all voluntary movement, although bladder and bowel sphincters and the muscles responsible for eye movement are usually, but not always, spared.

Cognitive function is generally spared for most patients although some (~5%) also have frontotemporal dementia. A higher proportion of patients (~30-50%) also have more subtle cognitive changes which may go unnoticed but are revealed by detailed neuropsychological testing. Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system, which controls functions like sweating, are generally unaffected but may be involved for some patients.

Initial symptoms

The earliest symptoms of ALS are typically obvious weakness and/or muscle atrophy. Other presenting symptoms include muscle fasciculation (twitching), cramping, or stiffness of affected muscles; muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg; and/or slurred and nasal speech. The parts of the body affected by early symptoms of ALS depend on which motor neurons in the body are damaged first. About 75% of people contracting the disease experience "limb onset" ALS.

SOD1

The cause of ALS is not known, though an important step toward determining the cause came in 1993 when scientists discovered that mutations in the gene that produces the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) enzyme were associated with some cases (approximately 20%) of familial ALS. This enzyme is a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from damage caused by superoxide, a toxic free radical generated in the mitochondria. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules produced by cells during normal metabolism again largely by the mitochondria. Free radicals can accumulate and cause damage to both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and proteins within cells.

Studies also have focused on the role of glutamate in motor neuron degeneration. Glutamate is one of the chemical messengers or neurotransmitters in the brain. Scientists have found that, compared to healthy people, ALS patients have higher levels of glutamate in the serum and spinal fluid. Riluzole is currently the only FDA approved drug for ALS and targets glutamate transporters. It only has a modest effect on survival, however, suggesting that excess glutamate is not the sole cause of the disease.

Diagnosis

No test can provide a definite diagnosis of ALS, although the presence of upper and lower motor neuron signs in a single limb is strongly suggestive. Instead, the diagnosis of ALS is primarily based on the symptoms and signs the physician observes in the patient and a series of tests to rule out other diseases. Physicians obtain the patient's full medical history and usually conduct a neurologic examination at regular intervals to assess whether symptoms such as muscle weakness, atrophy of muscles, hyperreflexia, and spasticity are getting progressively worse.

ALS Stem Cell Treatment and stem cell therapy. AlS treatment studies and stem cell protocols:
Related Articles Cryptic exon splicing function of TARDBP interacts with autophagy in nervous tissue. Autophagy. 2018;14(8):1398-1403 Authors: Torres P, Ramírez-Núñez O, Romero-Guevara R, Barés G, Granado-Serrano AB, Ayala V, Boada J, Fontdevila L, Povedano M, Sanchís D, Pamplona R, Ferrer I, Portero-Otín M Abstract TARDBP (TAR DNA binding protein) is one of the components of neuronal aggregates in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We have developed a simple quantitative method to evaluate TARDBP splicing function that was applied to spinal cord, brainstem, motor cortex, and occipital cortex in ALS (n = 8) cases compared to age- and gender-matched control (n = 17). Then, we quantified the abundance of a TARDBP-spliced cryptic exon present in ATG4B (autophagy related 4B cysteine peptidase) mRNA. Results of these analyses demonstrated that the loss of this TARDBP function in spinal cord, brainstem, motor cortex, and occipital cortex differentiated ALS from controls (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic: 0.85). Significant correlations were also observed between cryptic exon levels, age, disease duration, and aberrant mRNA levels. To test if TARDBP function in splicing is relevant in ATG4B major function (autophagy) we downregulated TARDBP expression in human neural tissue and in HeLa cells, demonstrating that TARDBP is required for maintaining the expression of ATG4B. Further, ATG4B overexpression alone is sufficient to completely prevent the increase of SQSTM1 induced by TARDBP downregulation in human neural tissue cells and in cell lines. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate abnormal alternative splicing of ATG4B transcripts in ALS neural tissue in agreement with TARDBP loss of function, leading to impaired autophagy. ABBREVIATIONS: ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ATG4B: autophagy related 4B cysteine peptidase; AUC: area under the curve; FTLD: frontotemporal lobar degeneration; iPSC: induced pluripotent stem cells; ROC: receiver operating characteristic; TARDBP: TAR DNA binding protein; RT-qPCR: quantitative RT-PCR. PMID: 29912613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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