Macular Degeneration and Stem Cell Therapy
What is Macular Degeneration?
Macular Degeneration or Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD,ARMD) is a eyesight condition which mostly affects older people. AMD results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage or wear to the retina.
AMD can occur in either a wet or dry types. AMD is a major cause of visual impairment in people of 50 years age or more. AMD can make it difficult or impossible to read or to be able to recognize faces, although enough peripheral vision can remain to allow normal daily life.
Although some macular dystrophies that younger people get are referred to as macular degeneration, the term generally refers to age-related macular degeneration.
Stemming vision loss with stem cells.
J Clin Invest. 2010 Sep 1;120(9):3012-21
Authors: Marchetti V, Krohne TU, Friedlander DF, Friedlander M
Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects.
PMID: 20811157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Autologous Induced Stem-Cell-Derived Retinal Cells for Macular Degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2017 03 16;376(11):1038-1046 Authors: Mandai M, Watanabe A, Kurimoto Y, Hirami Y, Morinaga C, Daimon T, Fujihara M, Akimaru H, Sakai N, Shibata Y, Terada M, Nomiya Y, Tanishima S, Nakamura M, Kamao H, Sugita S, Onishi A, Ito T, Fujita K, Kawamata S, Go MJ, Shinohara C, Hata KI, Sawada M, Yamamoto M, Ohta S, Ohara Y, Yoshida K, Kuwahara J, Kitano Y, Amano N, Umekage M, Kitaoka F, Tanaka A, Okada C, Takasu N, Ogawa S, Yamanaka S, Takahashi M Abstract We assessed the feasibility of transplanting a sheet of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in a patient with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The iPSCs were generated from skin fibroblasts obtained from two patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration and were differentiated into RPE cells. The RPE cells and the iPSCs from which they were derived were subject to extensive testing. A surgery that included the removal of the neovascular membrane and transplantation of the autologous iPSC-derived RPE cell sheet under the retina was performed in one of the patients. At 1 year after surgery, the transplanted sheet remained intact, best corrected visual acuity had not improved or worsened, and cystoid macular edema was present. (Funded by Highway Program for Realization of Regenerative Medicine and others; University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry [UMIN-CTR] number, UMIN000011929 .). PMID: 28296613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...
Related Articles Vision Loss after Intravitreal Injection of Autologous "Stem Cells" for AMD. N Engl J Med. 2017 03 16;376(11):1047-1053 Authors: Kuriyan AE, Albini TA, Townsend JH, Rodriguez M, Pandya HK, Leonard RE, Parrott MB, Rosenfeld PJ, Flynn HW, Goldberg JL Abstract Adipose tissue-derived "stem cells" have been increasingly used by "stem-cell clinics" in the United States and elsewhere to treat a variety of disorders. We evaluated three patients in whom severe bilateral visual loss developed after they received intravitreal injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived "stem cells" at one such clinic in the United States. In these three patients, the last documented visual acuity on the Snellen eye chart before the injection ranged from 20/30 to 20/200. The patients' severe visual loss after the injection was associated with ocular hypertension, hemorrhagic retinopathy, vitreous hemorrhage, combined traction and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, or lens dislocation. After 1 year, the patients' visual acuity ranged from 20/200 to no light perception. PMID: 28296617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...