Macular Degeneration Stem Cell Treatment

Macular Degeneration and Stem Cell Therapy

What is Macular Degeneration?

Macular Degeneration and Stem Cell Therapy

Macular Degeneration and Stem Cell Therapy


Macular Degeneration or Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD,ARMD) is a eyesight condition which mostly affects older people. AMD results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage or wear to the retina.

AMD can occur in either a wet or dry types. AMD is a major cause of visual impairment in people of 50 years age or more. AMD can make it difficult or impossible to read or to be able to recognize faces, although enough peripheral vision can remain to allow normal daily life.
 
Although some macular dystrophies that younger people get are referred to as macular degeneration, the term generally refers to age-related macular degeneration.

 

Stemming vision loss with stem cells.

J Clin Invest. 2010 Sep 1;120(9):3012-21

Authors: Marchetti V, Krohne TU, Friedlander DF, Friedlander M

Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects.

PMID: 20811157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nanomedicine-based Curcumin Approach Improved ROS Damage in Best Dystrophy-specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Transplant. 2019 Jul 17;:963689719860130 Authors: Lin TC, Lin YY, Hsu CC, Yang YP, Yang CH, Hwang DK, Wang CY, Liu YY, Lo WL, Chiou SH, Peng CH, Chen SJ, Chang YL Abstract Best dystrophy (BD), also termed best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD), is a juvenile-onset form of macular degeneration and can cause central visual loss. Unfortunately, there is no clear definite therapy for BD or improving the visual function on this progressive disease. The human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) system has been recently applied as an effective tool for genetic consultation and chemical drug screening. In this study, we developed patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (BD-iPSCs) from BD patient-derived dental pulp stromal cells and then differentiated BD-iPSCs into retinal pigment epithelial cells (BD-RPEs). BD-RPEs were used as an expandable platform for in vitro candidate drug screening. Compared with unaffected sibling-derived iPSC-derived RPE cells (Ctrl-RPEs), BD-RPEs exhibited typical RPE-specific markers with a lower expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and Bestrophin-1 (BEST1), as well as reduced phagocytic capabilities. Notably, among all candidate drugs, curcumin was the most effective for upregulating both the BEST1 and ZO-1 genes in BD-RPEs. Using the iPSC-based drug-screening platform, we further found that curcumin can significantly improve the mRNA expression levels of Best gene in BD-iPSC-derived RPEs. Importantly, we demonstrated that curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) were efficiently internalized by BD-RPEs. The Cur-NPs-based controlled release formulation further increased the expression of ZO-1 and Bestrophin-1, and promoted the function of phagocytosis and voltage-dependent calcium channels in BD-iPSC-derived RPEs. We further demonstrated that Cur-NPs enhanced the expression of antioxidant enzymes with a decrease in intracellular ROS production and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, these data supported that Cur-NPs provide a potential cytoprotective effect by regulating the anti-oxidative abilities of degenerated RPEs. In addition, the application of patient-specific iPSCs provides an effective platform for drug screening and personalized medicine in incurable diseases. PMID: 31313605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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