Macular Degeneration Stem Cell Treatment

Macular Degeneration and Stem Cell Therapy

What is Macular Degeneration?

Macular Degeneration and Stem Cell Therapy

Macular Degeneration and Stem Cell Therapy


Macular Degeneration or Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD,ARMD) is a eyesight condition which mostly affects older people. AMD results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage or wear to the retina.

AMD can occur in either a wet or dry types. AMD is a major cause of visual impairment in people of 50 years age or more. AMD can make it difficult or impossible to read or to be able to recognize faces, although enough peripheral vision can remain to allow normal daily life.
 
Although some macular dystrophies that younger people get are referred to as macular degeneration, the term generally refers to age-related macular degeneration.

 

Stemming vision loss with stem cells.

J Clin Invest. 2010 Sep 1;120(9):3012-21

Authors: Marchetti V, Krohne TU, Friedlander DF, Friedlander M

Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects.

PMID: 20811157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles The influence of rAAV2-mediated SOX2 delivery into neonatal and adult human RPE cells; a comparative study. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Feb;233(2):1222-1235 Authors: Ezati R, Etemadzadeh A, Soheili ZS, Samiei S, Ranaei Pirmardan E, Davari M, Najafabadi HS Abstract Cell replacement is a promising therapy for degenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since the human retina lacks regeneration capacity, much attention has been directed toward persuading for cells that can differentiate into retinal neurons. In this report, we have investigated reprogramming of the human RPE cells and concerned the effect of donor age on the cellular fate as a critical determinant in reprogramming competence. We evaluated the effect of SOX2 over-expression in human neonatal and adult RPE cells in cultures. The coding region of human SOX2 gene was cloned into adeno-associated virus (AAV2) and primary culture of human neonatal/adult RPE cells were infected by recombinant virus. De-differentiation of RPE to neural/retinal progenitor cells was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and ICC for neural/retinal progenitor cells' markers. Gene expression analysis showed 80-fold and 12-fold over-expression for SOX2 gene in infected neonatal and adult hRPE cells, respectively. The fold of increase for Nestin in neonatal and adult hRPE cells was 3.8-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. PAX6 expression was increased threefold and 2.5-fold in neonatal/adult treated cultures. Howbeit, we could not detect rhodopsin, and CHX10 expression in neonatal hRPE cultures and expression of rhodopsin in adult hRPE cells. Results showed SOX2 induced human neonatal/adult RPE cells to de-differentiate toward retinal progenitor cells. However, the increased number of PAX6, CHX10, Thy1, and rhodopsin positive cells in adult hRPE treated cultures clearly indicated the considerable generation of neuro-retinal terminally differentiated cells. PMID: 28480968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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