Liver Disease Stem Cell Treatment

Liver Disease and Stem Cell Therapy at SIRM

 

Liver Disease and Stem Cell Treatment

Liver Disease and Stem Cell Treatment

What is Liver Disease?
The liver is under your ribs on the right hand side. The liver is the largest organ in the body and if the liver fails completely then untreated only 3-4 days to find a donor liver for a possible transplant.

Corrently there is no such thing as an artificial liver.

The liver not only produces many proteins it creates energy from our food. The liver removes waste products in our body and also removes unwanted drugs such as nicotine and alcohol.

The most common Liver conditions include infections such as hepatitis A, B, C, E, alcohol damage, fatty liver, cirrhosis, cancer, drug damage especially paracetamol (acetaminophen) and cancer drugs.

 

The liver does not have any pain nerves so liver disease can be unexpected.
Liver disease is commonly related to alcohol and diet problems.

 


STEM CELL RESEARCH



Use of hepatocyte and stem cells for treatment of post-resectional liver failure: are we there yet?

Ezzat TM, Dhar DK, Newsome PN, Malagó M, Olde Damink SW.


2011 Jul;31(6):773-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02530.x. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Source
HPB and Liver Transplantation Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, University College London, Pond Street, London, UK.


Abstract
Post-operative liver failure following extensive resections for liver tumours is a rare but significant complication. The only effective treatment is liver transplantation (LT); however, there is a debate about its use given the high mortality compared with the outcomes of LT for chronic liver diseases.

Cell therapy has emerged as a possible alternative to LT especially as endogenous hepatocyte proliferation is likely inhibited in the setting of prior chemo/radiotherapy. Both hepatocyte and stem cell transplantations have shown promising results in the experimental setting; however, there are few reports on their clinical application.

This review identifies the potential stem cell sources in the body, and highlights the triggering factors that lead to their mobilization and integration in liver regeneration following major liver resections.

Therapeutic plasticity of stem cells and allograft tolerance.

Cytotherapy. 2011 May 10;

Authors: Sordi V, Piemonti L

Abstract Transplantation is the treatment of choice for many diseases that result in organ failure, but its success is limited by organ rejection. Stem cell therapy has emerged in the last years as a promising strategy for the induction of tolerance after organ transplantation. Here we discuss the ability of different stem cell types, in particular mesenchymal stromal cells, neuronal stem/progenitor cells, hematopoietic stem cells and embryonic stem cells, to modulate the immune response and induce peripheral or central tolerance.

These stem cells have been studied to explore tolerance induction to several transplanted organs, such as heart, liver and kidney. Different strategies, including approaches to generating tolerance in islet transplantation, are discussed here.

PMID: 21554176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

Impaired function of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in  murine liver fibrosis.

Biosci Trends. 2011 Apr;5(2):77-82

Authors: Shirakura K, Masuda H, Kwon SM, Obi S, Ito R, Shizuno T, Kurihara Y,  Mine T, Asahara T

Liver fibrosis (LF) caused by chronic liver damage has been considered as an  irreversible disease. As alternative therapy for liver transplantation, there  are high expectations for regenerative medicine of the liver.

Bone marrow (BM)-  or peripheral blood-derived stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells  (EPCs), have recently been used to treat liver cirrhosis. We investigated the  biology of BM-derived EPC in a mouse model of LF. C57BL/6J mice were  subcutaneously injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)  every 3 days for 90 days. Sacrificed 2 days after final injection, whole blood  (WB) was collected for isolation of mononuclear cells (MNCs) and biochemical  examination.

Assessments of EPC in the peripheral blood and BM were performed by  flow cytometry and EPC colonyforming assay, respectively, using purified MNCs  and BM c-KIT+, Sca-1+, and  Lin- (KSL) cells.

Liver tissues underwent histological  analysis with hematoxylin/eosin/Azan staining, and spleens were excised and  weighed. CCl4-treated mice exhibited histologically  bridging fibrosis, pseudolobular formation, and splenomegaly, indicating  successful induction of LF.

The frequency of definitive EPC-colony-forming-units  (CFU) as well as total EPC-CFU at the equivalent cell number of 500 BM-KSL cells  decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) in LF mice compared with control mice;  no significant changes in primitive EPC-CFU occurred in LF mice.

The frequency  of WB-MNCs of definitive EPC-CFU decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in LF  mice compared with control mice. Together, these findings indicated the  existence of impaired EPC function and differentiation in BM-derived EPCs in LF  mice and might be related to clinical LF.

PMID: 21572251 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles InForm software: a semi-automated research tool to identify presumptive human hepatic progenitor cells, and other histological features of pathological significance. Sci Rep. 2018 02 21;8(1):3418 Authors: Kramer AS, Latham B, Diepeveen LA, Mou L, Laurent GJ, Elsegood C, Ochoa-Callejero L, Yeoh GC Abstract Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) play an important regenerative role in acute and chronic liver pathologies. Liver disease research often necessitates the grading of disease severity, and pathologists' reports are the current gold-standard for assessment. However, it is often impractical to recruit pathologists in large cohort studies. In this study we utilise PerkinElmer's "InForm" software package to semi-automate the scoring of patient liver biopsies, and compare outputs to a pathologist's assessment. We examined a cohort of eleven acute hepatitis samples and three non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) samples, stained with HPC markers (GCTM-5 and Pan Cytokeratin), an inflammatory marker (CD45), Sirius Red to detect collagen and haematoxylin/eosin for general histology. InForm was configured to identify presumptive HPCs, CD45+ve inflammatory cells, areas of necrosis, fat and collagen deposition (p < 0.0001). Hepatitis samples were then evaluated both by a pathologist using the Ishak-Knodell scoring system, and by InForm through customised algorithms. Necroinflammation as evaluated by a pathologist, correlated with InForm outputs (r2 = 0.8192, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the InForm software package provides a useful tool for liver disease research, allowing rapid, and objective quantification of the presumptive HPCs and identifies histological features that assist with assessing liver disease severity, and potentially can facilitate diagnosis. PMID: 29467378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Economic Burden of Veno-occlusive Disease in Patients With B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in the United States. Clin Ther. 2018 10;40(10):1711-1719.e1 Authors: Zhang X, Song X, Lopez-Gonzalez L, Jariwala-Parikh K, Romanov V, Cong Z Abstract PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence, inpatient mortality, and economic burden of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) in adults with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the United States. METHODS: Using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits Database, data for patients with B-cell ALL from April 1, 2009, to October 31, 2016, were extracted by using diagnosis codes. VOD was identified based on clinical criteria and expert opinions. Patients with VOD were followed up from diagnosis of VOD until the earliest occurrence of inpatient death, end of continuous enrollment, end of study period, or for a maximum of 100days. The incidence of VOD and VOD-associated inpatient mortality were calculated. VOD-related health care costs based on paid adjudicated claims were calculated. FINDINGS: Of the 2571 adults with B-cell ALL, the overall incidence of VOD was low at 3.4% (88 of 2571). Of these patients with VOD, 52% (46 of 88) experienced multiorgan failure and were identified as having severe VOD. VOD was only identified in patients having undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (5.4% [88 of 1624]). The inpatient mortality rate of those with any VOD over the 100-day postindex period was 26.1%, and the inpatient mortality was even higher for patients with severe VOD (37.0%). Total mean (SD) medical costs per patient during the 100 days' post-VOD diagnosis were $55,975 ($160,335); mean (SD) costs per patient were ∼4-fold higher for severe ($86,953 [$206,906]) versus nonsevere ($22,047 [$72,847]) VOD. IMPLICATIONS: Clinical criteria were used to identify VOD events and thus VOD might be underdiagnosed. The mortality of VOD also might be underestimated because only inpatient deaths are captured in the data. The incidence and mortality of VOD could also be underestimated because we focused on adult patients who might receive reduced-intensity treatment. The economic burden of VOD may be underestimated because the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System code specific for defibrotide was not available, and thus the cost for defibrotide might not be included. Finally, as the study population consisted of patients with commercial or Medicare supplemental insurance, results may not be generalizable to all patients with VOD in the United States. Although VOD occurred infrequently in adults with B-cell ALL, it was associated with high inpatient mortality and substantial costs. Patients with severe VOD were associated with highest mortality and highest costs. Given the clinical and economic burden associated with VOD, it is important that patients at high risk for VOD be identified and treated to minimize this risk. PMID: 30196935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Disseminated Adenovirus Infection After Combined Liver-Kidney Transplantation. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018;8:408 Authors: Hemmersbach-Miller M, Bailey ES, Kappus M, Prasad VK, Gray GC, Alspaugh JA Abstract Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are well-described after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but less well understood in solid organ transplantation (SOT). We describe a case of disseminated HAdV type 21 infection 5 months after combined liver-kidney transplantation, expanding the limited literature describing this infection in the SOT population. PMID: 30524972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Resveratrol Reduced Liver Damage After Liver Resection in a Rat Model by Upregulating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and Inhibiting the Acetylation of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1). Med Sci Monit. 2019 May 01;25:3212-3220 Authors: Yu S, Zhou X, Xiang H, Wang S, Cui Z, Zhou J Abstract BACKGROUND Liver failure after resection for liver cancer is associated with increased patient mortality. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the protective effects of resveratrol, a natural plant-derived compound, on liver injury in a rat model of partial hepatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=60) were divided into the sham group (n=20), the liver resection group (n=20), and the liver resection plus resveratrol-treated group (n=20). Liver resection removed 2/3 of the liver resection; resveratrol was given at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day from one week before surgery until death. Liver injury was assessed by serum liver function tests, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT) and total bilirubin, histological examination of the rat liver, and liver cell apoptosis using the TUNEL assay. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and acetylated HMGB1 (Ac-HMGB1) expression were detected by Western blot. Normal human liver cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells were incubated with acetylated HMGB1, and albumin production and ammonia elimination assays were performed. RESULTS Resveratrol reduced postoperative liver injury as shown by reduced ALT, AST, γ-GT, and total bilirubin levels, maintained liver structure, and reduced cell apoptosis. Resveratrol treatment reduced the expression and acetylation levels of HMGB1 via the SIRT1 signaling pathway. Resveratrol reversed Ac-HMGB1 induced dysfunction in liver cells cultured in vitro. CONCLUSIONS Resveratrol reduced liver damage after liver resection in a rat model by upregulating SIRT1 and reducing the acetylation of HMGB1. PMID: 31041919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Successful cord blood transplantation for a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria complicated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome. Ann Hematol. 2019 Oct;98(10):2427-2428 Authors: Takahashi T, Ichikawa S, Harigae H PMID: 31399806 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Hydrogel-mediated sustained systemic delivery of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles improves hepatic regeneration in chronic liver failure. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019 Sep 17;: Authors: Mardpour S, Ghanian MH, Sadeghi Abandansari H, Mardpour S, Nazari A, Shekari F, Baharvand H Abstract Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EVs) have been widely reported as promising cell-free products which show therapeutics effects of the parental cells, but not their limitations. Due to the intrinsic liver tropism of MSC-EVs, they have been widely used as therapeutics or drug carriers for treatment of liver diseases. However, rapid clearance from the target site may attenuate the efficiency of systemically administered MSC-EVs. Herein, sustained release into peritoneum has been proposed as a new strategy to prolong the bioavailability of the MSC-EVs in the target liver. During intraperitoneal injection, clickable polyethylene glycol (PEG) macromeres were mixed with MSC-EVs to form EV-encapsulated PEG hydrogels via a fast, biocompatible click reaction. Upon biodegradation, the EV-laden hydrogels were swollen gradually to release EVs in a sustained manner over one month. In-vivo tracking of the labeled EVs revealed that the accumulation of EVs in the liver was extended by hydrogel-mediated delivery for one month. Four weeks after injection in rats' model of chronic liver fibrosis, the physical and histopathological investigations of the harvested liver showed superior anti-fibrosis, anti-apoptosis and regenerative effects of the EVs, when delivered by the sustained systemic release (Gel-EV) rather than the conventional bolus injection (Free-EV). Specifically, the Gel-EV system improved the anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and regenerative effects of the EVs nearly to 40%, 50%, 40% and 50% compared to Free-EV, respectively, as was specified by quantification of fibrotic area, α-SMA density and caspase-3 density in the harvested tissues and ALT enzyme in serum. This study may potentiate the use of MSC-EVs as cell-free therapeutics for chronic liver failure. The sustained systemic delivery strategy may open a new paradigm to extend the effects of disease-targeting EVs over time. PMID: 31525863 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Immunoregulatory impact of human mesenchymal-conditioned media and mesenchymal derived exosomes on monocytes. Mol Biol Res Commun. 2019 Jun;8(2):79-89 Authors: Tokhanbigli S, Baghaei K, Asadirad A, Hashemi SM, Asadzadeh-Aghdaei H, Zali MR Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known due to their immunomodulatory effect, but the exact mechanisms have not been defined. Several studies demonstrated that the exerted immunoregulatory effect of these cells could be mediated by paracrine factors to illustrate, cytokines, chemokine, and among which, extracellular vesicles are one of them to play a crucial role. Moreover, it is assumed that extracellular vesicles are an essential player in intracellular communication by transferring their component. In this respect, the efficiency of conditioned media and exosomes was compared to illustrate a practical approach to cell-free based therapies. In the current study, we investigated the effect of both MSCs conditioned media (MSC-CM) and MSCs-derived exosomes on the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In this regard, isolated PBMCs were treated with MSC-CM and MSC-derived exosome as separated groups. Expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers was evaluated by Real-time PCR and ELISA. The immunoregulatory effect of MSC-CM on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes, such as IL-12b, iNOS, EGR-2, IL-10 with an exception in case of IL-6 was more significant. Whereas in protein levels IL-10 showed the most substantial difference in exosome treated groups. It could be assumed that MSC-CM has more immunoregulatory impact on monocyte in contrast with exosomes.Taken together, by considering the recent approaches to cell-free therapy and the immunoregulatory impact of MSCs, yet relatively little is known about the efficacy of human-MSC-CM and secreted exosome compared with each other. PMID: 31531379 [PubMed]
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