Knee Injuries Stem Cell Treatment

Stem Cells are being used for Knee InjuriesStem Cell Treatment for knee Injury
Acute knee injury causes pain and swelling with problems bending the knee and taking weight. If the swelling occurs immediately, it can suggest a ligament tear or possible fracture.

If the swelling arises over a period of many hours, meniscal or cartilage injuries may be the cause. .

Longer-term symptoms that point to knee problems will include pain and swelling in addition to other complaints. Inflammation in the joint may be caused by even minor activity.

Giving way, or a feeling of instability of the knee, or, popping or grinding in the knee is associated with cartilage or meniscus tears.

"Locking" is the term used when the knee joint refuses to completely straighten, and this is almost always due to torn cartilage. In this situation, the torn piece of cartilage folds upon itself and doesn't allow the knee to extend.

 

 

Meniscus and Stem Cell Therapy

Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Med Hypotheses. 2008 Dec;71(6):900-8

Authors: Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D

Mesenchymal Stem Cells are pluripotent cells found in multiple human tissues including bone marrow, synovial tissues, and adipose tissues. They have been shown to differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue and represent a possible promising new therapy in regenerative medicine.

Because of their multi-potent capabilities, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineages have been used successfully in animal models to regenerate articular cartilage and in human models to regenerate bone.

The regeneration of articular cartilage via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's) is a topic of significant scientific and therapeutic interest.

Current treatment for cartilage damage in osteoarthritis focuses on surgical interventions such as arthroscopic debridement, microfracture, and cartilage grafting/transplant. These procedures have proven to be less effective than hoped, are invasive, and often entail a prolonged recovery time.

We hypothesize that autologous mesenchymal stem cells can be harvested from the iliac crest, expanded using the patient's own growth factors from platelet lysate, then successfully implanted to increase cartilage volume in an adult human knee.

We present a review highlighting the developments in cellular and regenerative medicine in the arena mesenchymal stem cell therapy, as well as a case of successful harvest, expansion, and transplant of autologous mesenchymal stem cells into an adult human knee that resulted in an increase in meniscal cartilage volume.

PMID: 18786777 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 Stem Cell Therapy and Knee Stem Cell Injection

 

Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

Regen Med. 2010 Nov;5(6):933-46

Authors: Joyce N, Annett G, Wirthlin L, Olson S, Bauer G, Nolta JA

Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSCs) present a promising tool for cell therapy, and are currently being tested in US FDA-approved clinical trials for myocardial infarction, stroke, meniscus injury, limb ischemia, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune disorders.

They have been extensively tested and proven effective in preclinical studies for these and many other disorders.

There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for those that are fatal and difficult to treat, such as Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Proposed regenerative approaches to neurological diseases using MSCs include cell therapies in which cells are delivered via intracerebral or intrathecal injection. Upon transplantation into the brain, MSCs promote endogenous neuronal growth, decrease apoptosis, reduce levels of free radicals, encourage synaptic connection from damaged neurons and regulate inflammation, primarily through paracrine actions. MSCs transplanted into the brain have been demonstrated to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons.

Therapies will capitalize on the innate trophic support from MSCs or on augmented growth factor support, such as delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived neurotrophic factor into the brain to support injured neurons, using genetically engineered MSCs as the delivery vehicles. Clinical trials for MSC injection into the CNS to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke are currently ongoing. The current data in support of applying MSC-based cellular therapies to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

PMID: 21082892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

Pain Physician. 2008 May-Jun;11(3):343-53

Authors: Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D

The ability to repair tissue via percutaneous means may allow interventional pain physicians to manage a wide variety of diseases including peripheral joint injuries and osteoarthritis. This review will highlight the developments in cellular medicine that may soon permit interventional pain management physicians to treat a much wider variety of clinical conditions and highlight an interventional case study using these technologies

PMID: 18523506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

Regen Med. 2010 Nov;5(6):933-46

Stem Cell Therapy and Knee Injuries

Knee Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: Joyce N, Annett G, Wirthlin L, Olson S, Bauer G, Nolta JA

Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSCs) present a promising tool for cell therapy, and are currently being tested in US FDA-approved clinical trials for myocardial infarction, stroke, meniscus injury, limb ischemia, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune disorders.

They have been extensively tested and proven effective in preclinical studies for these and many other disorders. There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for those that are fatal and difficult to treat, such as Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proposed regenerative approaches to neurological diseases using MSCs include cell therapies in which cells are delivered via intracerebral or intrathecal injection.

Upon transplantation into the brain, MSCs promote endogenous neuronal growth, decrease apoptosis, reduce levels of free radicals, encourage synaptic connection from damaged neurons and regulate inflammation, primarily through paracrine actions. MSCs transplanted into the brain have been demonstrated to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons.

Therapies will capitalize on the innate trophic support from MSCs or on augmented growth factor support, such as delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived neurotrophic factor into the brain to support injured neurons, using genetically engineered MSCs as the delivery vehicles. Clinical trials for MSC injection into the CNS to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke are currently ongoing. The current data in support of applying MSC-based cellular therapies to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

PMID: 21082892 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles Anatomical study: comparing the human, sheep and pig knee meniscus. J Exp Orthop. 2016 Dec;3(1):35 Authors: Takroni T, Laouar L, Adesida A, Elliott JA, Jomha NM Abstract BACKGROUND: Animal models are commonly used in investigating new treatment options for knee joint injuries including injuries to the meniscus. The reliability and applicability of these models to replicate findings in humans depends on determining the most suitable animal proxy. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the wet weight, volume and dimensions of the human meniscus with two commonly used animal models: sheep and pig. METHODS: Human menisci (n = 6 pairs) were obtained from the knee joints of cadaveric male donors. Sheep menisci (n = 6 pairs) and pig menisci (n = 22 pairs) were obtained from the stifle joints of adult sheep and pigs. Meniscal wet weight, volume and dimensions of the body were measured and compared among the species. Anatomical dimensions included circumference, width, peripheral height, articular height and superior articular length. RESULTS: The circumference of human menisci (lateral: 84.0 mm, medial: 88.7 mm) was significantly longer than that of sheep (lateral: 50.0 mm, medial: 55.5 mm) and pig (lateral: 66.8 mm, medial: 64.9 mm). The majority of the remaining dimensions of the medial and all of the remaining dimensions of the lateral menisci in sheep showed no statistical difference in comparison to the human menisci. The meniscal weight in pig was significantly larger (lateral: 6.4 g, medial: 5.0 g) than the human (lateral: 4.9 g, medial: 4.4 g) and sheep (lateral: 2.5 g, medial: 2.2 g). Porcine meniscal volume (lateral: 6.5 ml, medial: 5.1 ml) was also larger than the human (lateral: 5.0 ml, medial: 4.5 ml) and sheep (lateral: 2.3 ml, medial: 2.2 ml) menisci. The dimensions measured in the pig meniscus were generally larger than human menisci with statistically significant differences in most categories. CONCLUSION: Sheep meniscal dimensions more closely matched human meniscal dimensions than the pig meniscal dimensions. This information may help guide the choice of an animal proxy in meniscal research. PMID: 27928740 [PubMed - in process]
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