Knee Injuries Stem Cell Treatment

Stem Cells are being used for Knee InjuriesStem Cell Treatment for knee Injury
Acute knee injury causes pain and swelling with problems bending the knee and taking weight. If the swelling occurs immediately, it can suggest a ligament tear or possible fracture.

If the swelling arises over a period of many hours, meniscal or cartilage injuries may be the cause. .

Longer-term symptoms that point to knee problems will include pain and swelling in addition to other complaints. Inflammation in the joint may be caused by even minor activity.

Giving way, or a feeling of instability of the knee, or, popping or grinding in the knee is associated with cartilage or meniscus tears.

"Locking" is the term used when the knee joint refuses to completely straighten, and this is almost always due to torn cartilage. In this situation, the torn piece of cartilage folds upon itself and doesn't allow the knee to extend.

 

 

Meniscus and Stem Cell Therapy

Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Med Hypotheses. 2008 Dec;71(6):900-8

Authors: Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D

Mesenchymal Stem Cells are pluripotent cells found in multiple human tissues including bone marrow, synovial tissues, and adipose tissues. They have been shown to differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue and represent a possible promising new therapy in regenerative medicine.

Because of their multi-potent capabilities, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineages have been used successfully in animal models to regenerate articular cartilage and in human models to regenerate bone.

The regeneration of articular cartilage via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's) is a topic of significant scientific and therapeutic interest.

Current treatment for cartilage damage in osteoarthritis focuses on surgical interventions such as arthroscopic debridement, microfracture, and cartilage grafting/transplant. These procedures have proven to be less effective than hoped, are invasive, and often entail a prolonged recovery time.

We hypothesize that autologous mesenchymal stem cells can be harvested from the iliac crest, expanded using the patient's own growth factors from platelet lysate, then successfully implanted to increase cartilage volume in an adult human knee.

We present a review highlighting the developments in cellular and regenerative medicine in the arena mesenchymal stem cell therapy, as well as a case of successful harvest, expansion, and transplant of autologous mesenchymal stem cells into an adult human knee that resulted in an increase in meniscal cartilage volume.

PMID: 18786777 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 Stem Cell Therapy and Knee Stem Cell Injection

 

Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

Regen Med. 2010 Nov;5(6):933-46

Authors: Joyce N, Annett G, Wirthlin L, Olson S, Bauer G, Nolta JA

Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSCs) present a promising tool for cell therapy, and are currently being tested in US FDA-approved clinical trials for myocardial infarction, stroke, meniscus injury, limb ischemia, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune disorders.

They have been extensively tested and proven effective in preclinical studies for these and many other disorders.

There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for those that are fatal and difficult to treat, such as Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Proposed regenerative approaches to neurological diseases using MSCs include cell therapies in which cells are delivered via intracerebral or intrathecal injection. Upon transplantation into the brain, MSCs promote endogenous neuronal growth, decrease apoptosis, reduce levels of free radicals, encourage synaptic connection from damaged neurons and regulate inflammation, primarily through paracrine actions. MSCs transplanted into the brain have been demonstrated to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons.

Therapies will capitalize on the innate trophic support from MSCs or on augmented growth factor support, such as delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived neurotrophic factor into the brain to support injured neurons, using genetically engineered MSCs as the delivery vehicles. Clinical trials for MSC injection into the CNS to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke are currently ongoing. The current data in support of applying MSC-based cellular therapies to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

PMID: 21082892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

Pain Physician. 2008 May-Jun;11(3):343-53

Authors: Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D

The ability to repair tissue via percutaneous means may allow interventional pain physicians to manage a wide variety of diseases including peripheral joint injuries and osteoarthritis. This review will highlight the developments in cellular medicine that may soon permit interventional pain management physicians to treat a much wider variety of clinical conditions and highlight an interventional case study using these technologies

PMID: 18523506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

Regen Med. 2010 Nov;5(6):933-46

Stem Cell Therapy and Knee Injuries

Knee Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: Joyce N, Annett G, Wirthlin L, Olson S, Bauer G, Nolta JA

Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSCs) present a promising tool for cell therapy, and are currently being tested in US FDA-approved clinical trials for myocardial infarction, stroke, meniscus injury, limb ischemia, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune disorders.

They have been extensively tested and proven effective in preclinical studies for these and many other disorders. There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for those that are fatal and difficult to treat, such as Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proposed regenerative approaches to neurological diseases using MSCs include cell therapies in which cells are delivered via intracerebral or intrathecal injection.

Upon transplantation into the brain, MSCs promote endogenous neuronal growth, decrease apoptosis, reduce levels of free radicals, encourage synaptic connection from damaged neurons and regulate inflammation, primarily through paracrine actions. MSCs transplanted into the brain have been demonstrated to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons.

Therapies will capitalize on the innate trophic support from MSCs or on augmented growth factor support, such as delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived neurotrophic factor into the brain to support injured neurons, using genetically engineered MSCs as the delivery vehicles. Clinical trials for MSC injection into the CNS to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke are currently ongoing. The current data in support of applying MSC-based cellular therapies to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

PMID: 21082892 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles Cartilaginous extracellular matrix derived from decellularized chondrocyte sheets for the reconstruction of osteochondral defects in rabbits. Acta Biomater. 2018 11;81:129-145 Authors: Wang Z, Li Z, Li Z, Wu B, Liu Y, Wu W Abstract Cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) materials derived from decellularized native articular cartilage are widely used in cartilage regeneration. However, it is difficult for endogenous cells to migrate into ECM derived from native cartilage owing to its nonporous structure and dense nature. Moreover, current decellularization approaches frequently lead to architectural breakdown and potential loss of surface composition of ECM. To solve this problem, we aimed to establish a novel biological ECM scaffold from chondrocyte sheets for cartilage regeneration. We cultured chondrocytes harvested from the auricular cartilage of 4-week-old New Zealand rabbits and enabled them to form cell sheets. These sheets were decellularized using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with three different concentrations, namely, 1%, 5%, and 10%, followed by 1% Triton X-100 and deoxyribonuclease enzyme solution. In vitro microstructural examination and mechanical tests demonstrated that 1% SDS not only removed chondrocytes completely but also maintained the native architecture and composition of ECM, thus avoiding the use of high-concentration SDS. Application of decellularized chondrocyte sheets for osteochondral defects in rabbits resulted in substantial host remodeling and variant regeneration of osteochondral tissues. One percent SDS-treated decellularized chondrocyte sheets contributed to the superior reconstruction of osteochondral defects as compared with 5% and 10% SDS groups, which includes vascularized subchondral bone, articular cartilage with adequate thickness, and integration with host tissues. Furthermore, ECM from 1% SDS significantly increased the migrating potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro. RT-PCR and western blot also revealed that ECM increased the expression of SOX-9 in BMSCs, whereas it decreased COL-X expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that the chondrocyte sheets decellularized with 1% SDS preserved the integrity and bioactivity, which favored cell recruitment and enabled osteochondral regeneration in the knee joints of rabbits, thus offering a promising approach for articular cartilage reconstruction without cell transplantation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Although biological extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from decellularized native cartilage has been widely used in cartilage regeneration, it is difficult for endogenous cells to migrate into ECM owing to its dense nature. Moreover, current decellularization approaches lead to architectural breakdown of ECM. This study established a novel biological ECM from decellularized chondrocyte sheets for cartilage regeneration. Our results suggested that cartilaginous ECM favored cell recruitment and enabled osteochondral regeneration in rabbits, thus offering a promising approach for articular cartilage reconstruction without cell transplantation. SDS 1% adequately decellularized the chondrocytes in cell sheets, whereas it maintained the native architecture and composition of ECM, thereby avoiding the use of high-concentration SDS and providing a new way to acquire cartilaginous ECM. PMID: 30300711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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