Stem Cell Treatment Heart Disease

Stem Cells and Heart Disease

Stem Cell Treatments for Heart Disease is an Option

Cardiovascular diseases remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide, though over the last two decades, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined in many high-income countries but have increased at an astonishingly fast rate in low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease range from 4% in high-income countries to 42% in low-income countries. More than 17 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008. Each year, heart disease kills more Americans than cancer. In recent years, cardiovascular risk in women has been increasing and has killed more women than breast cancer.

Measures to prevent cardiovascular disease may include:

  • Keeping unapposed simple carbohydrates under control, no matter what type: fruit, bread, dairy, etc.
  • decrease emotional stress, or how you react to the environment (traffic, work, deadlines, lifestyle, etc.)
  • a low fat high fiber diet including whole grains and plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables (at least five portions a day)
  • a diet high in complex vegetables and colorful fruit
  • tobacco cessation;
  • limit alcohol consumption;
  • lower blood pressures if elevated through diet and exercise;
  • decrease body fat (BMI);
  • increase daily activity to 30 minutes of any kind of exercise per day at least five times per week

A fairly recent emphasis is on the link between low-grade inflammation that hallmarks atherosclerosis and its possible interventions. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a common inflammatory marker that has been found to be present in increased levels in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. Also osteoprotegerin which is involved with regulation of a key inflammatory transcription factor called NF-κB has been found to be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Studies have shown that Stem Cells have shown the ability to reduce inflammation.


Stem Cell Treatments for Heart Disease is an Option

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Related Articles Protection effect of nicotinamide on cardiomyoblast hypoxia/re-oxygenation injury: study of cellular mitochondrial metabolism. Mol Biosyst. 2016 Jun 21;12(7):2257-64 Authors: Wang H, Liang X, Luo G, Ding M, Liang Q Abstract Hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) injury is an important cause of heart failure and results in a critical metabolism dysfunction. In this paper, the cytoprotective effect of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) precursor nicotinamide was evaluated using an in vitro model of cardiac H/R injury. Nicotinamide (0-20 mM) was applied to the myoblast cell line H9c2 which was subjected to hypoxia (12, 24, 36 h) followed by a re-oxygenation process (0, 4, 8, 12 h). Cell viability was measured, and mitochondrial metabolites were extracted and then measured by HPLC/MS/MS. The present study showed that nicotinamide could down-regulate the NADH/NAD ratio and then maintain the NAD-dependent metabolism processes. Furthermore, an aberrant decrease of fumarate levels and an increase of succinate levels were observed in the nicotinamide group, which was demonstrated to be caused by nicotinamide-induced succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibition. These results suggest that nicotinamide exerts a protective effect on cardiomyoblasts against H/R-induced injury through both NADH/NAD regulation and reduction of reactive oxygen species generation via SDH inhibition. PMID: 27156848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Preclinical study on induction of pluripotent stem cells from urine of dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Apr;20(8):1450-7 Authors: Lin YH, Chen XM, Zhang JW, He XQ, Dai WJ, Chen MS Abstract OBJECTIVE: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is featured by left or bilateral ventricular dilation combined with systolic dysfunction. Its clinical manifestations include heart enlargement, cardiac failure, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest. Medication and heart transplantation have but only limited treatment effect on DCM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) treatment provides a new solution for DCM treatment. Human renal epithelial cells were extracted from the urine of patients with DCM and transfected with Sendai virus carrying OCT3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc gene to generate iPSCs by reprogramming. RESULTS: The morphology and pluripotency of iPSCs obtained from the renal epithelial cells from patients with DCM were confirmed, as well as the growth characteristics, immunohistochemical features and surface markers of embryonic stem cells. Teratoma was formed in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that it was feasible to obtain iPSCs from the urine of patients with DCM. This technique lays down the cytological foundation for understanding the pathogenesis and for drug screening and gene therapy for DCM. PMID: 27160114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Intramyocardial Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Increases Pericardial Fat with Recovery of Myocardial Function after Acute Myocardial Infarction. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0158067 Authors: Kim JH, Hong SJ, Park CY, Park JH, Choi SC, Woo SK, Yu JW, Cheon GJ, Joo HJ, Lim DS Abstract Intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) with other cell types in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) animal models has consistently shown promising clinical regenerative capacities. We investigated the effects of intramyocardial injections of mouse ASC (mASC) with mouse endothelial cells (mEC) on left ventricular function and generation of pericardial fat in AMI rats. AMI rat models were created by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery and were randomly assigned into four groups: control (n = 10), mASC (n = 10), mEC (n = 10) and mASC+mEC (n = 10) via direct intramyocardial injections, and each rat received 1x106 cells around three peri-infarct areas. Echocardiography and cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) were compared at baseline and on 28 days after AMI. Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction measured by PET, increased significantly in mASC and mASC+mEC groups compared to mEC and control groups. Furthermore, significant decreases in fibrosis were confirmed after sacrifice on 28 days in mASC and mASC+mEC groups. Successful cell engraftment was confirmed by positive Y-Chromosome staining in the transplantation region. Pericardial fat increased significantly in mASC and mASC+mEC groups compared to control group, and pericardial fat was shown to originate from the AMI rat. mASC group expressed higher adiponectin and lower leptin levels in plasma than control group. In addition, pericardial fat from AMI rats demonstrated increased phospho-AMPK levels and reduced phospho-ACC levels. Intramyocardial mASC transplantation after AMI in rats increased pericardial fat, which might play a protective role in the recovery of myocardial function after ischemic myocardial damage. PMID: 27336402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Immunotherapy for infectious diseases in haematological immunocompromise. Br J Haematol. 2017 May;177(3):348-356 Authors: Cutino-Moguel MT, Eades C, Rezvani K, Armstrong-James D Abstract Opportunistic infections remain a major problem across a broad spectrum of immunocompromised haematological patient groups, with viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa all presenting significant challenges. Given the major difficulties in treating many of these infections with the currently available antimicrobial chemotherapeutic arsenal, and the rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance amongst all of the microbial kingdoms, novel strategies that enable host control or elimination of infection are urgently required. Recently, major progress has been made in our understanding of host immunocompromise in the haematological patient. In addition, a wide range of novel immunomodulatory strategies for infectious diseases have been developed. Here we discuss the major and wide-ranging areas of progress that have been made for host-directed immunotherapies in the context of infectious diseases, with relevance to haematological immunocompromise. PMID: 28369798 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Molecular Imaging in stem cell-based therapies of cardiac diseases. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2017 Jul 19;: Authors: Li X, Hacker M Abstract In the past 15years, despite regenerative medicine has shown great potential for cardiovascular diseases, the outcome and safety of stem cell transplantation has shown controversial results in the published literature. Medical imaging might be useful for monitoring and quantification transplanted cells within the heart and to serially characterize the effects of stem cell therapy of the myocardium. From the multiple available noninvasive imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging by positron (PET) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) are the most used clinical approaches to follow the fate of transplanted stem cells in vivo. In this article, we provide a review on the role of different noninvasive imaging modalities and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We focus on the different in-vivo labeling and reporter gene imaging strategies for stem cell tracking as well as the concept and reliability to use imaging parameters as noninvasive surrogate endpoints for the evaluation of the post-therapeutic outcome. PMID: 28734900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Influence of patient related factors on number of mesenchymal stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical treatment. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2017 Jul 24;:1-8 Authors: Qayyum AA, Kaur KP, Mathiasen AB, Haack-Sørensen M, Ekblond A, Kastrup J Abstract BACKGROUND: Number of stromal cells injected in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may be of importance for the treatment efficacy, which in turn may be influenced by various patient-related factors. In this study, we investigate whether patient-related factors influence the number of autologous stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical therapy. METHODS: Culture expansion data from 111 patients with IHD treated with autologous stromal cells in three clinical trials were used. We correlated the final cell count after two passages of cultivation with different patient factors. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between body mass index (BMI) and the number of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) reached after culture expansion and for all patients included into the three studies (r = 0.375, p = .019 and r = 0.200, p = .036, respectively). Moreover, there was a significantly higher number of ASCs reached in patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension and for all patients overall (68.8 ± 39.6 × 10(6) vs. 39.1 ± 23.6 × 10(6), p = .020 and 62.0 ± 55.0 × 10(6) vs. 29.0 ± 19.3 × 10(6), p < .001, respectively). The same tendency was seen with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension (58.4 ± 61.8 × 10(6) vs. 22.6 ± 13.3 × 10(6), p < .001) and in males compared to females (56.4 ± 61.5 × 10(6) vs. 30.9 ± 27.9 × 10(6), p = .041). Moreover, a significant negative correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and number of MSCs was found (r = -0.287, p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Patient related factors such as BMI, hypertension and gender may influence the number of MSCs reached after in vitro culture expansion. PMID: 28737959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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