Stem Cell Treatment Heart Disease

Stem Cells and Heart Disease

Stem Cell Treatments for Heart Disease is an Option

Cardiovascular diseases remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide, though over the last two decades, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined in many high-income countries but have increased at an astonishingly fast rate in low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease range from 4% in high-income countries to 42% in low-income countries. More than 17 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008. Each year, heart disease kills more Americans than cancer. In recent years, cardiovascular risk in women has been increasing and has killed more women than breast cancer.

Measures to prevent cardiovascular disease may include:

  • Keeping unapposed simple carbohydrates under control, no matter what type: fruit, bread, dairy, etc.
  • decrease emotional stress, or how you react to the environment (traffic, work, deadlines, lifestyle, etc.)
  • a low fat high fiber diet including whole grains and plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables (at least five portions a day)
  • a diet high in complex vegetables and colorful fruit
  • tobacco cessation;
  • limit alcohol consumption;
  • lower blood pressures if elevated through diet and exercise;
  • decrease body fat (BMI);
  • increase daily activity to 30 minutes of any kind of exercise per day at least five times per week

A fairly recent emphasis is on the link between low-grade inflammation that hallmarks atherosclerosis and its possible interventions. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a common inflammatory marker that has been found to be present in increased levels in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. Also osteoprotegerin which is involved with regulation of a key inflammatory transcription factor called NF-κB has been found to be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Studies have shown that Stem Cells have shown the ability to reduce inflammation.

 

Stem Cell Treatments for Heart Disease is an Option

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Related Articles Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress by intermedin1-53 attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in ApoE KO Mice. Endocrine. 2018 10;62(1):90-106 Authors: Ni XQ, Lu WW, Zhang JS, Zhu Q, Ren JL, Yu YR, Liu XY, Wang XJ, Han M, Jing Q, Du J, Tang CS, Qi YF Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is involved in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Since bioactive peptide intermedin (IMD)1-53 protects against AAA formation, here we investigated whether IMD1-53 attenuates AAA by inhibiting ERS. AAA model was induced by angiotensin II (AngII) in ApoE KO mouse background. AngII-treated mouse aortas showed increased ERS gene transcription of caspase12, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a (eIf2a) and activating transcription factor 4(ATF4).The protein level of ERS marker glucose regulated protein 94(GRP94), ATF4 and C/EBP homologous protein 10(CHOP) was also up-regulated by AngII. Increased ERS levels were accompanied by severe VSMC apoptosis in human AAA aorta. In vivo administration of IMD1-53 greatly reduced AngII-induced AAA and abrogated the activation of ERS. To determine whether IMD inhibited AAA by ameliorating ERS, we used 2 non-selective ERS inhibitors phenyl butyrate (4-PBA) and taurine (TAU). Similar to IMD, PBA, and TAU significantly reduced the incidence of AAA and AAA-related pathological disorders. In vitro, AngII infusion up-regulated CHOP, caspase12 expression and led to VSMC apoptosis. IMD siRNA aggravated the CHOP, caspase12-mediated VSMC apoptosis, which was abolished by ATF4 silencing. IMD infusion promoted the phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in aortas in ApoE KO mice, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C abolished the protective effect of IMD on VSMC ERS and apoptosis induced by AngII. In conclusion, IMD may protect against AAA formation by inhibiting ERS via activating AMPK phosphorylation. PMID: 29943223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Hypoimmunogenic derivatives of induced pluripotent stem cells evade immune rejection in fully immunocompetent allogeneic recipients. Nat Biotechnol. 2019 Feb 18;: Authors: Deuse T, Hu X, Gravina A, Wang D, Tediashvili G, De C, Thayer WO, Wahl A, Garcia JV, Reichenspurner H, Davis MM, Lanier LL, Schrepfer S Abstract Autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) constitute an unlimited cell source for patient-specific cell-based organ repair strategies. However, their generation and subsequent differentiation into specific cells or tissues entail cell line-specific manufacturing challenges and form a lengthy process that precludes acute treatment modalities. These shortcomings could be overcome by using prefabricated allogeneic cell or tissue products, but the vigorous immune response against histo-incompatible cells has prevented the successful implementation of this approach. Here we show that both mouse and human iPSCs lose their immunogenicity when major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes are inactivated and CD47 is over-expressed. These hypoimmunogenic iPSCs retain their pluripotent stem cell potential and differentiation capacity. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes derived from hypoimmunogenic mouse or human iPSCs reliably evade immune rejection in fully MHC-mismatched allogeneic recipients and survive long-term without the use of immunosuppression. These findings suggest that hypoimmunogenic cell grafts can be engineered for universal transplantation. PMID: 30778232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Modification with CREKA improves cell retention in a rat model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Stem Cells. 2019 Feb 19;: Authors: Chen J, Song Y, Huang Z, Zhang N, Xie X, Liu X, Yang H, Wang Q, Li M, Li Q, Gong H, Qian J, Pang Z, Ge J Abstract Poor cell homing limits the efficacy of cardiac cellular therapy. The homing peptide, cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine (CREKA), targets fibrin effectively which is involved in the repair process of tissue injury. Here, we assessed if CREKA-modified stem cells had enhanced fibrin-mediated homing ability resulting in better functional recovery and structural preservation in a rat myocardial injury model. CREKA-modified mesenchymal stem cells (CREKA-MSCs) were obtained via membrane fusion with CREKA-modified liposomes. The fibrin targeting ability of CREKA-MSCs was examined both in vitro and in vivo. Under both static and flow conditions in vitro, CREKA significantly enhanced MSCs binding ability to fibrin clots (2.6-and 2.3-fold, respectively). CREKA-MSCs showed 6.5-fold higher accumulation than unmodified MSCs in injured rat myocardium 1 day after administration, resulting in better structural preservation and functional recovery. Fibrin is therefore a novel target for enhancing homing of transplanted cells to injured myocardium, and the delivery system of fibrin-targeting is on behalf of a universalizable platform technology for regenerative medicine. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Poor cell homing limits the efficacy of cardiac cellular therapy. Fibrin ‍expression after myocardial injury render fibrin an ideal target for the delivery of stem cells. Here we developed fibrin-targeting stem cells for the repair of myocardial injury using CREKA as the targeting moiety. CREKA modified MSCs exhibited potent fibrin-targeting ability both in vitro and in vivo, highlighting the utility of active fibrin targeting in cardiac cellular therapy. © AlphaMed Press 2019. PMID: 30779865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Engineering Human Ventricular Heart Tissue Based on Macroporous Iron Oxide Scaffolds. Acta Biomater. 2019 Feb 16;: Authors: Yang H, Wei L, Liu C, Zhong W, Li B, Chen Y, Han R, Zhuang J, Qu J, Tao H, Chen H, Xu C, Liang Q, Lu C, Qian R, Chen S, Wang W, Sun N Abstract Myocardial infarction (MI) is a primary cardiovascular disease threatening human health and quality of life worldwide. The development of engineered heart tissues (EHTs) as a transplantable artificial myocardium provides a promising therapy for MI. Since most MIs occur at the ventricle, engineering ventricular-specific myocardium is therefore more desirable for future applications. Here, by combining a new macroporous 3D iron oxide scaffold (IOS) with a fixed ratio of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived ventricular-specific cardiomyocytes and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, we constructed a new type of engineered human ventricular-specific heart tissue (EhVHT). The EhVHT promoted expression of cardiac-specific genes, ion exchange, and exhibited a better Ca2+ handling behaviors and normal electrophysiological activity in vitro. Furthermore, when patched on the infarcted area, the EhVHT effectively promoted repair of heart tissues in vivo and facilitated the restoration of damaged heart function of rats with acute MI. Our results show that it is feasible to generate functional human ventricular heart tissue based on hPSC-derived ventricular myocytes for the treatment of ventricular-specific myocardium damage. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We successfully generated highly purified homogenous human ventricular myocytes and developed a method to generate human ventricular-specific heart tissue (EhVHT) based on three-dimensional iron oxide scaffolds. The EhVHT promoted expression of cardiac-specific genes, ion exchange, and exhibited a better Ca2+ handling behaviors and normal electrophysiological activity in vitro. Patching the EhVHT on the infarct area significantly improved cardiac function in rat acute MI models. This EhVHT has a great potential to meet the specific requirements for ventricular damages in most MI cases and for screening drugs specifically targeting ventricular myocardium. PMID: 30779999 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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