Stem Cell Treatment Hearing Loss

Stem Cell Treatment Hearing Loss at SIRM

Two Types:

1. Conductive hearing loss

A conductive hearing impairment is present when the sound is not reaching the inner ear, the cochlea. This can be due to external ear canal malformation, dysfunction of the eardrum or malfunction of the bones of the middle ear. The ear drum may show defects from small to total resulting in hearing loss of different degree. Scar tissue after ear infections may also make the ear drum dysfunction as well as when it is retracted and adherent to the medial part of the middle ear.

Dysfunction of the three small bones of the middle ear; hammer, anvil and stapes may result in conductive hearing loss. The mobility of the ossicles may be impaired of different reasons and disruption of the ossicular chain due to trauma, infection or anchylosis may also result in hearing loss.

2. Sensorineural hearing loss

A sensorineural hearing loss is one resulting from dysfunction of the inner ear, the cochlea, the nerve that transmits the impulses from the cochlea to the hearing centre in the brain or damage in the brain. The most common reason for sensorineural hearing impairment is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea. As we grow older the hair cells degenerate and lose their function, and our hearing deteriorates. Depending on the definition it could be estimated that more than 50% of the population over the age of 70 has an impaired hearing. Impaired hearing is the most common physical handicap in the industrialized world.

Another common reason for hearing loss due to hair cell damage is noise-induced hearing loss. These types of hearing loss are often most pronounced in the high frequency range. This will often interfere with speech understanding, as it is in the high frequency range that we find the consonant sounds that are most important especially in noisy surroundings. Head trauma, ear infections, tumours and ototoxic drugs such as gentamyacin are other reasons for sensorineural hearing loss.

Mixed hearing loss

Mixed hearing loss is a combination of the two types discussed above. Chronic ear infection that is a fairly common diagnosis could result in a defect ear drum and/or middle ear ossicle damages.

Stem Cell Treatment for Hearing Loss

Streaming NIH Database:

Related Articles Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of traumatic brain injury: progress and prospects. Rev Neurosci. 2019 Jun 13;: Authors: Das M, Mayilsamy K, Mohapatra SS, Mohapatra S Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of injury-related mortality and morbidity in the USA and around the world. The survivors may suffer from cognitive and memory deficits, vision and hearing loss, movement disorders, and different psychological problems. The primary insult causes neuronal damage and activates astrocytes and microglia which evokes immune responses causing further damage to the brain. Clinical trials of drugs to recover the neuronal loss are not very successful. Regenerative approaches for TBI using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem promising. Results of preclinical research have shown that transplantation of MSCs reduced secondary neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, promoted neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and improved functional outcome in the experimental animals. The functional improvement is not necessarily related to cell engraftment; rather, immunomodulation by molecular factors secreted by MSCs is responsible for the beneficial effects of this therapy. However, MSC therapy has a few drawbacks including tumor formation, which can be avoided by the use of MSC-derived exosomes. This review has focused on the research works published in the field of regenerative therapy using MSCs after TBI and its future direction. PMID: 31203262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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