Stem Cell Treatment Hearing Loss

Stem Cell Treatment Hearing Loss at SIRM

Two Types:

1. Conductive hearing loss

A conductive hearing impairment is present when the sound is not reaching the inner ear, the cochlea. This can be due to external ear canal malformation, dysfunction of the eardrum or malfunction of the bones of the middle ear. The ear drum may show defects from small to total resulting in hearing loss of different degree. Scar tissue after ear infections may also make the ear drum dysfunction as well as when it is retracted and adherent to the medial part of the middle ear.

Dysfunction of the three small bones of the middle ear; hammer, anvil and stapes may result in conductive hearing loss. The mobility of the ossicles may be impaired of different reasons and disruption of the ossicular chain due to trauma, infection or anchylosis may also result in hearing loss.

2. Sensorineural hearing loss

A sensorineural hearing loss is one resulting from dysfunction of the inner ear, the cochlea, the nerve that transmits the impulses from the cochlea to the hearing centre in the brain or damage in the brain. The most common reason for sensorineural hearing impairment is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea. As we grow older the hair cells degenerate and lose their function, and our hearing deteriorates. Depending on the definition it could be estimated that more than 50% of the population over the age of 70 has an impaired hearing. Impaired hearing is the most common physical handicap in the industrialized world.

Another common reason for hearing loss due to hair cell damage is noise-induced hearing loss. These types of hearing loss are often most pronounced in the high frequency range. This will often interfere with speech understanding, as it is in the high frequency range that we find the consonant sounds that are most important especially in noisy surroundings. Head trauma, ear infections, tumours and ototoxic drugs such as gentamyacin are other reasons for sensorineural hearing loss.

Mixed hearing loss

Mixed hearing loss is a combination of the two types discussed above. Chronic ear infection that is a fairly common diagnosis could result in a defect ear drum and/or middle ear ossicle damages.

Stem Cell Treatment for Hearing Loss

Streaming NIH Database:

Related Articles Photobiomodulation rescues the cochlea from noise-induced hearing loss via upregulating nuclear factor κB expression in rats. Brain Res. 2016 Sep 01;1646:467-74 Authors: Tamura A, Matsunobu T, Tamura R, Kawauchi S, Sato S, Shiotani A Abstract Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a noninvasive treatment that can be neuroprotective, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the mechanism of PBM as a novel treatment for noise-induced hearing loss, focusing on the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1-octave band noise centered at 4kHz for 5h (121dB). After noise exposure, their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser beam at an output power density of 165mW/cm(2) for 30min a day for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with PBM compared with the non-treatment group at 4, 7, and 14 days after noise exposure. Immunofluorescent image analysis for inducible nitric oxide synthase and cleaved caspase-3 showed lesser immunoreactivities in outer hair cells in the PBM group compared with the non-treatment group. However, immunofluorescent image analysis for NF-κB, an upstream protein of inducible nitric oxide synthase, revealed greater activation in the PBM group compared with the naïve and non-treatment groups. Western blot analysis for NF-κB also showed stronger activation in the cochlear tissues in the PBM group compared with the naïve and non-treatment groups (p<0.01, each). These data suggest that PBM activates NF-κB to induce protection against inducible nitric oxide synthase-triggered oxidative stress and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis that occur following noise-induced hearing loss. PMID: 27342816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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