Stem Cell Treatment Hearing Loss

Stem Cell Treatment Hearing Loss at SIRM

Two Types:

1. Conductive hearing loss

A conductive hearing impairment is present when the sound is not reaching the inner ear, the cochlea. This can be due to external ear canal malformation, dysfunction of the eardrum or malfunction of the bones of the middle ear. The ear drum may show defects from small to total resulting in hearing loss of different degree. Scar tissue after ear infections may also make the ear drum dysfunction as well as when it is retracted and adherent to the medial part of the middle ear.

Dysfunction of the three small bones of the middle ear; hammer, anvil and stapes may result in conductive hearing loss. The mobility of the ossicles may be impaired of different reasons and disruption of the ossicular chain due to trauma, infection or anchylosis may also result in hearing loss.

2. Sensorineural hearing loss

A sensorineural hearing loss is one resulting from dysfunction of the inner ear, the cochlea, the nerve that transmits the impulses from the cochlea to the hearing centre in the brain or damage in the brain. The most common reason for sensorineural hearing impairment is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea. As we grow older the hair cells degenerate and lose their function, and our hearing deteriorates. Depending on the definition it could be estimated that more than 50% of the population over the age of 70 has an impaired hearing. Impaired hearing is the most common physical handicap in the industrialized world.

Another common reason for hearing loss due to hair cell damage is noise-induced hearing loss. These types of hearing loss are often most pronounced in the high frequency range. This will often interfere with speech understanding, as it is in the high frequency range that we find the consonant sounds that are most important especially in noisy surroundings. Head trauma, ear infections, tumours and ototoxic drugs such as gentamyacin are other reasons for sensorineural hearing loss.

Mixed hearing loss

Mixed hearing loss is a combination of the two types discussed above. Chronic ear infection that is a fairly common diagnosis could result in a defect ear drum and/or middle ear ossicle damages.

Stem Cell Treatment for Hearing Loss

Streaming NIH Database:

Related Articles Dexamethasone-loaded chitosan-based genipin-cross-linked hydrogel for prevention of cisplatin induced ototoxicity in Guinea pig model. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Jul;122:60-69 Authors: Yüksel Aslıer NG, Tağaç AA, Durankaya SM, Çalışır M, Ersoy N, Kırkım G, Yurdakoç K, Bağrıyanık HA, Yılmaz O, Sütay S, Güneri EA Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of a sustained release form of dexamethasone (dex) loaded chitosan-based genipin-cross-linked hydrogel (CBGCH) in a guinea pig model of cisplatin (CP) induced hearing loss. METHODS: Implantation of CBGCH was made by intratympanic (IT) injection. Ototoxicity was produced by intraperitoneal (IP) single dose of 14 mg/kg CP. Animals were randomly divided into four groups with 6 guinea pigs in each. Group 1 received only IP CP; group 2 received only IT dex-loaded CBGCH injections. Group 3 and group 4 received IP CP, plus IT nondrug CBGCH and IT dex-loaded CBGCH respectively 24 h prior to IP CP injections. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements were obtained before the treatments and solely ABR measurements were done after 3 and 10 days. The ultrastructural effects were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. RESULTS: The postCP ABR thresholds at 4, 8, 12, 16, 32 kHz frequencies were significantly better in group 4 than groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.05). The comparison of time effective ABR thresholds between groups 1 and 4 and between groups 3 and 4 showed significantly lower ABR thresholds in group 4 (p < 0.05). The SEM analysis showed that stereocilia of inner and outer hair cells were preserved in group 4, almost like group 2, whereas cytotoxic degenerations were noted in groups 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Intratympanic administration of dex-loaded CBGCH has been shown to provide functional and structural protection against CP-induced ototoxicity. PMID: 30974336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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