Stroke Stem Cell Treatment

 

Stem Cell Treatment for StrokeStem Cell Treatment for a Stroke is an option

What is a Stroke?

Stroke and Stem Cell Therapy


A stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident or CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function due to the blood supply to the brain being disturbed. This can be from ischemia from the lack of blood flow or from a blockage known as Thrombosis, an Arterial Embolism, or a Haemorrhage where blood is leaking out or inside the brain.

The affected area of the brain is unable to function correctly and may result in an inability to move especially in one or more limbs on one side of the body. Stroke can also cause an inability to understand speech or speak or see properly. 

A stroke is a medical emergency that needs immediate medical attention. Stroke can cause permanent neurological damage and ongoing complications, and death. It is the a leading cause of adult disability in the around the world.

Risk factors for stroke include ederly people,  high blood pressure (hypertension), a previous stroke or from a transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Other related risk conditions include diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking and atrial fibrillation. High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke.

A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. A silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the person at risk for both transient ischemic attack and a major stroke occuring in the future.

People who have suffered a major stroke are at risk of having silent strokes as well.Stem Cell Treatment for Stroke

 

Stroke rehabilitation.

Lancet. 2011 May 14;377(9778):1693-702

Authors: Langhorne P, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G

Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics.

Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice.

PMID: 21571152 [PubMed - in process]

 

Stem Cell Treatment for Stroke NIH Streaming Database:

Related Articles Protective Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Extracellular Regulating Kinase 1/2 Against Stroke in Rats. Brain Res Bull. 2019 Apr 16;: Authors: Gao X, Wu D, Dou L, Zhang H, Huang L, Zeng J, Zhang Y, Yang C, Li H, Liu L, Ma B, Yuan Q Abstract OBJECTIVE: Although transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has shown beneficial effects on stroke, lower survival of MSCs limits effects. Extracellular regulating kinase 1/2 signaling (ERK1/2) is crucial for cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. This study was designed to explore whether MSCs modified by over-expressing ERK1/2 may reinforce beneficial effects on stroke in rats. METHODS: rat MSCs transfected with ERK1/2 and empty lentivirus to generate MSCs overexpressing ERK1/2 (ERK/MSCs) and MSCs (as a control), respectively. In vitro, ERK/MSCs were plated and exposed to glutamate-induced condition, and viability of ERK/MSCs was measured. Furthermore, neural induction of ERK/MSCs was investigated in vitro. Cerebral ischemic rats were induced by occluding middle cerebral artery, and then were stereotaxically injected into ipsilateral right lateral ventricle with ERK/MSCs or MSCs 3 days after stroke and survived for 7 or 14 days after injection. RESULTS: ERK/MSCs showed better viability in physiological and glutamate-induced neurotoxic conditions compared to MSCs. After neural induction, more neurons were be differentiated from ERK/MSCs than from MSCs. After transplantation, more numbers of grafted cells and improved functional recovery were observed in ERK/MSCs-treated rats compared with MSCs-treated rats. Compared with MSCs treatment, ERK/MSCs treatment significantly increased proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricle zone (SVZ) and the MAP2/nestin double-labeled cells adjacent to the SVZ, enhanced the numbers of reactive astrocytes while suppressed microglial activation. Besides, TNF-α level was elevated in ERK/MSCs-treated rats. CONCLUSION: ERK/MSCs transplantation showed better functional recovery after stroke in rats, likely in part through enhancing survival of MSCs and possibly by modulating the proliferation, neuronal de-differentiation and neuroinflammation. PMID: 31002912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Intracerebral Delivery in Complex 3-D Arrays: The Intracerebral Microinjection Instrument (IMI). World Neurosurg. 2019 Apr 16;: Authors: Cunningham M, Azimi S, Zhang G Abstract This video article describes and illustrates the function and application of the Intracerebral Microinjection Instrument (IMI). This newly developed technology allows delivery of therapeutics within the human brain in complex three-dimensional arrays using a single pass or minimal overlying penetrations through brain tissue. The IMI utilizes a delivery microcannula with a reduced diameter that minimizes local trauma and is capable of delivering precise volumes of therapeutics to discrete brain substructures. The IMI also permits simultaneous recording of neural activity during the delivery procedure enabling extreme precision using electrophysiological mapping. Surgical planning software designed specifically for the IMI enables strategic placement of multiple injections. This technology platform is presently being used successfully to deliver therapeutic stem cells to restore function in stroke patients. Additional applications of the IMI include delivery of viral vectors for gene therapy, infusion of neurotrophic factors, targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics, and delivery of antiretroviral medications. PMID: 31003027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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