Stroke Stem Cell Treatment

 

Stem Cell Treatment for StrokeStem Cell Treatment for a Stroke is an option

What is a Stroke?

Stroke and Stem Cell Therapy


A stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident or CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function due to the blood supply to the brain being disturbed. This can be from ischemia from the lack of blood flow or from a blockage known as Thrombosis, an Arterial Embolism, or a Haemorrhage where blood is leaking out or inside the brain.

The affected area of the brain is unable to function correctly and may result in an inability to move especially in one or more limbs on one side of the body. Stroke can also cause an inability to understand speech or speak or see properly. 

A stroke is a medical emergency that needs immediate medical attention. Stroke can cause permanent neurological damage and ongoing complications, and death. It is the a leading cause of adult disability in the around the world.

Risk factors for stroke include ederly people,  high blood pressure (hypertension), a previous stroke or from a transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Other related risk conditions include diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking and atrial fibrillation. High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke.

A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. A silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the person at risk for both transient ischemic attack and a major stroke occuring in the future.

People who have suffered a major stroke are at risk of having silent strokes as well.Stem Cell Treatment for Stroke

 

Stroke rehabilitation.

Lancet. 2011 May 14;377(9778):1693-702

Authors: Langhorne P, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G

Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics.

Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice.

PMID: 21571152 [PubMed - in process]

 

Stem Cell Treatment for Stroke NIH Streaming Database:

Related Articles Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells alleviate brain white matter injury via the enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in focal cerebral ischemic rats. Brain Res. 2018 02 01;1680:127-136 Authors: Yu X, Wu H, Zhao Y, Guo Y, Chen Y, Dong P, Mu Q, Wang X, Wang X Abstract The effects of transplanting bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of white matter damage are not well understood, nor are the underlying mechanisms. Recent studies showed that endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) can be stimulated to proliferate. Therefore, we explore the effects of BMSCs transplantation on white matter damage and the proliferation of OPCs in transient focal cerebral ischemic rats. BMSCs were transplanted into a group of rats that had undergone middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) 24 h after reperfusion. The ratswere examined by MRI-T2 and DTI sequencesdynamically. The proliferating cells were labeled by 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The effects of BMSC transplantation on neurons, axons, myelination, and proliferating OPCs were examined by Nissl staining, MBP/NF-H and BrdU/NG2 immunofluorescence staining7 days after transplantation. More Nissl-stained neuronswere found and the FA value of MRI-DTI was significantly higher in the MCAO + BMSCs group than in the MCAOgroup (both P < .01). The fold change of MBP protein was significantly higher in the MCAO + BMSCs group than in the MCAO group (P < .01); the same was true of NF-H protein. Additionally, there were more BrdU+NG2+ cells in the SVZ areas of the MCAO + BMSCs group than in the MCAO group (P < .01). BMSCs thus were shown to alleviate neuronal/axonal injury and promote the proliferation of OPCs and formation of myelin sheath, significantly alleviating white matter damage in focal cerebral ischemic rats. PMID: 29258846 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Comparisons of the therapeutic effects of three different routes of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in cerebral ischemic rats. Brain Res. 2018 02 01;1680:143-154 Authors: Zhang HL, Xie XF, Xiong YQ, Liu SM, Hu GZ, Cao WF, Wu XM Abstract Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are mainly administered via three routes: intra-arterial, intravenous and intracerebral. It has been reported that BMSC administration via each route ameliorates the functional deficits after cerebral ischemia. However, there have been no comparisons of the therapeutic benefits of BMSC administration through different delivery routes. In this study, we injected BMSCs into a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) through the intra-arterial, intravenous, or intracerebral route at day 7 after MCAO. Control animals received only the vehicle. Neurological function was assessed at post-ischemic days (PIDs) 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 using behavioral tests (modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) and the adhesive removal test). At PID 35, the rat brain tissues were processed for histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. Our results showed that BMSC transplantation via the intra-arterial, intravenous, and intracerebral routes induced greater improvement in neurological functions than the control treatments; furthermore, the intra-arterial route showed the greatest degree and speed of neurological functional recovery. Moreover, BMSCs treatment through each route enhanced reconstruction of axonal myelination in the area of the corpus callosum on the infarct side of the cerebral hemisphere, increased the expression of SYN and Ki-67, and decreased the expression of Nogo-A in the brain. These effects were more apparent in the intra-arterial group than in the intravenous and intracerebral groups. These data suggest that BMSCs transplantation, especially through intra-arterial delivery, can effectively improve neurological function intra-arterial. The underlying mechanism may include the promotion of synaptogenesis, endogenous cell proliferation, and axonal regeneration. PMID: 29274877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Role of Exosomes as a Treatment and Potential Biomarker for Stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2018 Aug 13;: Authors: Otero-Ortega L, Laso-García F, Gómez-de Frutos M, Fuentes B, Diekhorst L, Díez-Tejedor E, Gutiérrez-Fernández M Abstract Approximately, 16 million strokes occur worldwide each year, causing 6 million deaths and considerable disability, implying an enormous social, individual health, and economic burden. Due to this high incidence, strategies to promote stroke recovery are urgently needed. Research into new therapeutic approaches for stroke has determined that intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a good strategy to improve recovery by amplifying mechanisms implicated in brain plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MSCs in stroke, with no need for them to reach the area of brain injury. Although the mechanisms by which they mediate restorative effects are still unknown, the evidence suggests that MSCs might use specialised communication by sending and receiving biological information included in elements called exosomes. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles released into physical environments, and they have recently been suggested to mediate restorative stem cell effects. Moreover, after stroke, exosomes can also be synthesised and released from brain cells, passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and can be detected in peripheral blood or in cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, exosomes could possibly be biomarkers that reflect pathological progress and promote stroke recovery. This review discusses the translational aspects of MSC-derived exosomes and their various roles in brain repair and as circulating biomarkers in stroke. PMID: 30105420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Amnion epithelial cells - a novel therapy for ischemic stroke? Neural Regen Res. 2018 Aug;13(8):1346-1349 Authors: Evans MA, Broughton BRS, Drummond GR, Ma H, Phan TG, Wallace EM, Lim R, Sobey CG Abstract Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and new therapies are desperately needed. Given the complex nature of ischemic brain injury, it has been postulated that cell-based therapies may be useful. However, cell resources, invasive extraction procedures, immunological rejection, tumorigenesis and ethical challenges make it unlikely that many stem cell types could serve as a practical source for therapy. By contrast, these issues do not pertain to human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), which are placenta-derived stem cells. We recently assessed the effects of systemically delivered hAECs on stroke outcome using four animal models of stroke. We demonstrated that when injected intravenously after ischemia onset, hAECs migrate preferentially to the spleen and injured brain to limit apoptosis and inflammation, and attenuate early brain infiltration of immune cells, progression of infarction and systemic immunosuppression and to ultimately ameliorate functional deficits. When administration of hAECs is delayed by 1-3 days post-stroke, long-term functional recovery can still be enhanced in young and aged mice of either sex. Moreover, our proof-of-principle findings suggest that hAECs are effective at limiting post-stroke infarct development in non-human primates. Overall, the results suggest that hAECs could be a viable clinical stroke therapy. PMID: 30106038 [PubMed]
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