Stem Cell Treatment for a Stroke is an option
What is a Stroke?
A stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident or CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function due to the blood supply to the brain being disturbed. This can be from ischemia from the lack of blood flow or from a blockage known as Thrombosis, an Arterial Embolism, or a Haemorrhage where blood is leaking out or inside the brain.
The affected area of the brain is unable to function correctly and may result in an inability to move especially in one or more limbs on one side of the body. Stroke can also cause an inability to understand speech or speak or see properly.
A stroke is a medical emergency that needs immediate medical attention. Stroke can cause permanent neurological damage and ongoing complications, and death. It is the a leading cause of adult disability in the around the world.
Risk factors for stroke include ederly people, high blood pressure (hypertension), a previous stroke or from a transient ischemic attack (TIA).
Other related risk conditions include diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking and atrial fibrillation. High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke.
A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. A silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the person at risk for both transient ischemic attack and a major stroke occuring in the future.
People who have suffered a major stroke are at risk of having silent strokes as well.
Lancet. 2011 May 14;377(9778):1693-702
Authors: Langhorne P, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G
Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics.
Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice.
PMID: 21571152 [PubMed - in process]
Stem Cell Treatment for Stroke NIH Streaming Database:
β1 integrin signaling promotes neuronal migration along vascular scaffolds in the post-stroke brain.
Related Articles β1 integrin signaling promotes neuronal migration along vascular scaffolds in the post-stroke brain. EBioMedicine. 2017 Feb;16:195-203 Authors: Fujioka T, Kaneko N, Ajioka I, Nakaguchi K, Omata T, Ohba H, Fässler R, García-Verdugo JM, Sekiguchi K, Matsukawa N, Sawamoto K Abstract Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration. To move toward the lesion, neuroblasts form chain-like aggregates and migrate along blood vessels, which are thought to increase their migration efficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these migration processes are largely unknown. Here we studied the role of β1-class integrins, transmembrane receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, in these migrating neuroblasts. We found that the neuroblast chain formation and blood vessel-guided migration critically depend on β1 integrin signaling. β1 integrin facilitated the adhesion of neuroblasts to laminin and the efficient translocation of their soma during migration. Moreover, artificial laminin-containing scaffolds promoted neuroblast chain formation and migration toward the injured area. These data suggest that laminin signaling via β1 integrin supports vasculature-guided neuronal migration to efficiently supply neuroblasts to injured areas. This study also highlights the importance of vascular scaffolds for cell migration in development and regeneration. PMID: 28153772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...
Related Articles Stem Cell Transplantation Therapy for Multifaceted Therapeutic Benefits after Stroke. Prog Neurobiol. 2017 Mar 16;: Authors: Wei L, Wei ZZ, Jiang MQ, Mohamad O, Yu SP Abstract One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures. Meanwhile, stem cells and neural progenitor cells are well-known for their potential for trophic support after transplantation into the ischemic brain. Thus, stem cell-based therapies provide an attractive future for protecting and repairing damaged brain tissues after injury and in various disease states. Moreover, basic research on naïve and differentiated stem cells including iPS cells has markedly improved our understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurological disorders, and provides a platform for the discovery of novel drug targets. The latest advances indicate that combinatorial approaches using cell based therapy with additional treatments such as protective reagents, preconditioning strategies and rehabilitation therapy can significantly improve therapeutic benefits. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of cell therapy in different ischemic models and the application of stem cells and progenitor cells as regenerative medicine for the treatment of stroke. PMID: 28322920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more...