Torn Ligaments and Sports Injuries Stem Cell Treatments

 

Stem Cells For Torn LigamentsStem Cells for Torn Ligaments and Sports Injuries

 

Stem cells for tendon tissue engineering and regeneration.

Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010 May;10(5):689-700

Authors: Yin Z, Chen X, Chen JL, Ouyang HW

Tendon injuries are common especially in sports activities, but tendon is a unique connective tissue with poor self-repair capability. With advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering is becoming increasingly powerful for tissue regeneration.

Stem cells with capacity of multipotency and self-renewal are an ideal cell source for tissue engineering.

PMID: 20367125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Repair of chronic osteochondral defects using predifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells in an ovine model.

Am J Sports Med. 2010 Sep;38(9):1857-69

Authors: Zscharnack M, Hepp P, Richter R, Aigner T, Schulz R, Somerson J, Josten C, Bader A, Marquass B

The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat osteochondral defects caused by sports injuries or disease is of particular interest. However, there is a lack of studies in large-animal models examining the benefits of chondrogenic predifferentiation in vitro for repair of chronic osteochondral defects.

Stem Cell Therapy for Sports Injuries

                           Sports Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy

 

Innovative strategies for treatment

of soft tissue injuries in human and animal athletes.

Med Sport Sci. 2009;54:150-65

Authors: Hoffmann A, Gross G

Our aim is to review the recent progress in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. We will cover novel therapeutic approaches based on growth factors, gene therapy and cells, including stem cells, which may be combined with each other as appropriate.

We focus mainly on the treatment of soft tissue injuries - muscle, cartilage, and tendon/ligament for both human and animal athletes.

The need for innovative strategies results from the fact that despite all efforts, the current strategies for cartilage and tendon/ligament still result in the formation of functionally and biomechanically inferior tissues after injury (a phenomenon called 'repair' as opposed to proper 'regeneration'), whereas the outcome for muscle is more favorable.

Innovative approaches are urgently needed not only to enhance the outcome of conservative or surgical procedures but also to speed up the healing process from the very long disabling periods, which is of special relevance for athletes.

 

The roles of TGF-beta1 gene transfer on collagen formation during Achilles tendon healing.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 May 29;383(2):235-9

Authors: Hou Y, Mao Z, Wei X, Lin L, Chen L, Wang H, Fu X, Zhang J, Yu C

Collagen content and cross-linking are believed to be major determinants of tendon structural integrity and function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the collagen content and cross-linking of Achilles tendons, and on the histological and biomechanical changes occurring during Achilles tendon healing in rabbits.

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with the TGF-beta1 gene were surgically implanted into experimentally injured Achilles tendons. Collagen proteins were identified by immunohistochemical staining and fiber bundle accumulation was revealed by Sirius red staining.

Achilles tendons treated with TGF-beta1-transfected BMSCs showed higher concentrations of collagen I protein, more rapid matrix remodeling, and larger fiber bundles.

Thus TGF-beta1 can promote mechanical strength in healing Achilles tendons by regulating collagen synthesis, cross-link formation, and matrix remodeling.

 

Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair: a review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009 Nov;17(11):1289-97

Authors: Koga H, Engebretsen L, Brinchmann JE, Muneta T, Sekiya I

Articular cartilage injury remains one of the major concerns in orthopaedic surgery. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been introduced to avoid some of the side effects and complications of current techniques. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on MSC-based cell therapy for articular cartilage repair to determine if it can be an alternative treatment for cartilage injury.

MSCs retain both high proliferative potential and multipotentiality, including chondrogenic differentiation potential, and a number of successful results in transplantation of MSCs into cartilage defects have been reported in animal studies. However, the use of MSCs for cartilage repair is still at the stage of preclinical and phase I studies, and no comparative clinical studies have been reported. Therefore, it is difficult to make conclusions in human studies.

This requires randomized clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of cell-based cell therapy for cartilage repair.

Related Articles Stem cell injections in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Aug;51(15):1125-1133 Authors: Pas HI, Winters M, Haisma HJ, Koenis MJ, Tol JL, Moen MH Abstract OBJECTIVE: Stem cell injection for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is an emerging new therapy, and we aimed to review its evidence of efficacy. DESIGN: Systematic review. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Criteria for eligibility were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCT on the efficacy of stem cell injections in KOA. All references were checked for missed articles. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PEDro and SPORTDiscus were searched. A grey literature search was performed. No restrictions were imposed to our search strategy. RISK OF BIAS AND DATA SYNTHESIS: Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Descriptive synthesis was performed using the levels of evidence according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence. RESULTS: Five RCTs and one non-RCT were found. Bone-marrow-derived stem cells, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and peripheral blood stem cells were used. All trials were at high risk of bias, resulting in level-3 evidence. All five RCTs reported superior efficacy for patient-reported outcomes (Visual Analogue Scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, Tegner, Lysolm, International Knee Documentation Committee, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lequesne) compared with controls at final follow-up (range 24-48 months). Superior radiological outcomes were found favouring stem cell injection. Superior histological outcomes and/or improved arthroscopically scored healing rates were reported in two trials. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Six trials with high risk of bias showed level-3 or level-4 evidence in favour of stem cell injections in KOA. In the absence of high-level evidence, we do not recommend stem cell therapy for KOA. PMID: 28258177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...

Quick Contact Form