Torn Ligaments and Sports Injuries Stem Cell Treatments


Stem Cells For Torn LigamentsStem Cells for Torn Ligaments and Sports Injuries


Stem cells for tendon tissue engineering and regeneration.

Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010 May;10(5):689-700

Authors: Yin Z, Chen X, Chen JL, Ouyang HW

Tendon injuries are common especially in sports activities, but tendon is a unique connective tissue with poor self-repair capability. With advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering is becoming increasingly powerful for tissue regeneration.

Stem cells with capacity of multipotency and self-renewal are an ideal cell source for tissue engineering.

PMID: 20367125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Repair of chronic osteochondral defects using predifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells in an ovine model.

Am J Sports Med. 2010 Sep;38(9):1857-69

Authors: Zscharnack M, Hepp P, Richter R, Aigner T, Schulz R, Somerson J, Josten C, Bader A, Marquass B

The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat osteochondral defects caused by sports injuries or disease is of particular interest. However, there is a lack of studies in large-animal models examining the benefits of chondrogenic predifferentiation in vitro for repair of chronic osteochondral defects.

Stem Cell Therapy for Sports Injuries

                           Sports Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy


Innovative strategies for treatment

of soft tissue injuries in human and animal athletes.

Med Sport Sci. 2009;54:150-65

Authors: Hoffmann A, Gross G

Our aim is to review the recent progress in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. We will cover novel therapeutic approaches based on growth factors, gene therapy and cells, including stem cells, which may be combined with each other as appropriate.

We focus mainly on the treatment of soft tissue injuries - muscle, cartilage, and tendon/ligament for both human and animal athletes.

The need for innovative strategies results from the fact that despite all efforts, the current strategies for cartilage and tendon/ligament still result in the formation of functionally and biomechanically inferior tissues after injury (a phenomenon called 'repair' as opposed to proper 'regeneration'), whereas the outcome for muscle is more favorable.

Innovative approaches are urgently needed not only to enhance the outcome of conservative or surgical procedures but also to speed up the healing process from the very long disabling periods, which is of special relevance for athletes.


The roles of TGF-beta1 gene transfer on collagen formation during Achilles tendon healing.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 May 29;383(2):235-9

Authors: Hou Y, Mao Z, Wei X, Lin L, Chen L, Wang H, Fu X, Zhang J, Yu C

Collagen content and cross-linking are believed to be major determinants of tendon structural integrity and function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the collagen content and cross-linking of Achilles tendons, and on the histological and biomechanical changes occurring during Achilles tendon healing in rabbits.

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with the TGF-beta1 gene were surgically implanted into experimentally injured Achilles tendons. Collagen proteins were identified by immunohistochemical staining and fiber bundle accumulation was revealed by Sirius red staining.

Achilles tendons treated with TGF-beta1-transfected BMSCs showed higher concentrations of collagen I protein, more rapid matrix remodeling, and larger fiber bundles.

Thus TGF-beta1 can promote mechanical strength in healing Achilles tendons by regulating collagen synthesis, cross-link formation, and matrix remodeling.


Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair: a review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009 Nov;17(11):1289-97

Authors: Koga H, Engebretsen L, Brinchmann JE, Muneta T, Sekiya I

Articular cartilage injury remains one of the major concerns in orthopaedic surgery. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been introduced to avoid some of the side effects and complications of current techniques. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on MSC-based cell therapy for articular cartilage repair to determine if it can be an alternative treatment for cartilage injury.

MSCs retain both high proliferative potential and multipotentiality, including chondrogenic differentiation potential, and a number of successful results in transplantation of MSCs into cartilage defects have been reported in animal studies. However, the use of MSCs for cartilage repair is still at the stage of preclinical and phase I studies, and no comparative clinical studies have been reported. Therefore, it is difficult to make conclusions in human studies.

This requires randomized clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of cell-based cell therapy for cartilage repair.

Related Articles One-Stage Cartilage Repair Using a Hyaluronic Acid-Based Scaffold With Activated Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Compared With Microfracture: Five-Year Follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2016 Nov;44(11):2846-2854 Authors: Gobbi A, Whyte GP Abstract BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage injury is frequently encountered, yet treatment options capable of providing durable cartilage repair are limited. PURPOSE: To investigate the medium-term clinical outcomes of cartilage repair using a 1-stage technique of a hyaluronic acid-based scaffold with activated bone marrow aspirate concentrate (HA-BMAC) and compare results with those of microfracture. A secondary aim of this study was to identify specific patient demographic factors and cartilage lesion characteristics that are associated with superior outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Fifty physically active patients (mean age, 45 years) with grade IV cartilage injury of the knee (lesion size, 1.5-24 cm(2)) were treated with HA-BMAC or microfracture and were observed prospectively for 5 years. Patients were placed into the HA-BMAC group if the health insurance policy of the treating institution supported this option; otherwise, they were placed into the microfracture group. Objective and subjective clinical assessment tools were used preoperatively and at 2 and 5 years postoperatively to compare treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Significant improvements in outcome scores were achieved in both treatment groups at 2 years (P < .001). In the microfracture group, 64% were classified as normal or nearly normal according to the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) objective score at 2 years, compared with 100% of those treated with HA-BMAC (P < .001). Normal or nearly normal objective assessments in the microfracture group declined significantly after 5 years to 28% of patients (P = .004). All patients treated with HA-BMAC maintained improvement at 5 years according to Lysholm, Tegner, IKDC objective, and IKDC subjective scores. Tegner, IKDC objective, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) assessments demonstrated higher scores in the HA-BMAC treatment group compared with microfracture at 5 years. Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores were similar between treatment groups at 5 years. Poorer outcomes in the microfracture group were demonstrated in cases of lesions larger than 4 cm(2) and nonsolitary lesions. Age greater than 45 years, large size of lesion, and treatment of multiple lesions were not associated with poorer outcome in patients treated with HA-BMAC. CONCLUSION: Repair of chondral injury using a hyaluronic acid-based scaffold with activated bone marrow aspirate concentrate provides better clinical outcomes and more durable cartilage repair at medium-term follow-up compared with microfracture. Positive short-term clinical outcomes can be achieved with either microfracture or HA-BMAC. Cartilage repair using HA-BMAC leads to successful medium-term outcomes independent of age or lesion size. PMID: 27474386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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