Stem Cells for Torn Ligaments and Sports Injuries
Stem cells for tendon tissue engineering and regeneration.
Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010 May;10(5):689-700
Authors: Yin Z, Chen X, Chen JL, Ouyang HW
Tendon injuries are common especially in sports activities, but tendon is a unique connective tissue with poor self-repair capability. With advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering is becoming increasingly powerful for tissue regeneration.
Stem cells with capacity of multipotency and self-renewal are an ideal cell source for tissue engineering.
PMID: 20367125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Repair of chronic osteochondral defects using predifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells in an ovine model.
Am J Sports Med. 2010 Sep;38(9):1857-69
Authors: Zscharnack M, Hepp P, Richter R, Aigner T, Schulz R, Somerson J, Josten C, Bader A, Marquass B
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat osteochondral defects caused by sports injuries or disease is of particular interest. However, there is a lack of studies in large-animal models examining the benefits of chondrogenic predifferentiation in vitro for repair of chronic osteochondral defects.
Innovative strategies for treatment
of soft tissue injuries in human and animal athletes.
Med Sport Sci. 2009;54:150-65
Authors: Hoffmann A, Gross G
Our aim is to review the recent progress in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. We will cover novel therapeutic approaches based on growth factors, gene therapy and cells, including stem cells, which may be combined with each other as appropriate.
We focus mainly on the treatment of soft tissue injuries - muscle, cartilage, and tendon/ligament for both human and animal athletes.
The need for innovative strategies results from the fact that despite all efforts, the current strategies for cartilage and tendon/ligament still result in the formation of functionally and biomechanically inferior tissues after injury (a phenomenon called 'repair' as opposed to proper 'regeneration'), whereas the outcome for muscle is more favorable.
Innovative approaches are urgently needed not only to enhance the outcome of conservative or surgical procedures but also to speed up the healing process from the very long disabling periods, which is of special relevance for athletes.
The roles of TGF-beta1 gene transfer on collagen formation during Achilles tendon healing.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 May 29;383(2):235-9
Authors: Hou Y, Mao Z, Wei X, Lin L, Chen L, Wang H, Fu X, Zhang J, Yu C
Collagen content and cross-linking are believed to be major determinants of tendon structural integrity and function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the collagen content and cross-linking of Achilles tendons, and on the histological and biomechanical changes occurring during Achilles tendon healing in rabbits.
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with the TGF-beta1 gene were surgically implanted into experimentally injured Achilles tendons. Collagen proteins were identified by immunohistochemical staining and fiber bundle accumulation was revealed by Sirius red staining.
Achilles tendons treated with TGF-beta1-transfected BMSCs showed higher concentrations of collagen I protein, more rapid matrix remodeling, and larger fiber bundles.
Thus TGF-beta1 can promote mechanical strength in healing Achilles tendons by regulating collagen synthesis, cross-link formation, and matrix remodeling.
Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair: a review.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009 Nov;17(11):1289-97
Authors: Koga H, Engebretsen L, Brinchmann JE, Muneta T, Sekiya I
Articular cartilage injury remains one of the major concerns in orthopaedic surgery. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been introduced to avoid some of the side effects and complications of current techniques. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on MSC-based cell therapy for articular cartilage repair to determine if it can be an alternative treatment for cartilage injury.
MSCs retain both high proliferative potential and multipotentiality, including chondrogenic differentiation potential, and a number of successful results in transplantation of MSCs into cartilage defects have been reported in animal studies. However, the use of MSCs for cartilage repair is still at the stage of preclinical and phase I studies, and no comparative clinical studies have been reported. Therefore, it is difficult to make conclusions in human studies.
This requires randomized clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of cell-based cell therapy for cartilage repair.
Therapeutic Mechanisms of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Tendon Injury Model.
Related Articles Therapeutic Mechanisms of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Tendon Injury Model. Am J Sports Med. 2017 Mar 01;:363546517689874 Authors: Lee SY, Kwon B, Lee K, Son YH, Chung SG Abstract BACKGROUND: Although survival of transplanted stem cells in vivo and differentiation of stem cells into tenocytes in vitro have been reported, there have been no in vivo studies demonstrating that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could secrete their own proteins as differentiated tenogenic cells. Purpose/Hypothesis: Using a xenogeneic MSC transplantation model, we aimed to investigate whether MSCs could differentiate into the tenogenic lineage and secrete their own proteins. The hypothesis was that human MSCs would differentiate into the human tenogenic lineage and the cells would be able to secrete human-specific proteins in a rat tendon injury model. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: The Achilles tendons of 57 Sprague Dawley rats received full-thickness rectangular defects. After the modeling, the defective tendons were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) cell group, implantation with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) and fibrin glue (10(6) cells in 60 μL); (2) fibrin group, implantation with fibrin glue and same volume of cell media; and (3) sham group, identical surgical procedure without any treatment. Gross observation and biomechanical, histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analyses were performed at 2 and 4 weeks after modeling. RESULTS: hASCs implanted into the defective rat tendons were viable for 4 weeks as detected by immunofluorescence staining. Tendons treated with hASCs showed better gross morphological and biomechanical recovery than those in the fibrin and sham groups. Furthermore, the expression of both human-specific collagen type I and tenascin-C was significantly higher in the cell group than in the other 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of hASCs enhanced rat tendon healing biomechanically. hASCs implanted into the rat tendon defect model survived for at least 4 weeks and secreted human-specific collagen type I and tenascin-C. These findings suggest that transplanted MSCs may be able to differentiate into the tenogenic lineage and contribute their own proteins to tendon healing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In tendon injury, MSCs can enhance tendon healing by secreting their own protein and have potential as a therapeutic option in human tendinopathy. PMID: 28291954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more...