Stem Cell Treatmtent for Retinitis Pigmentosa
Retinitis Pigmentosa treatments using stem cells is now an option...
Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetic eye conditions that leads to incurable blindness. In the progression of symptoms for Retinitis pigmentosa, night blindness generally precedes tunnel vision by years or even decades. Many people with Retinitis pigmentosa do not become legally blind until their 40s or 50s and retain some sight all their lives. Others go completely blind from Retinitis pigmentosa, in some cases as early as childhood. Progression of Retinitis pigmentosa is different in each case.
Retinitis pigmentosa is a type of progressive retinal dystrophy, a group of inherited disorders in which abnormalities of the photoreceptors (rods and cones) or the retinal pigment epithelium of the retina lead to progressive visual loss. Affected individuals first experience defective dark adaptation or nyctalopia (night blindness), followed by reduction of the peripheral visual field (known as tunnel vision) and, sometimes, loss of central vision late in the course of the disease.
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Stem Cell Treatment for Retinitis Pigmentosa
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Multimodal Delivery of Isogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Yields Synergistic Protection From Retinal Degeneration and Vision Loss.
Multimodal Delivery of Isogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Yields Synergistic Protection From Retinal Degeneration and Vision Loss. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016 Sep 9; Authors: Bakondi B, Girman S, Lu B, Wang S Abstract : We previously demonstrated that subretinal injection (SRI) of isogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced the severity of retinal degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats in a focal manner. In contrast, intravenous MSC infusion (MSC(IV)) produced panoptic retinal rescue. By combining these treatments, we now show that MSC(IV) supplementation potentiates the MSC(SRI)-mediated rescue of photoreceptors and visual function. Electrophysiological recording from superior colliculi revealed 3.9-fold lower luminance threshold responses (LTRs) and 22% larger functional rescue area from combined treatment compared with MSC(SRI) alone. MSC(IV) supplementation of sham (saline) injection also improved LTRs 3.4-fold and enlarged rescue areas by 27% compared with saline alone. We confirmed the involvement of MSC chemotaxis for vision rescue by modulating C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 activity before MSC(IV) but without increased retinal homing. Rather, circulating platelets and lymphocytes were reduced 3 and 7 days after MSC(IV), respectively. We demonstrated MSC(SRI)-mediated paracrine support of vision rescue by SRI of concentrated MSC-conditioned medium and assessed function by electroretinography and optokinetic response. MSC-secreted peptides increased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) metabolic activity and clearance of photoreceptor outer segments ex vivo, which was partially abrogated by antibody blockade of trophic factors in concentrated MSC-conditioned medium, or their cognate receptors on RPE. These data support multimodal mechanisms for MSC-mediated retinal protection that differ by administration route and synergize when combined. Thus, using MSC(IV) as adjuvant therapy might improve cell therapies for retinal dystrophy and warrants further translational evaluation. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite hundreds of clinical trials, just one stem cell treatment has been approved for the U.S. market. Additional treatments nearing clinical acceptance use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for inflammatory and immune-related conditions. This is because safety has been established over decades of testing, and cell transplants prolong life-saving organ and tissue grafts. In the present study, the intravenous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells enhanced the vision rescue from primary cell grafts into diseased retinae. This combined transplant strategy could improve functional outcomes for cell-based therapies, expand their utility, and expedite their clinical acceptance. PMID: 27612514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more...