Retinitis Pigmentosa Stem Cell Treatment

Stem Cell Treatmtent for Retinitis Pigmentosa

 
stem cell treatment for retinitis pigmentosa

Stem Cell Treatment for Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis Pigmentosa treatments using stem cells is now an option...

Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetic eye conditions that leads to incurable blindness. In the progression of symptoms for Retinitis pigmentosa, night blindness generally precedes tunnel vision by years or even decades. Many people with Retinitis pigmentosa do not become legally blind until their 40s or 50s and retain some sight all their lives. Others go completely blind from Retinitis pigmentosa, in some cases as early as childhood. Progression of Retinitis pigmentosa is different in each case.

Retinitis pigmentosa is a type of progressive retinal dystrophy, a group of inherited disorders in which abnormalities of the photoreceptors (rods and cones) or the retinal pigment epithelium of the retina lead to progressive visual loss. Affected individuals first experience defective dark adaptation or nyctalopia (night blindness), followed by reduction of the peripheral visual field (known as tunnel vision) and, sometimes, loss of central vision late in the course of the disease.

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Stem Cell Treatment for Retinitis Pigmentosa

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Related Articles The clinical implications of molecular monitoring and analyses of inherited retinal diseases. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2017 Nov;17(11):1009-1021 Authors: Chacón-Camacho OF, García-Montaño LA, Zenteno JC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Retinal dystrophies (RDs) are the most common cause of inherited blindness and one of the most genetically heterogeneous human diseases. RDs arise from mutations in genes involved in development and function of photoreceptors or other retinal cells. Identification of the genetic defect causing RD allows accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and counseling in affected patients. Molecular diagnosis is a tremendous challenge in RDs due to their locus and phenotypic heterogeneity. As conventional DNA sequencing approaches are impractical in such situation, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based protocols are needed to identify RD-causing mutations. This is being accomplished by sequencing RD gene panels or by whole exome or whole genome sequencing approaches. Areas covered: This review discusses the current strategies for molecular diagnosis in RDs including their advantages and limitations, as well as their utility in diagnosis of non-syndromic versus syndromic RDs. Results of ongoing gene therapy protocols in RDs are also presented. Expert commentary: Molecular diagnosis in RD improves the medical management of patients. Importantly, demand for molecular screening for RDs is greatly expanding not only as a result of increasing development and availability of NGS technologies, but also of the growing number of gene-based clinical trials offering a potential treatment to patients. PMID: 28945154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study: bone marrow derived stem cells in the treatment of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Stem Cell Investig. 2018;5:18 Authors: Weiss JN, Levy S Abstract Background: Seventeen patients with bilateral visual loss due to Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) underwent autologous bone marrow derived stem cell (BMSC) treatment within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS and SCOTS 2). Both are National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) compliant Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved clinical studies utilizing using autologous BMSC in the treatment of retinal and optic nerve diseases that meet inclusion criteria. Methods: The average age of the patients treated was 48.8 years. The average duration of disease prior to treatment was 27.6 years and ranged from 4 to approximately 60 years. Affected eyes were treated with either retrobulbar, subtenons and intravenous BMSC or retrobulbar, subtenons, intravitreal and intravenous. Follow up was provided a minimum of 6 months. The primary outcome was visual acuity as measured by Snellen or converted to LogMAR. Results: Following therapy in SCOTS or SCOTS 2, 11 patients (64.7%) showed improved binocular vision averaging 10.23 lines of Snellen acuity per eye over pre-treatment acuity; 8 patients (35.3%) remaining stable over the follow up period; no patients experiencing loss of overall acuity. In 33 treated eyes, 15 eyes (45.5%) improved an average of 7.9 lines of Snellen acuity, 15 eyes (45.5%) remained stable, and 3 eyes (9%) worsened by an average of 1.7 lines of Snellen acuity. Improvements ranged from 1 to 27 lines of vision. Using the LogMAR Scale and calculating delta as a ratio to pre-treatment vision in improved eyes, acuity improvement ranged from 23% to 90% with an average of 40.9% visual acuity improvement over baseline vision. Evaluation of all patients and eyes capable of LogMAR vision showed an average of 31% improvement in vision over baseline. Findings were of statistical significance (P=0.016). There were no surgical complications. Conclusions: The BMSC protocols of the SCOTS achieved meaningful visual acuity improvements or stability in RP that were of statistical significance. Duration of disease did not appear to affect the ability of eyes to respond. Safety was confirmed. Possible mechanisms by which improvement occurred may include transdifferentiation of BMSC into Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) positive cells, BMSC paracrine secretions or neurotrophic factors and hormones, transfer of mitochondria, release of messenger RNA or other compounds via exosomes or microvesicles. Given the successful outcome in this otherwise progressive condition, consideration should be given to providing this treatment option. PMID: 30050918 [PubMed]
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