Stem Cell Treatment for Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD are now available at SIRM
Pulmonary fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) in the lungs. It is also described as "scarring of the lung."
Pulmonary fibrosis is suggested by a history of progressive shortness of breath (dyspnea) with exertion. Sometimes fine inspiratory crackles can be heard at the lung bases on auscultation. A chest x-ray may or may not be abnormal, but high Resolution CT will frequently demonstrate abnormalities.
Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis are mainly:
- Shortness of breath, particularly with exertion
- Chronic dry, hacking coughing
- Fatigue and weakness
- Chest discomfort
- Loss of appetite and rapid weight loss
Pulmonary fibrosis may be a secondary effect of other diseases. Most of these are classified as interstitial lung diseases. Examples include autoimmune disorders, viral infections or other microscopic injuries to the lung. However, pulmonary fibrosis can also appear without any known cause. In this case, it is termed "idiopathic". Most idiopathic cases are diagnosed as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This is a diagnosis of exclusion of a characteristic set of histologic/pathologic features known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). In either case, there is a growing body of evidence which points to a genetic predisposition in a subset of patients. For example, a mutation in Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been found to exist in some families with a history of pulmonary fibrosis.
Diseases and conditions that may cause pulmonary fibrosis as a secondary effect include:
- Inhalation of environmental and occupational pollutants, such as in asbestosis, silicosis and exposure to certain gases. Coal miners, ship workers and sand blasters among others are at higher risk. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, most often resulting from inhaling dust contaminated with bacterial, fungal, or animal products.
- Cigarette smoking can increase the risk or make the illness worse.
- Some typical connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Scleroderma. Other diseases that involve connective tissue, such as sarcoidosis and Wegener's granulomatosis.
- Certain medications, e.g. amiodarone, bleomycin, busulfan, methotrexate, and nitrofurantoin
- Radiation therapy to the chest.
Stem Cell Treatments for Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD. Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD and Stem Cell studies and protocols from the NIH:
Effect of roflumilast on airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Nov 5; Authors: Kim SW, Kim JH, Park CK, Kim TJ, Lee SY, Kim YK, Kwon SS, Rhee CK, Yoon HK Abstract BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling is associated with irreversible, or partially reversible, airflow obstruction and ultimately unresponsiveness to asthma therapies such as corticosteroids. Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor that has an anti-inflammatory effect in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of roflumilast on airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma. METHODS: BALB/c mice sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) were chronically exposed to intranasal OVA administration twice a week for additional 3 months. Roflumilast was administered orally during the intranasal OVA challenge. A lung fibroblast cell line was used in the proliferation assay. RESULTS: Compared to control mice, mice chronically exposed to OVA developed eosinophilic airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), and exhibited features of airway remodeling. Administration of roflumilast significantly inhibited airway inflammation and AHR. Roflumilast also significantly decreased goblet cell hyperplasia and pulmonary fibrosis, which are parameters of airway remodeling. The levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were significantly lower in the roflumilast group. In vitro, roflumilast significantly inhibited stem cell factor (SCF) -induced cell proliferation of fibroblasts. The SCF concentration and mRNA expression in a murine model also significantly decreased with roflumilast treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that administration of roflumilast regulates airway inflammation, AHR, and airway remodeling in a model of chronic asthma. The beneficial effects from roflumilast may be related to the SCF/c-kit pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26542330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more...