Stem Cell Treatment for Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD are now available at SIRM
Pulmonary fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) in the lungs. It is also described as "scarring of the lung."
Pulmonary fibrosis is suggested by a history of progressive shortness of breath (dyspnea) with exertion. Sometimes fine inspiratory crackles can be heard at the lung bases on auscultation. A chest x-ray may or may not be abnormal, but high Resolution CT will frequently demonstrate abnormalities.
Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis are mainly:
- Shortness of breath, particularly with exertion
- Chronic dry, hacking coughing
- Fatigue and weakness
- Chest discomfort
- Loss of appetite and rapid weight loss
Pulmonary fibrosis may be a secondary effect of other diseases. Most of these are classified as interstitial lung diseases. Examples include autoimmune disorders, viral infections or other microscopic injuries to the lung. However, pulmonary fibrosis can also appear without any known cause. In this case, it is termed "idiopathic". Most idiopathic cases are diagnosed as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This is a diagnosis of exclusion of a characteristic set of histologic/pathologic features known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). In either case, there is a growing body of evidence which points to a genetic predisposition in a subset of patients. For example, a mutation in Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been found to exist in some families with a history of pulmonary fibrosis.
Diseases and conditions that may cause pulmonary fibrosis as a secondary effect include:
- Inhalation of environmental and occupational pollutants, such as in asbestosis, silicosis and exposure to certain gases. Coal miners, ship workers and sand blasters among others are at higher risk. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, most often resulting from inhaling dust contaminated with bacterial, fungal, or animal products.
- Cigarette smoking can increase the risk or make the illness worse.
- Some typical connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Scleroderma. Other diseases that involve connective tissue, such as sarcoidosis and Wegener's granulomatosis.
- Certain medications, e.g. amiodarone, bleomycin, busulfan, methotrexate, and nitrofurantoin
- Radiation therapy to the chest.
Stem Cell Treatments for Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD. Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD and Stem Cell studies and protocols from the NIH:
Value of Screening Spirometry for Early Diagnosis of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Children After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Related Articles Value of Screening Spirometry for Early Diagnosis of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Children After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015 Nov;37(8):e462-7 Authors: Yoon JS, Chun YH, Lee JW, Chung NG, Cho B Abstract Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a chronic graft-versus-host disease that occurs in the lungs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Serial screening pulmonary function test (PFT) is recommended after transplantation for early diagnosis of BOS. However, little is known about the value or the optimum methods of serial PFT in this context. One hundred and 10 consecutive patients of 6 to 17 years of age at the time of transplantation who underwent allogeneic HSCT were recruited for this study. Screening PFTs were performed 1 week before transplantation and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after transplantation. When findings of obstructive lung disease were found on PFT, chest high-resolution computed tomography was performed. Of the 110 patients, 5 (4.5%) developed BOS. Of the 5 patients who developed BOS, 2 patients were diagnosed early by screening PFT. However, screening PFT did not allow for early diagnosis of BOS in the other 3 patients because BOS developed after 12 months of transplantation, which is beyond the PFT screening period. In conclusion, trimonthly PFTs performed through 12 months after transplantation in patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT helped in the early diagnosis of BOS; however, there are some limitations to this screening protocol. Future studies will aid in the development of a new screening protocol that can subsequently be evaluated. PMID: 26334431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...