Stem Cell Treatment for Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD are now available at SIRM
Pulmonary fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) in the lungs. It is also described as "scarring of the lung."
Pulmonary fibrosis is suggested by a history of progressive shortness of breath (dyspnea) with exertion. Sometimes fine inspiratory crackles can be heard at the lung bases on auscultation. A chest x-ray may or may not be abnormal, but high Resolution CT will frequently demonstrate abnormalities.
Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis are mainly:
- Shortness of breath, particularly with exertion
- Chronic dry, hacking coughing
- Fatigue and weakness
- Chest discomfort
- Loss of appetite and rapid weight loss
Pulmonary fibrosis may be a secondary effect of other diseases. Most of these are classified as interstitial lung diseases. Examples include autoimmune disorders, viral infections or other microscopic injuries to the lung. However, pulmonary fibrosis can also appear without any known cause. In this case, it is termed "idiopathic". Most idiopathic cases are diagnosed as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This is a diagnosis of exclusion of a characteristic set of histologic/pathologic features known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). In either case, there is a growing body of evidence which points to a genetic predisposition in a subset of patients. For example, a mutation in Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been found to exist in some families with a history of pulmonary fibrosis.
Diseases and conditions that may cause pulmonary fibrosis as a secondary effect include:
- Inhalation of environmental and occupational pollutants, such as in asbestosis, silicosis and exposure to certain gases. Coal miners, ship workers and sand blasters among others are at higher risk. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, most often resulting from inhaling dust contaminated with bacterial, fungal, or animal products.
- Cigarette smoking can increase the risk or make the illness worse.
- Some typical connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Scleroderma. Other diseases that involve connective tissue, such as sarcoidosis and Wegener's granulomatosis.
- Certain medications, e.g. amiodarone, bleomycin, busulfan, methotrexate, and nitrofurantoin
- Radiation therapy to the chest.
Stem Cell Treatments for Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD. Pulmonary Fibrosis and COPD and Stem Cell studies and protocols from the NIH:
The Opposite Expected Effect of p38 Inhibitors on Fat Graft Survival. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2016 Jul;4(7):e806 Authors: Filson SA, Keren A, Goldstein N, Ullmann Y Abstract BACKGROUND: Fat grafting is an increasingly popular method of augmentation/reconstruction of soft tissue defects. However, the clinical unpredictability and high resorption rates of the grafts remain problematic. Cellular stress from the harvest and the ensuing ischemic episode may be the cause of this. Cellular stress activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In response to cellular stress, the p38 pathway can lead to apoptosis and can negatively regulate cell proliferation. Inhibition of p38 in ex vivo experiments has been shown to promote the expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cell and improve the adipogenesis process through its upstream regulator, Shp2. Because of its wide-ranging cell regulation and antiinflammatory properties, large-scale clinical trials using p38 inhibitors are also currently being performed, especially for therapeutic effect in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The rationale for our study was that the treatment of fat grafts with p38 inhibitor would (a) prevent apoptosis of adipose-derived stem cells in the fat grafts, (b) increase adipose-derived stem cells proliferation, and (c) stimulate the release of several angiogenic factors and promote revascularization. METHODS: Clinical and histological testing was performed on 5 fat-transplanted (1 mL) CD-1 nude mice compared with the test group of 5 mice, which were injected with a p38 MAPK inhibitor at 1, 3, 6, and 9 days after the fat transplantation. RESULTS: The weights and volumes of the control group grafts were significantly higher than those of the p38 MAPK inhibitor-treated grafts. Average volume resorption was 36% in the control group and 92% in the test group. Histological evaluation of the grafts revealed significantly improved integration, with a significant reduction of fibrosis and inflammation in the control group versus the treated group. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that as opposed to our hypothesis, inhibition of p38 significantly increases fat graft resorption. The dramatic effects observed in our study may suggest that p38 may act differently on the numerous cell types that constitute the fat graft, and further investigation is necessary. PMID: 27536485 [PubMed]Read more...