Parkinson's Disease Stem Cell Treatment

Parkinson's Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

Parkinson Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

Parkinson Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

Parkinson's disease is also called Parkinson's, idiopathic parkinsonism, primary parkinsonism, PD, or paralysis agitans is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system.

Common degeneration results from the death of dopamine containing cells in the area of the midbrain.

The cause of cell-death is currently unknown. In the early stages of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related which includes shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and trouble walking.

Later stage symptoms include cognitive and behavioural problems with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems.

PD is more common in the elderly with most cases occurring after the age of 50.

 

STEM CELL RESEARCH

 

Parkinson's stem cell research shows promise

Tue, 08 Nov 2011 13:33:00 EST
New stem cell research may point to ways to replace the brain cells that die off in Parkinson’s disease, The Guardian has today reported.

In the research, scientists were able to use human stem cells to create dopamine neurons, which had similar properties to the types of brain cells lost in Parkinson’s disease. When the scientists introduced the new cells into the brains of mice, rats and monkeys with Parkinson’s-like lesions, the animals were able to survive, and in the mice and rats the movement problems normally seen were reversed. In addition, no cancer or uncontrolled cell growth was seen after the cells had been introduced, two safety concerns associated with stem cell therapy.

The results of this study are extremely promising, although more work is required before stem cell-based therapy can be used to treat Parkinson’s disease in humans. That said, the neurons which the researchers have created could have immediate applications in research, such as being used in cell-based models of Parkinson’s disease. This in turn could help find a cure for Parkinson’s disease, such as developing new drugs faster.

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre, New York and several other American research institutions. It was funded by the US National Institutes of Health, the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the European Commission NeuroStemcell project and several other research funds. The study was published in the peer-reviewed journal, Nature.

This story was covered by The Guardian, which accurately presented the research and included passages and images making it clear that the research was performed in animals. The newspaper also included quotes from Parkinson’s UK and seemed to allow the reader to conclude that stem cell therapy is still some way off, but that this finding is promising for the future.

What kind of research was this?

This was a laboratory-based and animal study. The authors aimed to develop a method that would allow them to create human dopamine neurons (types of brain cells that die in Parkinson’s disease) from human stem cells. They then wanted to test whether these neurons could be used to reverse the signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in animal models.

These sorts of questions can only be answered by laboratory and animal based studies. Only once the technique has been thoroughly tested and evaluated through a significant amount animal research can it be considered for use in small, experimental human trials.

What did the research involve?

The researchers used recent research on dopamine neurons to develop a new a new laboratory-based protocol to create them from stem cells. They then tested the features of the cells that they created to see whether they were similar to the dopamine neurons found within the midbrain (the part of the brain where Parkinson’s disease occurs).

The researchers then wanted to test whether the dopamine neurons they created could survive if introduced into the brains of animals. They also wanted to check that there was no risk of “neural overgrowth” (i.e. a potentially harmful overproduction of new brain cells), and that the cells they introduced did not form the incorrect cell type. The researchers then determined whether the cells they had created in the laboratory could repair the damage seen in animals with Parkinson’s-type lesions. The animal models had been created by treating the animals with specific chemicals, as Parkinson’s disease is not known to occur in any species other than humans.

What were the basic results?

The researchers managed to develop a method that would allow them to create dopamine neurons which were very similar to the dopamine neurons normally found in the midbrain. They found that these neurons could survive when injected into the brains of healthy mice, and did not overgrow (where they continue to grow abnormally) after injection. The dopamine neurons also successfully grafted in the brains of mice and rats treated with chemicals to create models of Parkinson’s disease.

These introduced neurons reversed the movement problems seen in these animals. Finally, as the number of dopamine neurons required in a mouse or rat is much lower than the number needed in a human, the researchers investigated whether the technique could be scaled up to treat two monkeys with Parkinson’s-like lesions. Again, the neurons successfully grafted into the brains of two monkeys.

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers conclude that the “excellent dopamine neuron survival, function and lack of neural overgrowth in the three animal models indicate promise for the development of cell-based therapies in Parkinson’s disease.”


Conclusion

In this study, researchers managed to create dopamine neurons from human stem cells. These neurons were very similar to the neurons found in the midbrain, and therefore were very similar to the neurons lost in Parkinson’s disease. The cells they created were able to survive when introduced into the brains of mice, rats and monkeys with Parkinson’s-like lesions, and reversed the movement problems seen in mice and rats. No problems with neural overgrowth were seen.

The results of this study are extremely promising, but much more work is required before stem cell-based therapy can be used to treat Parkinson’s disease in humans. For example, although the animals regained movement, the complexity of the human brain is greater than that seen in the animals tested. It would need to be determined whether the use of stem cells in this way might negatively affect higher functions such as speech or complex memory.

Also, there other points to consider, such as how closely the chemically induced brain changes the animals underwent represented Parkinson’s disease, and whether the use of stem cells in this way would be safe or effective in the long-term.

However, the neurons that the researchers have created could also have useful and important applications for research in this area. In particular, cell-based models of Parkinson’s disease could now be created and used for tasks such as developing new drugs faster.

The Guardian notes that doctors have already tried transplanting foetal brain tissue into Parkinson's patients in the 1990s with inconsistent or unpleasant results: some patients got better while others experienced runaway involuntary movements. In these cases, the timing of the transplant seemed to be important and it is possible that this new technique, which did not produce “cellular overgrowth”, will in time lead to further transplants that are safer.
Kriks S, Shim J, Piao J et al. Nature, November 6 2011

Stem cell-based therapies in Parkinson's disease: future hope or current treatment option?

2011 May;258(Suppl 2):S346-53.

Loewenbrück K, Storch A.

Source Department of Neurology, Dresden University of Technology, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases and represents a major therapeutic challenge because of the so far missing therapeutic means to influence the ongoing loss of dopaminergic innervation to the striatum.

Cell replacement has raised hope to offer the first restorative treatment option. Clinical trials have provided "proof of principle" that transplantation of dopamine-producing neurons into the striatum of PD patients can achieve symptomatic relief given that the striatum is sufficiently re-innervated.

Various cell sources have been tested, including fetal ventral midbrain tissue, embryonic stem cells, fetal and adult neural stem cells and, after a ground-breaking discovery, induced pluripotent stem cells. Although embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells have emerged as the most promising candidates to overcome most of the obstacles to clinical successful cell replacement, each cell source has its unique drawbacks. This review does not only provide a comprehensive overview of the different cellular candidates, including their assets and drawbacks, but also of the various additional issues that need to be addressed in order to convert cellular replacement therapies from an experimental to a clinically relevant therapeutic alternative.

 

PMID: 21437664 [PubMed - in process]

 

Cell transplantation and gene therapy in Parkinson's disease.

2011 Jan-Feb;78(1):126-58. doi: 10.1002/msj.20233.

Wakeman DR, Dodiya HB, Kordower JH.


Abstract

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting, in part, dopaminergic motor neurons of the ventral midbrain and their terminal projections that course to the striatum. Symptomatic strategies focused on dopamine replacement have proven effective at remediating some motor symptoms during the course of disease but ultimately fail to deliver long-term disease modification and lose effectiveness due to the emergence of side effects. Several strategies have been experimentally tested as alternatives for Parkinson's disease, including direct cell replacement and gene transfer through viral vectors.
Cellular transplantation of dopamine-secreting cells was hypothesized as a substitute for pharmacotherapy to directly provide dopamine, whereas gene therapy has primarily focused on restoration of dopamine synthesis or neuroprotection and restoration of spared host dopaminergic circuitry through trophic factors as a means to enhance sustained controlled dopamine transmission.
This seems now to have been verified in numerous studies in rodents and nonhuman primates, which have shown that grafts of fetal dopamine neurons or gene transfer through viral vector delivery can lead to improvements in biochemical and behavioral indices of dopamine deficiency.
However, in clinical studies, the improvements in parkinsonism have been rather modest and variable and have been plagued by graft-induced dyskinesias. New developments in stem-cell transplantation and induced patient-derived cells have opened the doors for the advancement of cell-based therapeutics.
In addition, viral-vector-derived therapies have been developed preclinically with excellent safety and efficacy profiles, showing promise in clinical trials thus far. Further progress and optimization of these therapies will be necessary to ensure safety and efficacy before widespread clinical use is deemed appropriate.

© 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
PMID: 21259269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Protein-based human iPS cells efficiently generate functional dopamine neurons and can treat a rat model of Parkinson disease.

J Clin Invest. 2011 May 16;

Authors: Rhee YH, Ko JY, Chang MY, Yi SH, Kim D, Kim CH, Shim JW, Jo AY, Kim BW, Lee H, Lee SH, Suh W, Park CH, Koh HC, Lee YS, Lanza R, Kim KS, Lee SH

Parkinson disease (PD) involves the selective loss of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons and is a possible target disease for stem cell-based therapy. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a potentially unlimited source of patient-specific cells for transplantation. However, it is critical to evaluate the safety of hiPSCs generated by different reprogramming methods.

Here, we compared multiple hiPSC lines derived by virus- and protein-based reprogramming to human ES cells (hESCs). Neuronal precursor cells (NPCs) and dopamine (DA) neurons delivered from lentivirus-based hiPSCs exhibited residual expression of exogenous reprogramming genes, but those cells derived from retrovirus- and protein-based hiPSCs did not.

Furthermore, NPCs derived from virus-based hiPSCs exhibited early senescence and apoptotic cell death during passaging, which was preceded by abrupt induction of p53.

In contrast, NPCs derived from hESCs and protein-based hiPSCs were highly expandable without senescence. DA neurons derived from protein-based hiPSCs exhibited gene expression, physiological, and electrophysiological properties similar to those of mDA neurons. Transplantation of these cells into rats with striatal lesions, a model of PD, significantly rescued motor deficits. These data support the clinical potential of protein-based hiPSCs for personalized cell therapy of PD.

Related Articles Stem Cell Therapies: Opportunities for Ensuring the Quality and Safety of Clinical Offerings: Summary of a Joint Workshop Book. 2014 06 18Authors: Board on Health Sciences Policy, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences Abstract Stem cells offer tremendous promise for advancing health and medicine. Whether being used to replace damaged cells and organs or else by supporting the body's intrinsic repair mechanisms, stem cells hold the potential to treat such debilitating conditions as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injury. Clinical trials of stem cell treatments are under way in countries around the world, but the evidence base to support the medical use of stem cells remains limited. Despite this paucity of clinical evidence, consumer demand for treatments using stem cells has risen, driven in part by a lack of available treatment options for debilitating diseases as well as direct-to-consumer advertising and public portrayals of stem cell-based treatments. Clinics that offer stem cell therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions have been established throughout the world, both in newly industrialized countries such as China, India, and Mexico and in developed countries such as the United States and various European nations. Though these therapies are often promoted as being established and effective, they generally have not received stringent regulatory oversight and have not been tested with rigorous trials designed to determine their safety and likely benefits. In the absence of substantiated claims, the potential for harm to patients - as well as to the field of stem cell research in general - may outweigh the potential benefits. To explore these issues, the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Sciences, and the International Society for Stem Cell Research held a workshop in November 2013. Stem Cell Therapies summarizes the workshop. Researchers, clinicians, patients, policy makers, and others from North America, Europe, and Asia met to examine the global pattern of treatments and products being offered, the range of patient experiences, and options to maximize the well-being of patients, either by protecting them from treatments that are dangerous or ineffective or by steering them toward treatments that are effective. This report discusses the current environment in which patients are receiving unregulated stem cell offerings, focusing on the treatments being offered and their risks and benefits. The report considers the evidence base for clinical application of stem cell technologies and ways to assure the quality of stem cell offerings. PMID: 25057697
Read more...
Related Articles [New prospects for therapy in Parkinson's disease]. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2013 Nov;63 Suppl 1:S23 Authors: Reichmann H PMID: 24242036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Neuroimaging for optimization of stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013 Dec;13(12):1631-8 Authors: Hayashi T, Onoe H Abstract Out of all the neurodegenerative diseases, cell-based therapy has been most intensively tested in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Recently, technical advancements in stem cell research have opened the possibility of using stem cell-induced dopaminergic neurons in the clinical setting. However, many issues are yet to be overcome in order to achieve effective and safe therapy before clinical trials can be possible. Here, we discuss how neuroimaging techniques can be used to accelerate studies of stem cell therapy in PD. Neuroimaging techniques allow us to measure various biological markers repeatedly and quantitatively, which may serve as a powerful tool for optimizing the use of stem cells in preclinical and clinical trials. PMID: 24206114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Long-term clinical outcome of fetal cell transplantation for Parkinson disease: two case reports. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Jan;71(1):83-7 Authors: Kefalopoulou Z, Politis M, Piccini P, Mencacci N, Bhatia K, Jahanshahi M, Widner H, Rehncrona S, Brundin P, Björklund A, Lindvall O, Limousin P, Quinn N, Foltynie T Abstract IMPORTANCE: Recent advances in stem cell technologies have rekindled an interest in the use of cell replacement strategies for patients with Parkinson disease. This study reports the very long-term clinical outcomes of fetal cell transplantation in 2 patients with Parkinson disease. Such long-term follow-up data can usefully inform on the potential efficacy of this approach, as well as the design of trials for its further evaluation. OBSERVATIONS: Two patients received intrastriatal grafts of human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, rich in dopaminergic neuroblasts, as restorative treatment for their Parkinson disease. To evaluate the very long-term efficacy of the grafts, clinical assessments were performed 18 and 15 years posttransplantation. Motor improvements gained gradually over the first postoperative years were sustained up to 18 years posttransplantation, while both patients have discontinued, and remained free of any, pharmacological dopaminergic therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results from these 2 cases indicate that dopaminergic cell transplantation can offer very long-term symptomatic relief in patients with Parkinson disease and provide proof-of-concept support for future clinical trials using fetal or stem cell therapies. PMID: 24217017 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles [110th Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine: Symposium: 1. Frontier of the regenerative medicine; 3) Regenerative medicine for neurological disorders]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2013 Sep 10;102(9):2241-6 Authors: Takahashi J PMID: 24228405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Human foetal brain tissue as quality control when developing stem cells towards cell replacement therapy for neurological diseases. Neuroreport. 2013 Dec 18;24(18):1025-30 Authors: Nelander J, Grealish S, Parmar M Abstract Human foetal brain tissue has been used in experimental and clinical trials to develop cell replacement therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These pioneering clinical studies have shown proof of principle that cell replacement therapy can be effective and is worthwhile to develop as a therapeutic strategy for repairing the damaged brain. However, because of the limited availability of foetal brain material, and difficulties in producing standardized and quality-tested cell preparations from this source, there have been extensive efforts in investigating the potential use of alternative cell sources for generating a large number of transplantable, authentic neural progenitors and neurons. In this review, we highlight the value of using human foetal tissue as a reference material for quality control of acquired cell fate of in vitro generated neurons before and after transplantation. PMID: 24257249 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Nicotinamide promotes neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro. Neuroreport. 2013 Dec 18;24(18):1041-6 Authors: Griffin SM, Pickard MR, Orme RP, Hawkins CP, Fricker RA Abstract Factors controlling proliferation and differentiation are crucial in advancement of neural cell-based experimental neurodegenerative therapies. In this regard, nicotinamide has been shown to determine the fate of neural cells, enhance neuralization, and influence DNA repair and apoptosis. This study investigated whether the biologically active vitamin B3 metabolite, nicotinamide, could direct the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, cultured as monolayers, into neurons at either early or late stages of development. Interestingly, we observed a dose-responsive increase in the percentage of neurons when nicotinamide was added at early stages to the cells undergoing differentiation (days 0-7). Nicotinamide (10 mM) had a significant effect on neuronal differentiation, increasing the βIII-tubulin-positive neuronal population and concomitantly decreasing the total number of cells in culture, measured by quantification of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-positive cells. Nicotinamide added between days 7 and 14 had no effect on neuronal induction. High levels of nicotinamide (20 mM) induced cytotoxicity and cell death. Current work is focusing on elucidating the mechanism(s) mediating neural specification by nicotinamide--that is, induction of cell-cycle exit and/or selective apoptosis in non-neural populations. Preliminary data suggest a reduction in the proportion of proliferating cells in nicotinamide-treated cultures--that is, nicotinamide enhances cell-cycle exit, thereby promoting neuronal differentiation. Future work will focus on evaluating the effect of nicotinamide on the differentiation of midbrain dopamine neurons, towards a therapy for Parkinson's disease. PMID: 24257250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles The promises of stem cells: stem cell therapy for movement disorders. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014 Jan;20 Suppl 1:S128-31 Authors: Mochizuki H, Choong CJ, Yasuda T Abstract Despite the multitude of intensive research, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and Huntington's disease remain more or less elusive. Treatments to halt these disease progressions are currently unavailable. With the recent induced pluripotent stem cells breakthrough and accomplishment, stem cell research, as the vast majority of scientists agree, holds great promise for relieving and treating debilitating movement disorders. As stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern how they develop and work would provide us many fundamental insights into human biology of health and disease. Moreover, stem-cell-derived neurons may be a renewable source of replacement cells for damaged neurons in movement disorders. While stem cells show potential for regenerative medicine, their use as tools for research and drug testing is thought to have more immediate impact. The use of stem-cell-based drug screening technology could be a big boost in drug discovery for these movement disorders. Particular attention should also be given to the involvement of neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis so as to encourage its development as a therapeutic option. PMID: 24262163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Stem cell grafting in parkinsonism--why, how and when. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014 Jan;20 Suppl 1:S150-3 Authors: de Munter JP, Melamed E, Wolters ECh Abstract Parkinson's disease is a devastating, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although recent advancements have led to a better understanding of the disorder, there is currently no long-term disease-modifying strategy. Recently, preclinical data have identified the significant effects of pluripotent stem cell grafting in 6-OHDA and MPTP animal models of motor parkinsonism; there have also been some clinical data in patients with motor parkinsonism. Pluripotent stem cells can nestle in affected organs and can differentiate into a variety of cells, including neural (dopamine producing) cells. Depending on the environment into which they are grafted, these stem cells can also influence immune responses by regulating the activity of B-cells, T-cells, and NK-cells. Pluripotent stem cells can also produce chemotrophins, including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor), NGF (nerve growth factor), TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β), IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), NT-3 (neurotrophin 3), and SCF-1 (stem cell factor 1). Influencing these trophic factors can influence plasticity. This article explores the potential of pluripotent stem cells in the treatment of PD. We will explore the utilization of pluripotent stem cells in the immunomodulation of B-cells, T-cells and NK-cells, the transdifferentiation of pluripotent stems cells into DA-cells, and the secretion of trophic factors and its relation to plasticity. We will also cover how best to conduct a clinical trial, which stem cells can be safely used in patients, what are the methods of induction before application, and how to re-apply stem cells in patients by intravasal, intrathecal or intracerebral methods. Finally, we will describe how to objectively record the clinical results. PMID: 24262169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Reprint of: Nrf2/ARE-mediated antioxidant actions of pro-electrophilic drugs. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014 Jan;66:45-57 Authors: Satoh T, McKercher SR, Lipton SA Abstract Living cells maintain a balance between oxidation and reduction, and perturbations of this redox balance are thought to contribute to various diseases. Recent attempts to regulate redox state have focused on electrophiles (EPs), which activate potent cellular defense systems against oxidative stress. One example of this approach is exemplified by carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS), compounds that are found in the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). Importantly, CA and CS themselves are not electrophilic, but in response to oxidation, become electrophilic, and then activate the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE (antioxidant-response element) transcription pathway to synthesize endogenous antioxidant "phase 2"enzymes. As a result of our efforts to develop these compounds as therapeutics for brain health, we have formulated two innovative criteria for drug development: the first concept is the use of pro-electrophilic drugs (PEDs) that are innocuous in and of themselves; and the second concept involves the use of compounds that are pathologically activated therapeutics (PATs); i.e., these small molecules are chemically converted to their active form by the very oxidative stress that they are designed to then combat. The chemical basis for PED and PAT drugs is embodied in the ortho- and para-hydroquinone electrophilic cores of the molecules, which are oxidized by the Cu(2+)/Cu(+) cycling system (or potentially by other transition metals). Importantly, this cycling pathway is under stringent regulation by the cell redox state. We propose that redox-dependent quinone formation is the predominant mechanism for formation of PED and PAT drugs from their precursor compounds. In fact, redox-dependent generation of the active form of drug from the "pro-form" distinguishes this therapeutic approach from traditional EPs such as curcumin, and results in a decrease in clinical side effects at therapeutic concentrations, e.g., lack of reaction with other thiols such as glutathione (GSH), which can result in lowering GSH and inducing oxidative stress in normal cells. We consider this pro-drug quality of PED/PAT compounds to be a key factor for generating drugs to be used to combat neurodegenerative diseases that will be clinically tolerated. Given the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathology of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway represents a promising drug target for these PED/PAT agents. PMID: 24262357 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Stem cell therapy for the treatment of parasitic infections: is it far away? Parasitol Res. 2014 Feb;113(2):607-12 Authors: Zhang Y, Mi JY, Rui YJ, Xu YL, Wang W Abstract Stem cell therapy is an interventional treatment that introduces new cells into damaged tissues, which help in treating many diseases and injuries. It has been proved that stem cell therapy is effective for the treatment of cancers, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and many other diseases. Recently, stem cell therapy has been introduced to treat parasitic infections. The culture supernatant of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is found to inhibit activation and proliferation of macrophages induced by the soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum, and MSC treatment relieves S. japonicum-induced liver injury and fibrosis in mouse models. In addition, transplantation of MSCs into naïve mice is able to confer host resistance against malaria, and MSCs are reported to play an important role in host protective immune responses against malaria by modulating regulatory T cells. In mouse models of Chagas disease, bone marrow mononuclear cell has been shown effective in reducing inflammation and fibrosis in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, and transplantation of the bone marrow mononuclear cells prevents and reverses the right ventricular dilatation induced by T. cruzi infection in mice. Preliminary clinical trials demonstrate that transplantation of bone marrow derived-cells may become an important therapeutic modality in the management of end-stage heart diseases associated with Chagas disease. Based on these exciting results, it is considered by stating that it is firmly believed that, within the next few years, we will be able to find the best animal models and the appropriate stem cell type, stem cell number, injection route, and disease state that will result in possible benefits for the patients with parasitic infections, and stem cell therapy, although at an initial stage currently, will become a real therapeutic option for parasitic diseases. PMID: 24276645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Modeling human neurological disorders with induced pluripotent stem cells. J Neurochem. 2014 May;129(3):388-99 Authors: Imaizumi Y, Okano H Abstract Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells obtained by reprogramming technology are a source of great hope, not only in terms of applications in regenerative medicine, such as cell transplantation therapy, but also for modeling human diseases and new drug development. In particular, the production of iPS cells from the somatic cells of patients with intractable diseases and their subsequent differentiation into cells at affected sites (e.g., neurons, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes) has permitted the in vitro construction of disease models that contain patient-specific genetic information. For example, disease-specific iPS cells have been established from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, as well as from those with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. A multi-omics analysis of neural cells originating from patient-derived iPS cells may thus enable investigators to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of neurological diseases that have heretofore been unknown. In addition, large-scale screening of chemical libraries with disease-specific iPS cells is currently underway and is expected to lead to new drug discovery. Accordingly, this review outlines the progress made via the use of patient-derived iPS cells toward the modeling of neurological disorders, the testing of existing drugs, and the discovery of new drugs. The production of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from the patients' somatic cells and their subsequent differentiation into specific cells have permitted the in vitro construction of disease models that contain patient-specific genetic information. Furthermore, innovations of gene-editing technologies on iPS cells are enabling new approaches for illuminating the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. In this review article, we outlined the current status of neurological diseases-specific iPS cell research and described recently obtained knowledge in the form of actual examples. PMID: 24286589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles [Cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease using iPS cells]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2013;53(11):1009-12 Authors: Takahashi J Abstract The aim of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is to reconstruct local synapse formation and/or induce the release of dopamine and cytokines from grafted cells in the putamen. Fetal ventral-midbrain cells are reported to relieve the neurological symptoms of PD patients. However, not only embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but also induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are expected to provide an alternative donor cell population because of their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. A protocol to generate dopaminergic (DA) neurons from ESCs and iPSCs has been developed, and human ESCs were proven to function in the brain of rat and monkey PD models. The next step will be the isolation of DA neurons as a donor cell population for a safe and efficient transplantation. PMID: 24291862 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Enhancement of polysialic acid expression improves function of embryonic stem-derived dopamine neuron grafts in Parkinsonian mice. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Jan;3(1):108-13 Authors: Battista D, Ganat Y, El Maarouf A, Studer L, Rutishauser U Abstract There has been considerable progress in obtaining engraftable embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived midbrain dopamine neurons for cell replacement therapy in models of Parkinson's disease; however, limited integration and striatal reinnervation of ES-derived grafts remain a major challenge for future clinical translation. In this paper, we show that enhanced expression of polysialic acid results in improved graft efficiency in correcting behavioral deficits in Parkinsonian mice. This result is accompanied by two potentially relevant cellular changes: greater survival of transplanted ES-derived dopamine neurons and robust sprouting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive processes into host tissue. Because the procedures used to enhance polysialic acid are easily translated to other cell types and species, this approach may represent a general strategy to improve graft integration in cell-based therapies. PMID: 24311700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Co-transplantation of GDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells and fetal dopaminergic neurons mitigates motor symptoms in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e80880 Authors: Deng X, Liang Y, Lu H, Yang Z, Liu R, Wang J, Song X, Long J, Li Y, Lei D, Feng Z Abstract Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs) together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs) plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo. PMID: 24312503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Human iPSC-based modeling of late-onset disease via progerin-induced aging. Cell Stem Cell. 2013 Dec 5;13(6):691-705 Authors: Miller JD, Ganat YM, Kishinevsky S, Bowman RL, Liu B, Tu EY, Mandal PK, Vera E, Shim JW, Kriks S, Taldone T, Fusaki N, Tomishima MJ, Krainc D, Milner TA, Rossi DJ, Studer L Abstract Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resets their identity back to an embryonic age and, thus, presents a significant hurdle for modeling late-onset disorders. In this study, we describe a strategy for inducing aging-related features in human iPSC-derived lineages and apply it to the modeling of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our approach involves expression of progerin, a truncated form of lamin A associated with premature aging. We found that expression of progerin in iPSC-derived fibroblasts and neurons induces multiple aging-related markers and characteristics, including dopamine-specific phenotypes such as neuromelanin accumulation. Induced aging in PD iPSC-derived dopamine neurons revealed disease phenotypes that require both aging and genetic susceptibility, such as pronounced dendrite degeneration, progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, and enlarged mitochondria or Lewy-body-precursor inclusions. Thus, our study suggests that progerin-induced aging can be used to reveal late-onset age-related disease features in hiPSC-based disease models. PMID: 24315443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Salidroside induces rat mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons. Cell Biol Int. 2014 Apr;38(4):462-71 Authors: Zhao HB, Ma H, Ha XQ, Zheng P, Li XY, Zhang M, Dong JZ, Yang YS Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons that leads to a reduction in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. Replacing lost cells by transplanting dopaminergic neurons has potential value to repair the damaged brain. Salidroside (SD), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from plant Rhodiola rosea, is neuroprotective. We examined whether salidroside can induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into neuron-like cells, and convert MSCs into dopamine neurons that can be applied in clinical use. Salidroside induced rMSCs to adopt a neuronal morphology, upregulated the expression of neuronal marker molecules, such as gamma neuronal enolase 2 (Eno2/NSE), microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2), and beta 3 class III tubulin (Tubb3/β-tubulin III). It also increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNAs, and promoted the secretion of these growth factors. The expression of dopamine neurons markers, such as dopamine-beta-hydroxy (DBH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was significantly upregulated after treatment with salidroside for 1-12 days. DA steadily increased after treatment with salidroside for 1-6 days. Thus salidroside can induce rMSCs to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons. PMID: 24323403 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Buspirone anti-dyskinetic effect is correlated with temporal normalization of dysregulated striatal DRD1 signalling in L-DOPA-treated rats. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Apr;79:726-37 Authors: Azkona G, Sagarduy A, Aristieta A, Vazquez N, Zubillaga V, Ruíz-Ortega JA, Pérez-Navarro E, Ugedo L, Sánchez-Pernaute R Abstract Dopamine replacement with l-DOPA is the most effective therapy in Parkinson's disease. However, with chronic treatment, half of the patients develop an abnormal motor response including dyskinesias. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying dyskinesias are not fully understood. In this study, we used a well-characterized animal model to first establish the molecular differences between rats that did and did not develop dyskinesias. We then investigated the molecular substrates implicated in the anti-dyskinetic effect of buspirone, a 5HT1A partial agonist. Striatal protein expression profile of dyskinetic animals revealed increased levels of the dopamine receptor (DR)D3, ΔFosB and phospho (p)CREB, as well as an over-activation of the DRD1 signalling pathway, reflected by elevated ratios of phosphorylated DARPP32 and ERK2. Buspirone reduced the abnormal involuntary motor response in dyskinetic rats in a dose-dependent fashion. Buspirone (4 mg/kg) dramatically reduced the presence and severity of dyskinesias (by 83%) and normalized DARPP32 and ERK2 phosphorylation ratios, while the increases in DRD3, ΔFosB and pCREB observed in dyskinetic rats were not modified. Pharmacological experiments combining buspirone with 5HT1A and DRD3 antagonists confirmed that normalization of both pDARPP32 and pERK2 is required, but not sufficient, for blocking dyskinesias. The correlation between pDARPP32 ratio and dyskinesias was significant but not strong, pointing to the involvement of convergent factors and signalling pathways. Our results suggest that in dyskinetic rats DRD3 striatal over-expression could be instrumental in the activation of DRD1-downstream signalling and demonstrate that the anti-dyskinetic effect of buspirone in this model is correlated with DRD1 pathway normalization. PMID: 24333147 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Modulating Wnt signaling to improve cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease. J Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Feb;6(1):54-63 Authors: Parish CL, Thompson LH Abstract Clinical trials have demonstrated the capacity for dopamine neurons, transplanted ectopically into the striatum, to structurally integrate, restore dopamine transmission, and induce long-term functional benefits for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Despite this proof of principle, a number of limitations have hindered the development of cell replacement therapy over the past 20 years, particularly tissue availability, graft survival, and adequate reinnervation of the host brain. With a greater understanding of failure in prior clinical trials, increased knowledge of midbrain dopamine development (now including Wnts), and the development of pluripotent stem cell technologies, we are better equipped than ever to re-address a number of these challenges. This review summarizes the trials, tribulations, and progress in cell replacement therapy for PD. We discuss the prospects of modulating canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling to improve cell therapy based upon their roles in dopamine neural development and the adult brain. This will include the potential of Wnts to (i) expand fetally derived tissue in vitro and following transplantation, (ii) promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, (iii) increase graft integration and restoration of neural circuitry, and finally (iv) enhance graft survival. PMID: 24334258 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 modulates cyclooxygenase 2 and the inflammatory response in idiopathic and genetic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 May;35(5):1116-24 Authors: Lopez de Maturana R, Aguila JC, Sousa A, Vazquez N, Del Rio P, Aiastui A, Gorostidi A, Lopez de Munain A, Sanchez-Pernaute R Abstract Inflammatory mechanisms are activated in aging and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to both idiopathic and familial forms of PD. Here, we investigated the involvement of LRRK2 in inflammatory pathways using primary dermal fibroblasts from patients with 2 common mutations in LRRK2 (G2019S and R1441G), idiopathic PD and age-matched healthy individuals. Basal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 RNA levels were very high in the fibroblasts of all patients. Remarkably, LRRK2 silencing experiments significantly reduced basal COX-2 levels and COX-2 induction after a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Additionally, in samples from patients with the R1441G mutation and with idiopathic PD, we found a prominent cytoplasmic re-distribution of human antigen R, a protein that, among others, stabilizes COX-2 RNA. Furthermore, the response to lipopolysaccharide was defective in these 2 groups, which showed weak induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced NFκB transcriptional activation. In summary, we describe multiple defects in inflammatory pathways in which LRRK2 appears to be critically involved. Further studies are required to establish the therapeutic implications of inflammatory dysregulation in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. PMID: 24360742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Adipose stem cells: biology and clinical applications for tissue repair and regeneration. Transl Res. 2014 Apr;163(4):399-408 Authors: Kokai LE, Marra K, Rubin JP Abstract There is a clear clinical need for cell therapies to repair or regenerate tissue lost to disease or trauma. Adipose tissue is a renewable source of stem cells, called adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), that release important growth factors for wound healing, modulate the immune system, decrease inflammation, and home in on injured tissues. Therefore, ASCs may offer great clinical utility in regenerative therapies for afflictions such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injury, heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, or for replacing lost tissue from trauma or tumor removal. This article discusses the regenerative properties of ASCs that can be harnessed for clinical applications, and explores current and future challenges for ASC clinical use. Such challenges include knowledge-based deficiencies, hurdles for translating research to the clinic, and barriers to establishing a new paradigm of medical care. Clinical experience with ASCs, ASCs as a portion of the heterogeneous stromal cell population extracted enzymatically from adipose tissue, and stromal vascular fraction are also described. PMID: 24361334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles The future of cell therapies and brain repair: Parkinson's disease leads the way. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2014 Feb;40(1):60-70 Authors: Petit GH, Olsson TT, Brundin P Abstract During the past 40 years brain tissue grafting techniques have been used both to study fundamental neurobiological questions and to treat neurological diseases. Motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are largely due to degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurones. Because the nigrostriatal pathology is relatively focused anatomically, Parkinson's disease is considered the ideal candidate for brain repair by neural grafting and dopamine neurone transplantation for it has led the way in the neural transplantation research field. In this mini-review, we briefly highlight four important areas of development. First, we describe marked functional benefits up to 18 years after transplantation surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease. This is proof-of-principle that, using optimal techniques and patient selection, grafted dopamine neurones can work in humans and the duration of the benefit exceeds placebo effects associated with surgery. Second, we describe that eventually protein aggregates containing α-synuclein, identical to Lewy bodies, develop inside foetal dopamine neurones transplanted to patients with Parkinson's disease. This gives clues about pathogenetic mechanisms operating in Parkinson's disease, and also raises the question whether neural graft function will eventually decline as the result of the disease process. Third, we describe new emerging sources of transplantable dopamine neurones derived from pluripotent stem cells or reprogrammed adult somatic cells. Fourth, we highlight an important European Union-funded multicentre clinical trial involving transplantation of foetal dopamine neurones in Parkinson's disease. We describe the design of this ongoing trial and how it can impact on the overall future of cell therapy in Parkinson's disease. PMID: 24372386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds enhance dopaminergic differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells in 3-dimensional culture. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e84504 Authors: Ni N, Hu Y, Ren H, Luo C, Li P, Wan JB, Su H Abstract Dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) gains more and more attention worldwide owing to its potential use for neurorestorative therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The conventional 2D cell culture on petri dishes with various animal derived substrata such as collagen gels, laminin, and Matrigel is widely used to induce dopaminergic differentiation and it may limit the efficiency in the generation of dopaminergic neurons from ESCs and prevent their application for human therapies. Here, we reported that a self-assembling peptide made from natural amino acids has a property to generate a true 3D environment for dopaminergic differentiation. Mouse ESCs (R1) and mouse iPSCs (TTF-1) embedded in RADA16-I peptide-derived nanofiber scaffolds led to a marked increase in dopaminergic differentiation compared to the laminin-coated 2D culture or Matrigel-encapsulated 3D culture. These differentiated neurons expressed specific dopaminergic markers and produced appropriate patterns of action potential firing. Consistent with the increase in the number of dopaminergic neurons differentiated from R1 or TTF-1 in the self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS), both the expression levels of genes that involve in dopaminergic differentiation and maturation and the dopamine release in SAPNS culture were significantly elevated. The results of the study suggest that SAPNS provides a promising 3D culture system for dopaminergic differentiation. PMID: 24376815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Evaluation of lovastatin effects on expression of anti-apoptotic Nrf2 and PGC-1α genes in neural stem cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Jun;49(3):1364-72 Authors: Abdanipour A, Tiraihi T, Noori-Zadeh A, Majdi A, Gosaili R Abstract Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are associated with various cell processes, including cell survival and apoptosis. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of lovastatin chemoprotection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in bone marrow stromal cell-derived neural stem cells (BMSC-derived NSCs) and whether it has protective effects. BMSC-derived NSCs were pretreated with different doses of lovastatin for 48 h and then exposed to 125 μM H2O2 for 30 min. Using MTT, TUNEL assay, and real-time RT-PCR, we evaluated the effects of lovastatin on cell survival, apoptosis, and PGC-1α and Nrf2 expression rates in pretreated BMSC-derived NSCs compared to control groups. Results showed that apoptosis rate in the lovastatin-pretreated BMSC-derived NSCs was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Our findings suggest that lovastatin protects NSCs against oxidative stress-induced cell death, and therefore, it may be used to promote the survival rate of NSCs and can be a candidate for treatment of oxidative stress-mediated neurological diseases. PMID: 24390568 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Wnt signaling in midbrain dopaminergic neuron development and regenerative medicine for Parkinson's disease. J Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Feb;6(1):42-53 Authors: Arenas E Abstract Wnts are a highly conserved family of lipid-modified glycoproteins that work as morphogens to activate several signaling pathways, leading to remodeling of the cytoskeleton and the regulation of gene transcription. Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular functions and cell systems, including the development and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. These neurons are of considerable interest for regenerative medicine because their degeneration results in Parkinson's disease (PD). This review focuses on new advances in understanding key functions of Wnts in mDA neuron development and using novel tools to regulate Wnt signaling in regenerative medicine for PD. Particularly, recent reports indicate that appropriate levels of Wnt signaling are essential to improve the quantity and quality of stem cell- or reprogrammed cell-derived mDA neurons to be used in drug discovery and cell replacement therapy for PD. PMID: 24431302 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Advances in stem-cell--generated transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2014 Apr;14(4):437-53 Authors: Sundberg M, Isacson O Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human pluripotent stem cells have the potential to differentiate into different cell lineages of the human body, including dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Previous studies have shown that stem-cell--derived DA neurons can improve the motor deficits of Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models. That is why current research interests focus on the development of stem-cell--derived neural cells for transplantation therapies for PD patients. AREAS COVERED: This review article emphasizes the safety and efficacy requirements of human pluripotent stem-cell--derived neural cells and usage of reliable preclinical animal models prior to clinical trials. The current advances and hurdles related to cell production, differentiation and transplantation are also summarized. EXPERT OPINION: Before entering the clinic, transplantable cell populations must be differentiated and characterized according to good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations both in vitro and in vivo. Taking into account the rapid development of the stem-cell field and technological improvements in cell preparations and GMP facilities, we think that pluripotent stem-cell--derived DA neurons will offer a relevant cell therapy option for treatment of PD in the near future. PMID: 24437368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Gene therapy and cell reprogramming for the aging brain: achievements and promise. Curr Gene Ther. 2014 Feb;14(1):24-34 Authors: Pardo J, Morel GR, Astiz M, Schwerdt JI, León ML, Rodríguez SS, Hereñú CB, Goya RG Abstract In the central nervous system, cholinergic and dopaminergic (DA) neurons are among the cells most susceptible to the deleterious effects of age. Thus, the basal forebrain cholinergic system is known to undergo moderate neurodegenerative changes during normal aging as well as severe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Parkinson's disease (PD), a degeneration of nigro-striatal DA neurons is the most conspicuous reflection of the vulnerability of DA neurons to age. Overall, there is growing evidence that a progressive decline in cognitive function and central DA activity represents basic features of normal aging both in humans and laboratory rodents. Spontaneous or environmental neurotoxin-mediated exacerbation of these processes contributes to the symptoms of AD and PD, respectively. In this context, neurotrophic factors that can prevent or delay the decline in cognitive function and central DA activity are of clinical interest. Among them, Insulin-like Growth Factor I and Glial cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor are emerging as powerful neuroprotective molecules. This article discusses the experimental evidence supporting the neuroprotective relevance of these and related factors in the aging brain. The availability of induced pluripotent stem cells offers a new promise for the treatment of pathologies associated with the loss of specific cell types as for instance, nigral DA neurons (in PD) or basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) in the early stages of AD. Recent studies documenting the use of cell reprogramming for the generation of multipotent neuronal precursors as well as functional BFCN and DA neurons are reviewed. PMID: 24450294 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15(2):1719-45 Authors: Wyse RD, Dunbar GL, Rossignol J Abstract The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating neurodegenerative disorders has received growing attention recently because these cells are readily available, easily expanded in culture, and when transplanted, survive for relatively long periods of time. Given that such transplants have been shown to be safe in a variety of applications, in addition to recent findings that MSCs have useful immunomodulatory and chemotactic properties, the use of these cells as vehicles for delivering or producing beneficial proteins for therapeutic purposes has been the focus of several labs. In our lab, the use of genetic modified MSCs to release neurotrophic factors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is of particular interest. Specifically, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been recognized as therapeutic trophic factors for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, respectively. The aim of this literature review is to provide insights into: (1) the inherent properties of MSCs as a platform for neurotrophic factor delivery; (2) the molecular tools available for genetic manipulation of MSCs; (3) the rationale for utilizing various neurotrophic factors for particular neurodegenerative diseases; and (4) the clinical challenges of utilizing genetically modified MSCs. PMID: 24463293 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Comparative study of efficacy of dopaminergic neuron differentiation between embryonic stem cell and protein-based induced pluripotent stem cell. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85736 Authors: Kwon YW, Chung YJ, Kim J, Lee HJ, Park J, Roh TY, Cho HJ, Yoon CH, Koo BK, Kim HS Abstract In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), stem cells can serve as therapeutic agents to restore or regenerate injured nervous system. Here, we differentiated two types of stem cells; mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and protein-based iPS cells (P-iPSCs) generated by non-viral methods, into midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, and then compared the efficiency of DA neuron differentiation from these two cell types. In the undifferentiated stage, P-iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers as ES cells did, indicating that protein-based reprogramming was stable and authentic. While both stem cell types were differentiated to the terminally-matured mDA neurons, P-iPSCs showed higher DA neuron-specific markers' expression than ES cells. To investigate the mechanism of the superior induction capacity of DA neurons observed in P-iPSCs compared to ES cells, we analyzed histone modifications by genome-wide ChIP sequencing analysis and their corresponding microarray results between two cell types. We found that Wnt signaling was up-regulated, while SFRP1, a counter-acting molecule of Wnt, was more suppressed in P-iPSCs than in mESCs. In PD rat model, transplantation of neural precursor cells derived from both cell types showed improved function. The present study demonstrates that P-iPSCs could be a suitable cell source to provide patient-specific therapy for PD without ethical problems or rejection issues. PMID: 24465672 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles [Recovery from parkinsonism with N-acetylcysteine-differentiated neurons]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2013 Jul-Aug;47(4):618-24 Authors: Noh YH, Kim JY, Kim DH, Kim OH, Park J, Kee BS, Sohn DS, Kim D, Chung YH, Kim KY, Lee WB, Kim SS Abstract The upregulation of dopaminergic neuronal differentiation is necessary for stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, neuronal differentiation efficiency increased by more than 2 times in P19 embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and retinoic acid (RA) as compared to RA alone, with suppressed glial differentiation. The majority of NAC-treated stem cells grafted into brains of PD mice differentiated into dopaminergic neurons and persisted well for 6 weeks. Parkinsonism was also greatly improved after grafting NAC-treated cells in comparison to cells treated with only RA. Our results strongly suggest that NAC treatment may be an effective strategy for generating stem cells fated to become dopaminergic neurons for PD clinical therapy. PMID: 24466751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Autophagy as an essential cellular antioxidant pathway in neurodegenerative disease. Redox Biol. 2014;2:82-90 Authors: Giordano S, Darley-Usmar V, Zhang J Abstract Oxidative stress including DNA damage, increased lipid and protein oxidation, are important features of aging and neurodegeneration suggesting that endogenous antioxidant protective pathways are inadequate or overwhelmed. Importantly, oxidative protein damage contributes to age-dependent accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria or protein aggregates. In addition, environmental toxins such as rotenone and paraquat, which are risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, also promote protein oxidation. The obvious approach of supplementing the primary antioxidant systems designed to suppress the initiation of oxidative stress has been tested in animal models and positive results were obtained. However, these findings have not been effectively translated to treating human patients, and clinical trials for antioxidant therapies using radical scavenging molecules such as α-tocopherol, ascorbate and coenzyme Q have met with limited success, highlighting several limitations to this approach. These could include: (1) radical scavenging antioxidants cannot reverse established damage to proteins and organelles; (2) radical scavenging antioxidants are oxidant specific, and can only be effective if the specific mechanism for neurodegeneration involves the reactive species to which they are targeted and (3) since reactive species play an important role in physiological signaling, suppression of endogenous oxidants maybe deleterious. Therefore, alternative approaches that can circumvent these limitations are needed. While not previously considered an antioxidant system we propose that the autophagy-lysosomal activities, may serve this essential function in neurodegenerative diseases by removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and organelles. PMID: 24494187 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Roles for the TGFβ Superfamily in the Development and Survival of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons. Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Oct;50(2):559-73 Authors: Hegarty SV, Sullivan AM, O'Keeffe GW Abstract The adult midbrain contains 75 % of all dopaminergic neurons in the CNS. Within the midbrain, these neurons are divided into three anatomically and functionally distinct clusters termed A8, A9 and A10. The A9 group plays a functionally non-redundant role in the control of voluntary movement, which is highlighted by the motor syndrome that results from their progressive degeneration in the neurodegenerative disorder, Parkinson's disease. Despite 50 years of investigation, treatment for Parkinson's disease remains symptomatic, but an intensive research effort has proposed delivering neurotrophic factors to the brain to protect the remaining dopaminergic neurons, or using these neurotrophic factors to differentiate dopaminergic neurons from stem cell sources for cell transplantation. Most neurotrophic factors studied in this context have been members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily. In recent years, an intensive research effort has focused on understanding the function of these proteins in midbrain dopaminergic neuron development and their role in the molecular architecture that regulates the development of this brain region, with the goal of applying this knowledge to develop novel therapies for Parkinson's disease. In this review, the current evidence showing that TGFβ superfamily members play critical roles in the regulation of midbrain dopaminergic neuron induction, differentiation, target innervation and survival during embryonic and postnatal development is analysed, and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID: 24504901 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Substantial telomere shortening in the substantia nigra of telomerase-deficient mice does not increase susceptibility to MPTP-induced dopamine depletion. Neuroreport. 2014 Mar 26;25(5):335-9 Authors: Oeckl P, Scheffold A, Lechel A, Rudolph KL, Ferger B Abstract The most important risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is age. Aging is ascribed to different mechanisms, including telomere shortening. Telomeres consist of repetitive DNA sequences and stabilize chromosome integrity. Currently, however, the data reported on telomere shortening in PD patients are inconsistent. We investigated the effect of telomere shortening in the MPTP mouse model of PD using late-generation telomerase-deficient mice (G3 Terc mice). G3 Terc mice showed a reduction in telomere length in nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons by 40%, as indicated by quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridization. There was no difference in the total motor activity and striatal tissue concentrations of dopamine, DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid), HVA (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid), and 3-MT (3-methoxytyramine) concentrations or dopamine turnover in G3 Terc mice in comparison with controls without MPTP treatment. Low-dose MPTP treatment (four injections, 2 h intervals, 2 × 5 and 2 × 7.5 mg/kg) led to a significant decrease in striatal dopamine concentrations that did not differ in G3 Terc mice compared with control mice (19.15 ± 0.44 to 12.81 ± 1.26 ng/mg in control mice in comparison with 19.51 ± 0.59 to 13.56 ± 1.10 ng/mg in G3 Terc mice). In conclusion, telomere shortening does not increase susceptibility to MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in mice. These data indicate that other age-related mechanisms in the brain may play a more important role in enhancing MPTP-induced dopamine depletion. PMID: 24525820 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Evaluation of neuroprotective effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs using neuroimaging. Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Feb;10(1 Suppl):S55-61 Authors: Femminella GD, Edison P Abstract There is increasing evidence to suggest that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) analogs are neuroprotective in animal models. In transgenic mice, both insulin and GLP1 analogs reduced inflammation, increased stem cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and increased dendritic growth. Furthermore, insulin desensitization was also observed in these animals, and reduced glucose uptake in the brain, as shown on FDG-PET imaging. In this review we discussed the role of PET and MRI in evaluating the effect of GLP1 analogs in disease progression in both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We have also discussed the potential novel PET markers that will allow us to understand the mechanism by which GLP1 exerts its effects. PMID: 24529526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Adult subventricular zone neural stem cells as a potential source of dopaminergic replacement neurons. Front Neurosci. 2014;8:16 Authors: Cave JW, Wang M, Baker H Abstract Clinical trials engrafting human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue have demonstrated, in principle, that cell replacement therapy provides substantial long-lasting improvement of motor impairments generated by Parkinson's Disease (PD). The use of fetal tissue is not practical for widespread clinical implementation of this therapy, but stem cells are a promising alternative source for obtaining replacement cells. The ideal stem cell source has yet to be established and, in this review, we discuss the potential of neural stem cells in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) as an autologous source of replacement cells. We identify three key challenges for further developing this potential source of replacement cells: (1) improving survival of transplanted cells, (2) suppressing glial progenitor proliferation and survival, and (3) developing methods to efficiently produce dopaminergic neurons. Subventricular neural stem cells naturally produce a dopaminergic interneuron phenotype that has an apparent lack of vulnerability to PD-mediated degeneration. We also discuss whether olfactory bulb dopaminergic neurons derived from adult SVZ neural stem cells are a suitable source for cell replacement strategies. PMID: 24574954 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Engineering of midbrain organoids containing long-lived dopaminergic neurons. Stem Cells Dev. 2014 Jul 1;23(13):1535-47 Authors: Tieng V, Stoppini L, Villy S, Fathi M, Dubois-Dauphin M, Krause KH Abstract The possibility to generate dopaminergic (DA) neurons from pluripotent stem cells represents an unlimited source of material for tissue engineering and cell therapy for neurodegenerative disease. We set up a protocol based on the generation of size-calibrated neurospheres for a rapid production (3 weeks) of a high amount of DA neurons (>60%) oriented toward a midbrain-like phenotype, characterized by the expression of FOXA2, LMX1A, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), NURR1, and EN1. By using γ-secretase inhibitors and varying culture time of neurospheres, we controlled maturation and cellular composition of a three-dimensional (3D) engineered nervous tissue (ENT). ENT contained neurons and glial cells expressing various markers of maturity, such as synaptophysin, neuronal nuclei-specific protein (NeuN), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and were electrophysiologically active. We found that 3-week-old neurospheres were optimal to generate 3D tissue containing DA neurons with typical A9 morphology. ENT generated from 4-week-old neurospheres launched glial cell type since astrocytes and myelin could be detected massively at the expense of TH-immunoreactive neurons. All γ-secretase inhibitors were not equivalent; compound E was more efficient than DAPT in generating DA neurons. This DA tissue provides a tool for drug screening, and toxicology. It should also become a useful biomaterial for studies on Parkinson's disease. PMID: 24576173 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles The proteome of the differentiating mesencephalic progenitor cell line CSM14.1 in vitro. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:351821 Authors: Weiss B, Haas S, Lessner G, Mikkat S, Kreutzer M, Glocker MO, Wree A, Schmitt O Abstract The treatment of Parkinson's disease by transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from human embryonic mesencephalic tissue is a promising approach. However, the origin of these cells causes major problems: availability and standardization of the graft. Therefore, the generation of unlimited numbers of DA neurons from various types of stem or progenitor cells has been brought into focus. A source for DA neurons might be conditionally immortalized progenitor cells. The temperature-sensitive immortalized cell line CSM14.1 derived from the mesencephalon of an embryonic rat has been used successfully for transplantation experiments. This cell line was analyzed by unbiased stereology of cell type specific marker proteins and 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to characterize the differentially expressed proteome. Undifferentiated CSM14.1 cells only expressed the stem cell marker nestin, whereas differentiated cells expressed GFAP or NeuN and tyrosine hydroxylase. An increase of the latter cells during differentiation could be shown. By using proteomics an explanation on the protein level was found for the observed changes in cell morphology during differentiation, when CSM14.1 cells possessed the morphology of multipolar neurons. The results obtained in this study confirm the suitability of CSM14.1 cells as an in vitro model for the study of neuronal and dopaminergic differentiation in rats. PMID: 24592386 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles A reliable indirect cell-labelling protocol for optical imaging allows ex vivo visualisation of mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation. Arch Ital Biol. 2013 Sep;151(3):114-25 Authors: Diana V, Libani IV, Armentero MT, Blandini F, Lucignani G, Silani V, Cova L, Ottobrini L Abstract We set out to assess the feasibility of exploiting expression of the mCherry gene, after lentiviral infection, in order visualise bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by optical imaging, and to provide proof of principle of this approach as a method for cell tracking and quantification in pre-clinical models. Commercial hMSCs were infected with a lentiviral vector carrying the mCherry gene under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After extensive in vitro culture, infected hMSCs were analysed for viability, morphology, differentiation capability, and maintenance of fluorescence. Thereafter, mCherry-positive cells were transplanted into unilaterally 6-hydroxy-dopamine lesioned rats (an experimental model of Parkinson's disease). Our analysis showed that hMSCs can be efficiently transduced with the lentiviral vector, retaining their biological features even in the long term. Intrastriatally transplanted mCherry-positive hMSCs can be detected ex vivo by a sensitive cooled CCD camera, both in the whole brain and in serial slices, and relatively quantified. Our protocol was found to be a reliable means of studying the viability of implanted hMSCs. mCherry labelling appears to be readily applicable in the post-transplantation tracking of stem cells and could favour the rapid development of new therapeutic targets for clinical treatments. PMID: 24599629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Treating Parkinson's disease in the 21st century: can stem cell transplantation compete? J Comp Neurol. 2014 Aug 15;522(12):2802-16 Authors: Buttery PC, Barker RA Abstract The characteristic and selective degeneration of a unique population of cells-the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons-that occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) has made the condition an iconic target for cell replacement therapies. Indeed, transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic cells into the DA-deficient striatum was first trialled nearly 30 years ago, at a time when other treatments for the disease were less well developed. Over recent decades standard treatments for PD have advanced, and newer biological therapies are now emerging. In the 21st century, stem cell technology will have to compete alongside other sophisticated treatments, including deep brain stimulation and gene therapies. In this review we examine how stem cell-based transplantation therapies compare with these novel and emerging treatments in the management of this common condition. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2802-2816, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 24610597 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles New research holds promise for Parkinson's treatment. New drugs and stem cell research offer encouraging glimpses of future therapies. Duke Med Health News. 2013 Dec;19(12):1-2 Authors: PMID: 24616930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Direct reprogrammed neuronal cells as a novel resource for cell transplantation therapy. Cell Transplant. 2014;23(4-5):435-9 Authors: Yamashita T, Abe K Abstract Cell transplantation/replacement therapy is attractive as a novel strategy for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. To realize this therapy, safer and more therapeutic effective cell resources are now required. Since induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can retain high replication competence and pluripotency when they differentiate into various kinds of cells, they are regarded as a promising cell source for cell transplantation therapy. However, high tumorigenesis of iPSCs has to be overcome for clinical applications. Recent progress includes the combination of novel transcriptional factors that can convert somatic cells to various kinds of mature neuronal cells and neural stem cells without requiring iPSC fate. Some evidence indicates that these directly induced neuronal cells have little tumorigenic potential. In this article, we discuss the advantage, issues, and possibility of clinical application of these cells for cell transplantation therapy. PMID: 24621988 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Neuroprotective effects of mesenchymal stem cells through autophagy modulation in a parkinsonian model. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Aug;35(8):1920-8 Authors: Park HJ, Shin JY, Kim HN, Oh SH, Lee PH Abstract Autophagy is a major degradation pathway for abnormal aggregated proteins and organelles that cause various neurodegenerative diseases. Current evidence suggests a central role for autophagy in pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, and that dysfunction in the autophagic system may lead to α-synuclein accumulation. In the present study, we investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would enhance autophagy and thus exert a neuroprotective effect through the modulation of α-synuclein in parkinsonian models. In MPP(+)-treated neuronal cells, coculture with MSCs increased cellular viability, attenuated expression of α-synuclein, and enhanced the number of LC3-II-positive autophagosomes compared with cells treated with MPP(+) only. In an MPTP-treated animal model of Parkinson's disease, MSC administration significantly increased final maturation of late autophagic vacuoles, fusion with lysosomes. Moreover, MSC administration significantly reduced the level of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons, which was elevated in MPTP-treated mice. These results suggest that MSC treatment significantly enhances autophagolysosome formation and may modulate α-synuclein expression in parkinsonian models, which may lead to increased neuronal survival in the presence of neurotoxins. PMID: 24629674 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Functional differentiation of midbrain neurons from human cord blood-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5(2):35 Authors: Stanslowsky N, Haase A, Martin U, Naujock M, Leffler A, Dengler R, Wegner F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer great promise for regenerative therapies or in vitro modelling of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Currently, widely used cell sources for the generation of hiPSCs are somatic cells obtained from aged individuals. However, a critical issue concerning the potential clinical use of these iPSCs is mutations that accumulate over lifetime and are transferred onto iPSCs during reprogramming which may influence the functionality of cells differentiated from them. The aim of our study was to establish a differentiation strategy to efficiently generate neurons including dopaminergic cells from human cord blood-derived iPSCs (hCBiPSCs) as a juvenescent cell source and prove their functional maturation in vitro. METHODS: The differentiation of hCBiPSCs was initiated by inhibition of transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling using the small molecules dorsomorphin and SB 431542 before final maturation was carried out. hCBiPSCs and differentiated neurons were characterized by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. Since functional investigations of hCBiPSC-derived neurons are indispensable prior to clinical applications, we performed detailed analysis of essential ion channel properties using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging. RESULTS: A Sox1 and Pax6 positive neuronal progenitor cell population was efficiently induced from hCBiPSCs using a newly established differentiation protocol. Neuronal progenitor cells could be further maturated into dopaminergic neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine transporter and engrailed 1. Differentiated hCBiPSCs exhibited voltage-gated ion currents, were able to fire action potentials and displayed synaptic activity indicating synapse formation. Application of the neurotransmitters GABA, glutamate and acetylcholine induced depolarizing calcium signal changes in neuronal cells providing evidence for the excitatory effects of these ligand-gated ion channels during maturation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time that hCBiPSCs can be used as a juvenescent cell source to generate a large number of functional neurons including dopaminergic cells which may serve for the development of novel regenerative treatment strategies. PMID: 24636737 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Isolation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic progenitors by cell sorting for successful transplantation. Stem Cell Reports. 2014 Mar 11;2(3):337-50 Authors: Doi D, Samata B, Katsukawa M, Kikuchi T, Morizane A, Ono Y, Sekiguchi K, Nakagawa M, Parmar M, Takahashi J Abstract Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease. However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. Here, we show that human iPSC-derived DA progenitor cells can be efficiently isolated by cell sorting using a floor plate marker, CORIN. We induced DA neurons using scalable culture conditions on human laminin fragment, and the sorted CORIN(+) cells expressed the midbrain DA progenitor markers, FOXA2 and LMX1A. When transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the CORIN(+) cells survived and differentiated into midbrain DA neurons in vivo, resulting in significant improvement of the motor behavior, without tumor formation. In particular, the CORIN(+) cells in a NURR1(+) cell-dominant stage exhibited the best survival and function as DA neurons. Our method is a favorable strategy in terms of scalability, safety, and efficiency and may be advantageous for clinical application. PMID: 24672756 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles iPS cell technologies: significance and applications to CNS regeneration and disease. Mol Brain. 2014;7:22 Authors: Okano H, Yamanaka S Abstract In 2006, we demonstrated that mature somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by gene transfer, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Since that time, there has been an enormous increase in interest regarding the application of iPS cell technologies to medical science, in particular for regenerative medicine and human disease modeling. In this review article, we outline the current status of applications of iPS technology to cell therapies (particularly for spinal cord injury), as well as neurological disease-specific iPS cell research (particularly for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease). Finally, future directions of iPS cell research are discussed including a) development of an accurate assay system for disease-associated phenotypes, b) demonstration of causative relationships between genotypes and phenotypes by genome editing, c) application to sporadic and common diseases, and d) application to preemptive medicine. PMID: 24685317 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease. Autophagy. 2014 May;10(5):889-900 Authors: Bové J, Martínez-Vicente M, Dehay B, Perier C, Recasens A, Bombrun A, Antonsson B, Vila M Abstract Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD. PMID: 24686337 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Functional receptors and intracellular signal pathways of midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN). Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):511-20 Authors: Xu C, Zhu S, Wu M, Han W, Yu Y Abstract Midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) belong to the subfamily of heparin binding growth factors. They have ca. 50% structural homology, with similar C- and N-domains as well as comparable binding affinity to heparin, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Both MK and PTN have diverse functions, such as mitogenicity, inflammation, angiogenesis, oncogenesis and stem cell self-renewal. The high expression of MK and PTN in many kinds of cancers makes them excellent as cancer biomarkers and targets for anticancer drug development. In addition, the important roles of MK and PTN in the regeneration of tissues, such as myocardium, cartilage, neuron, muscle, and bone, make them attractive candidates for the treatment of degenerative diseases such as myocardiac and cerebral infarction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and skeletal muscle injury. As a result, there has been a growing interest in the mechanisms of MK and PTN function, including the diverse receptors on the cell membrane and complex signal pathways in the cytoplasm. This work reviews the structures of MK and PTN, as well as the receptors and the intracellular signal pathways involving MK and PTN which will pave the way for future development of MK and PTN therapeutics. PMID: 24694599 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles NIH stem-cell programme closes. Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):157 Authors: Reardon S PMID: 24717485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Functional Role of Parkin against Oxidative Stress in Neural Cells. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2014 Mar;29(1):62-9 Authors: Hwang M, Lee JM, Kim Y, Geum D Abstract BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) is caused by selective cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. An early onset form of PD, autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism has been associated with a mutation in the parkin gene. The function of parkin is known to remove misfolding proteins and protect cell death. We aimed to investigate the role of parkin against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. METHODS: Parkin knockout embryonic stem cells (PKO ES cells) were differentiated into neurons by adherent monolayer culture method. Oxidative stress was induced by the treatment of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in neurons derived from wild type and PKO ES cells, and cell viability was examined by MTT assay. After exposure to MPP(+), Tuj1-positive cell population was compared between PKO and wild type cells by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. The activated caspase3 protein level was also measured by Western blot analysis, FACS and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: There was no difference in the efficiency of neuronal differentiation between wild type and PKO ES cells. After exposure to MPP(+), no significant differences were found in cell viability and Tuj1-positive cell population between the two groups determined by MTT assay and FACS analysis, respectively. The activated caspase3 protein levels examined by Western blot analysis, FACS and immunocytochemistry were not changed in PKO cells compared with those of wild type cells after MPP(+) treatment. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PKO neuronal cells including dopaminergic neurons are not sensitive to caspase3-dependent cell death pathway during the response against MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress. PMID: 24741456 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Human neural stem cells survive long term in the midbrain of dopamine-depleted monkeys after GDNF overexpression and project neurites toward an appropriate target. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Jun;3(6):692-701 Authors: Wakeman DR, Redmond DE, Dodiya HB, Sladek JR, Leranth C, Teng YD, Samulski RJ, Snyder EY Abstract Transplanted multipotent human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) significantly improved the function of parkinsonian monkeys in a prior study primarily by neuroprotection, with only 3%-5% of cells expressing a dopamine (DA) phenotype. In this paper, we sought to determine whether further manipulation of the neural microenvironment by overexpression of a developmentally critical molecule, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), in the host striatum could enhance DA differentiation of hfNSCs injected into the substantia nigra and elicit growth of their axons to the GDNF-expressing target. hfNSCs were transplanted into the midbrain of 10 green monkeys exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine. GDNF was delivered concomitantly to the striatum via an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 vector, and the fate of grafted cells was assessed after 11 months. Donor cells remained predominantly within the midbrain at the injection site and sprouted numerous neurofilament-immunoreactive fibers that appeared to course rostrally toward the striatum in parallel with tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers from the host substantia nigra but did not mature into DA neurons. This work suggests that hfNSCs can generate neurons that project long fibers in the adult primate brain. However, in the absence of region-specific signals and despite GDNF overexpression, hfNSCs did not differentiate into mature DA neurons in large numbers. It is encouraging, however, that the adult primate brain appeared to retain axonal guidance cues. We believe that transplantation of stem cells, specifically instructed ex vivo to yield DA neurons, could lead to reconstruction of some portion of the nigrostriatal pathway and prove beneficial for the parkinsonian condition. PMID: 24744393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Detailed analysis of the genetic and epigenetic signatures of iPSC-derived mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Stem Cell Reports. 2014 Apr 8;2(4):520-33 Authors: Roessler R, Smallwood SA, Veenvliet JV, Pechlivanoglou P, Peng SP, Chakrabarty K, Groot-Koerkamp MJ, Pasterkamp RJ, Wesseling E, Kelsey G, Boddeke E, Smidt MP, Copray S Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons involved in Parkinson's disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic characterizations of such neurons are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the authenticity of iPSC-derived DA neurons obtained by established protocols. We FACS purified mdDA (Pitx3 (Gfp/+) ) neurons derived from mouse iPSCs and primary mdDA (Pitx3 (Gfp/+) ) neurons to analyze and compare their genetic and epigenetic features. Although iPSC-derived DA neurons largely adopted characteristics of their in vivo counterparts, relevant deviations in global gene expression and DNA methylation were found. Hypermethylated genes, mainly involved in neurodevelopment and basic neuronal functions, consequently showed reduced expression levels. Such abnormalities should be addressed because they might affect unambiguous long-term functionality and hamper the potential of iPSC-derived DA neurons for in vitro disease modeling or cell-based therapy. PMID: 24749075 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Potential for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease using genetically programmed human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells. J Comp Neurol. 2014 Aug 15;522(12):2845-56 Authors: Ambasudhan R, Dolatabadi N, Nutter A, Masliah E, Mckercher SR, Lipton SA Abstract Neural transplantation is a promising strategy for restoring dopaminergic dysfunction and modifying disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential resource in this regard because of their ability to provide a virtually limitless supply of homogenous dopaminergic progenitors and neurons of appropriate lineage. The recent advances in developing robust cell culture protocols for directed differentiation of hESCs to near pure populations of ventral mesencephalic (A9-type) dopaminergic neurons has heightened the prospects for PD cell therapy. Here, we focus our review on current state-of-the-art techniques for harnessing hESC-based strategies toward development of a stem cell therapeutic for PD. Importantly, we also briefly describe a novel genetic-programming approach that may address many of the key challenges that remain in the field and that may hasten clinical translation. PMID: 24756727 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Brn4 and TH synergistically promote the differentiation of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2014 Jun 13;571:23-8 Authors: Tan X, Zhang L, Zhu H, Qin J, Tian M, Dong C, Li H, Jin G Abstract Neural stem cells (NSCs) are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into dopaminergic (DA) neurons, which are the major cell types damaged in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, NSCs are considered the most promising cell source for cell replacement therapy of PD. However, the poor differentiation and maturation of DA neurons and decreased cell survival after transplantation are a challenge. We have previously demonstrated that Brn4, a member of the POU domain family of transcription factors, induced the differentiation of NSCs into neurons and promoted their maturation. In this study, we directly transduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, into NSCs to induce DA neuronal differentiation. However, these DA neurons were morphologically immature and seldom expressed dopamine transporter (DAT), a late marker of mature DA neurons. In contrast, TH co-transfected with Brn4 generated increased number of mature DA neurons. Furthermore, Brn4 significantly induced the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with its receptors GFRα-1 and Ret, which may contribute to the maturation and survival of differentiated DA neurons. Our findings may be of future importance for the use of NSCs in cell replacement therapy of PD. PMID: 24769320 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles iPSCs, aging and age-related diseases. N Biotechnol. 2014 Sep 25;31(5):411-21 Authors: Isobe K, Cheng Z, Nishio N, Suganya T, Tanaka Y, Ito S Abstract Human histocompatibility antigens are quite heterogeneous and promote the rejection of transplanted tissue. Recent advances in stem cell research that enable the use of a patient's own stem cells for transplantation are very important because rejection could be avoided. In particular, Yamanaka's group in Japan gave new hope to patients with incurable diseases when they developed induced murine pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006 and human iPSCs in 2007. Whereas embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass and are supported in culture by LIF, iPSCs are derived from fetal or adult somatic cells. Through the application of iPSC technology, adult somatic cells can develop a pluripotent state. One advantage of using iPSCs instead of ESCs in regenerative medicine is that (theoretically) immune rejection could be avoided, although there is some debate about immune rejection of a patient's own iPSCs. Many diseases occur in elderly patients. In order to use regenerative medicine with the elderly, it is important to demonstrate that iPSCs can indeed be generated from older patients. Recent findings have shown that iPSCs can be established from aged mice and aged humans. These iPSCs can differentiate to cells from all three germ layers. However, it is not known whether iPSCs from aged mice or humans show early senescence. Before clinical use of iPSCs, issues related to copy number variation, tumorigenicity and immunogenicity must be resolved. It is particularly important that researchers have succeeded in generating iPSCs that have differentiated to somatic cells related to specific diseases of the elderly, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These efforts will facilitate the use of personalized stem cell transplantation therapy for currently incurable diseases. PMID: 24784583 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles The c-Abl inhibitor, nilotinib, protects dopaminergic neurons in a preclinical animal model of Parkinson's disease. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4874 Authors: Karuppagounder SS, Brahmachari S, Lee Y, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Ko HS Abstract c-Abl is activated in the brain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice where it inhibits parkin through tyrosine phosphorylation leading to the accumulation of parkin substrates, and neuronal cell death. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo efficacy of nilotinib, a brain penetrant c-Abl inhibitor, in the acute MPTP-induced model of PD. Our results show that administration of nilotinib reduces c-Abl activation and the levels of the parkin substrate, PARIS, resulting in prevention of dopamine (DA) neuron loss and behavioral deficits following MPTP intoxication. On the other hand, we observe no reduction in the tyrosine phosphorylation of parkin and the parkin substrate, AIMP2 suggesting that the protective effect of nilotinib may, in part, be parkin-independent or to the pharmacodynamics properties of nilotinib. This study provides a strong rationale for testing other brain permeable c-Abl inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of PD. PMID: 24786396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice lacking the CD157/BST1 gene, a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014;8:133 Authors: Lopatina O, Yoshihara T, Nishimura T, Zhong J, Akther S, Fakhrul AA, Liang M, Higashida C, Sumi K, Furuhara K, Inahata Y, Huang JJ, Koizumi K, Yokoyama S, Tsuji T, Petugina Y, Sumarokov A, Salmina AB, Hashida K, Kitao Y, Hori O, Asano M, Kitamura Y, Kozaka T, Shiba K, Zhong F, Xie MJ, Sato M, Ishihara K, Higashida H Abstract CD157, known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyl cyclase that supports the survival and function of B-lymphocytes and hematopoietic or intestinal stem cells. Although CD157/Bst1 is a risk locus in Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about the function of CD157 in the nervous system and contribution to PD progression. Here, we show that no apparent motor dysfunction was observed in young knockout (CD157 (-/-)) male mice under less aging-related effects on behaviors. CD157 (-/-) mice exhibited anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors compared with wild-type mice. These behaviors were rescued through treatment with anti-psychiatric drugs and oxytocin. CD157 was weakly expressed in the amygdala and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala was less evident in CD157 (-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CD157 plays a role as a neuro-regulator and suggest a potential role in pre-motor symptoms in PD. PMID: 24795584 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles ADSC therapy in neurodegenerative disorders. Cell Transplant. 2014;23(4-5):549-57 Authors: Chan TM, Chen JY, Ho LI, Lin HP, Hsueh KW, Liu DD, Chen YH, Hsieh AC, Tsai NM, Hueng DY, Tsai ST, Chou PW, Lin SZ, Harn HJ Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders, chronic diseases that can severely affect the patient's daily life, include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. However, these diseases all have the common characteristic that they are due to degenerative irreversibility, and thus no efficient drugs or therapy methods can mitigate symptoms completely. Stem cell therapy, such as adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), is a promising treatment for incurable disorders. In this review, we summarized the previous studies using ADSCs to treat neurodegenerative disorders, as well as their therapeutic mechanisms. We also suggested possible expectations for future human clinical trials involving minimized intracerebroventricular combined with intravenous administration, using different cell lineages to finish complementary therapy as well as change the extracellular matrix to create a homing niche. Depending on successful experiments in relevant neurodegenerative disorders models, this could form the theoretical basis for future human clinical trials. PMID: 24816450 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Human-induced pluripotent stem cells: potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Sep 15;23(R1):R17-26 Authors: Ross CA, Akimov SS Abstract The cell biology of human neurodegenerative diseases has been difficult to study till recently. The development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models has greatly enhanced our ability to model disease in human cells. Methods have recently been improved, including increasing reprogramming efficiency, introducing non-viral and non-integrating methods of cell reprogramming, and using novel gene editing techniques for generating genetically corrected lines from patient-derived iPSCs, or for generating mutations in control cell lines. In this review, we highlight accomplishments made using iPSC models to study neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Fronto-Temporal Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Spinomuscular Atrophy and other polyglutamine diseases. We review disease-related phenotypes shown in patient-derived iPSCs differentiated to relevant neural subtypes, often with stressors or cell "aging", to enhance disease-specific phenotypes. We also discuss prospects for the future of using of iPSC models of neurodegenerative disorders, including screening and testing of therapeutic compounds, and possibly of cell transplantation in regenerative medicine. The new iPSC models have the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and to facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. PMID: 24824217 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: From bench to bedside. Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Nov;144(2):123-133 Authors: Tarazi FI, Sahli ZT, Wolny M, Mousa SA Abstract The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age and is projected to increase in parallel to the rising average age of the population. The disease can have significant health-related, social, and financial implications not only for the patient and the caregiver, but for the health care system as well. While the neuropathology of this neurodegenerative disorder is fairly well understood, its etiology remains a mystery, making it difficult to target therapy. The currently available drugs for treatment provide only symptomatic relief and do not control or prevent disease progression, and as a result patient compliance and satisfaction are low. Several emerging pharmacotherapies for PD are in different stages of clinical development. These therapies include adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic agents, and antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10, N-acetyl cysteine, and edaravone. Other emerging non-pharmacotherapies include viral vector gene therapy, microRNAs, transglutaminases, RTP801, stem cells and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In addition, surgical procedures including deep brain stimulation, pallidotomy, thalamotomy and gamma knife surgery have emerged as alternative interventions for advanced PD patients who have completely utilized standard treatments and still suffer from persistent motor fluctuations. While several of these therapies hold much promise in delaying the onset of the disease and slowing its progression, more pharmacotherapies and surgical interventions need to be investigated in different stages of PD. It is hoped that these emerging therapies and surgical procedures will strengthen our clinical armamentarium for improved treatment of PD. PMID: 24854598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Bridging between transplantation therapy and neurotrophic factors in Parkinson's disease. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2014;6:225-35 Authors: Ghosh B, Zhang C, Smith GM Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a challenging condition where different therapeutic options have evolved over the course of the last 50 years. The potential for therapeutic use of cell transplantation for cell replacement or for gene delivery of neurotrophic factors has received a great deal of attention. Currently, all available treatment options are directed towards the amelioration of symptoms. A greater understanding of the distinctive pathology underlying PD might offer some novel therapeutic approaches. Transplantation of embryonic ventral mesencephalon (VM) dopaminergic neurons has shown promise in animal studies, but similar transplant procedures have shown limited success in clinical trials. One important issue may be the site of transplantation. Previous studies have transplanted VM into the striatum, which is the target of these neurons. With increased understanding of growth and guidance molecule effecting dopaminergic neurons, it may be feasible to place transplants in the damaged substantia nigra and direct the growth of axons into target regions to reconstruction of midbrain dopamine (DA) circuitry. Our established and on-going understanding of the molecular cues which support directed growth of DA neurons form an important basis for the refinement and optimization of VM grafting procedures, and also the development of new procedures based on the use of stem cells. In this review, we discuss transplantation therapy and how selective guidance molecules could be used to reconstruction of nigrostriatal circuit. PMID: 24896204 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Fetal-cell revival for Parkinson's. Nature. 2014 Jun 12;510(7504):195-6 Authors: Abbott A PMID: 24919900 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Reducing glypican-4 in ES cells improves recovery in a rat model of Parkinson's disease by increasing the production of dopaminergic neurons and decreasing teratoma formation. J Neurosci. 2014 Jun 11;34(24):8318-23 Authors: Fico A, de Chevigny A, Melon C, Bohic M, Kerkerian-Le Goff L, Maina F, Dono R, Cremer H Abstract The heparan sulfate proteoglycan Glypican 4 (Gpc4) is strongly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells where it controls the maintenance of self-renewal by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling activities. Here we show that mouse ES cells carrying a hypomorphic Gpc4 allele, in a single-step neuronal differentiation protocol, show increased differentiation into dopaminergic neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and nuclear receptor related-1 protein (Nurr1) 1. In contrast to wild-type cells, these differentiating Gpc4-mutant cells expressed high levels of DOPA decarboxylase and the dopamine transporter, two markers expressed by fully mature dopaminergic neurons. Intrastriatal transplantation of Gpc4 hypomorphic cells into a 6-OHDA rat model for Parkinson's disease improved motor behavior in the cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotations at a higher level than transplanted wild-type cells. Importantly, Gpc4 hypomorphic cell grafts, in contrast to wild-type cells, did not generate teratomas in the host brains, leading to strongly enhanced animal survival. Therefore, control of Gpc4 activity level represents a new potential strategy to reduce ES cell tumorigenic features while at the same time increasing neuronal differentiation and integration. PMID: 24920634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Good practice. Nature. 2014 Jun 12;510(7504):187-8 Authors: PMID: 24926498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Dopaminergic-like neurons derived from oral mucosa stem cells by developmental cues improve symptoms in the hemi-parkinsonian rat model. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100445 Authors: Ganz J, Arie I, Buch S, Zur TB, Barhum Y, Pour S, Araidy S, Pitaru S, Offen D Abstract Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC) was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD. PMID: 24945922 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Efficient reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to neuronal cells including dopaminergic neurons. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:957548 Authors: Oh SI, Park HS, Hwang I, Park HK, Choi KA, Jeong H, Kim SW, Hong S Abstract Somatic cells were directly converted to functional neurons through the use of a combination of transcription factors, including Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l. However, a major limitation is the lack of a reliable source of cell-replacement therapy for neurological diseases. Here, we show that a combination of the transcription factors Ascl1 and Nurr1 (AN) and neurotrophic factors including SHH and FGF8b directly reprogrammed embryonic mouse fibroblasts to induced neuronal (iN) cells: pan-neuronal cells and dopaminergic (DA) neurons under our systematic cell culture conditions. Reprogrammed cells showed the morphological properties of neuronal cells. Additionally, cells were analyzed using various markers, including Tuj1 and Map2 for neuronal cells and Lmx1a, Th, Aadc and Vmat2 for DA neurons in our immunostaining and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR experiments. We found that a combination of transcription factors and neurotrophic factors could directly reprogram fibroblasts to neuronal cells including DA neurons. Various types of reprogrammed cells are promising cell sources for cell-based therapy of neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury. PMID: 24991651 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function. J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug 1;124(8):3282-4 Authors: Swick A, Kimple RJ Abstract Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings of Xiao and colleagues may initiate a potential treatment for the millions of patients who suffer from xerostomia each year. PMID: 25036702 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Neuroprotective Properties of a Standardized Extract from Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Aroeira-Do-Sertão), as Evaluated by a Parkinson's Disease Model in Rats. Parkinsons Dis. 2014;2014:519615 Authors: Calou I, Bandeira MA, Aguiar-Galvão W, Cerqueira G, Siqueira R, Neves KR, Brito GA, Viana G Abstract Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Anacardiaceae) is a Brazilian medicinal species, which is common to the Northeastern Brazilian semiarid region, whose stem-bark is widely used in folk medicine. It is an endangered species, presenting as main bioactive components tannins and chalcones. In this work, we studied the neuroprotective effects of a standardized extract from cultivated M. urundeuva (SEMU), in a model of Parkinson's disease. Thus, a unilateral injection of 6-OHDA was done into the rat right stratum. The animals were submitted to stereotaxic surgery, then treated with SEMU (5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks, subjected to behavioral tests, and euthanized for striata dissections and neurochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. We showed, for the first time, that SEMU reverted behavioral alterations seen in the 6-OHDA-lesioned group and partially blocked the decrease in DA and DOPAC contents. The numbers of viable neurons and TH immunopositive cells were increased by SEMU. In addition, the SEMU-treated 6-OHDA groups showed lower numbers of GFAP and OX-42 immunopositive cells. The neuroprotective action of SEMU is possibly related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of M. urundeuva, pointing out to its potential use in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease. PMID: 25061534 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Survival and engraftment of dopaminergic neurons manufactured by a Good Manufacturing Practice-compatible process. Cytotherapy. 2014 Sep;16(9):1305-12 Authors: Peng J, Liu Q, Rao MS, Zeng X Abstract BACKGROUND AIMS: We have previously reported a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible process for generating authentic dopaminergic neurons in defined media from human pluripotent stem cells and determined the time point at which dopaminergic precursors/neurons (day 14 after neuronal stem cell [NSC] stage) can be frozen, shipped and thawed without compromising their viability and ability to mature in vitro. One important issue we wished to address is whether dopaminergic precursors/neurons manufactured by our GMP-compatible process can be cryopreserved and engrafted in animal Parkinson disease (PD) models. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of freshly prepared and cryopreserved dopaminergic neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat PD model. RESULTS: We showed functional recovery up to 6 months post-transplantation in rats transplanted with our cells, whether freshly prepared or cryopreserved. In contrast, no motor improvement was observed in two control groups receiving either medium or cells at a slightly earlier stage (day 10 after NSC stage). Histologic analysis at the end point of the study (6 months post-transplantation) showed robust long-term survival of donor-derived tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+) dopaminergic neurons in rats transplanted with day 14 dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, TH(+) fibers emanated from the graft core into the surrounding host striatum. Consistent with the behavioral analysis, no or few TH(+) neurons were detected in animals receiving day 10 cells, although human cells were present in the graft. Importantly, no tumors were detected in any grafted rats, but long-term tumorigenic studies will need to determine the safety of our products. CONCLUSIONS: Dopaminergic neurons manufactured by a GMP-compatible process from human ESC survived and engrafted efficiently in the 6-OHDA PD rat model. PMID: 25065637 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in Parkinson's disease: impact on neuronal survival and plasticity. Neural Plast. 2014;2014:454696 Authors: Regensburger M, Prots I, Winner B Abstract In Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies, chronic neurodegeneration occurs within different areas of the central nervous system leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The symptomatic treatment options that are currently available do not slow or halt disease progression. This highlights the need of a better understanding of disease mechanisms and disease models. The generation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and in the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system is affected by many different regulators and possibly involved in memory processing, depression, and olfaction, symptoms which commonly occur in PD. The pathology of the adult neurogenic niches in human PD patients is still mostly elusive, but different preclinical models have shown profound alterations of adult neurogenesis. Alterations in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival as well as neurite outgrowth and spine formation have been related to different aspects in PD pathogenesis. Therefore, neurogenesis in the adult brain provides an ideal model to study disease mechanisms and compounds. In addition, adult newborn neurons have been proposed as a source of endogenous repair. Herein, we review current knowledge about the adult neurogenic niches in PD and highlight areas of future research. PMID: 25110593 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Frontiers in therapeutic development of allopregnanolone for Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:203 Authors: Irwin RW, Solinsky CM, Brinton RD Abstract Allopregnanolone (Allo), a neurosteroid, has emerged as a promising promoter of endogenous regeneration in brain. In a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, Allo induced neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, white matter generation and cholesterol homeostasis while simultaneously reducing β-amyloid and neuroinflammatory burden. Allo activates signaling pathways and gene expression required for regeneration of neural stem cells and their differentiation into neurons. In parallel, Allo activates systems to sustain cholesterol homeostasis and reduce β-amyloid generation. To advance Allo into studies for chronic human neurological conditions, we examined translational and clinical parameters: dose, regimen, route, formulation, outcome measures, and safety regulations. A treatment regimen of once per week at sub-sedative doses of Allo was optimal for regeneration and reduction in Alzheimer's pathology. This regimen had a high safety profile following chronic exposure in aged normal and Alzheimer's mice. Formulation of Allo for multiple routes of administration has been developed for both preclinical and clinical testing. Preclinical evidence for therapeutic efficacy of Allo spans multiple neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, Niemann-Pick, diabetic neuropathy, status epilepticus, and traumatic brain injury. To successfully translate Allo as a therapeutic for multiple neurological disorders, it will be necessary to tailor dose and regimen to the targeted therapeutic mechanisms and disease etiology. Treatment paradigms conducted in accelerated disease models in young animals have a low probability of successful translation to chronic diseases in adult and aged humans. Gender, genetic risks, stage and burden of disease are critical determinants of efficacy. This review focuses on recent advances in development of Allo for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that have the potential to accelerate therapeutic translation for multiple unmet neurological needs. PMID: 25126056 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Sox6 and Otx2 control the specification of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Cell Rep. 2014 Aug 21;8(4):1018-25 Authors: Panman L, Papathanou M, Laguna A, Oosterveen T, Volakakis N, Acampora D, Kurtsdotter I, Yoshitake T, Kehr J, Joodmardi E, Muhr J, Simeone A, Ericson J, Perlmann T Abstract Distinct midbrain dopamine (mDA) neuron subtypes are found in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but it is mainly SNc neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Interest in how mDA neurons develop has been stimulated by the potential use of stem cells in therapy or disease modeling. However, very little is known about how specific dopaminergic subtypes are generated. Here, we show that the expression profiles of the transcription factors Sox6, Otx2, and Nolz1 define subpopulations of mDA neurons already at the neural progenitor cell stage. After cell-cycle exit, Sox6 selectively localizes to SNc neurons, while Otx2 and Nolz1 are expressed in a subset of VTA neurons. Importantly, Sox6 ablation leads to decreased expression of SNc markers and a corresponding increase in VTA markers, while Otx2 ablation has the opposite effect. Moreover, deletion of Sox6 affects striatal innervation and dopamine levels. We also find reduced Sox6 levels in Parkinson's disease patients. These findings identify Sox6 as a determinant of SNc neuron development and should facilitate the engineering of relevant mDA neurons for cell therapy and disease modeling. PMID: 25127144 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Opposite effects of bone marrow-derived cells transplantation in MPTP-rat model of Parkinson's disease: a comparison study of mononuclear and mesenchymal stem cells. Int J Med Sci. 2014;11(10):1049-64 Authors: Capitelli CS, Lopes CS, Alves AC, Barbiero J, Oliveira LF, da Silva VJ, Vital MA Abstract The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) animal model is a useful tool to study Parkinson's disease (PD) and was used in the present study to investigate the potential beneficial as well as deleterious effects of systemic bone-marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) or mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation. MPTP administration resulted in a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and motor impairment in the open field test 24 h after surgery. Three and 7 days after receiving the lesion, the injured animals showed remaining motor impairment compared to the sham groups along with a significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The MPTP-lesioned rats treated with BMMCs immediately after lesioning exhibited motor impairment similar to the MPTP-saline group, though they presented a significantly higher loss of TH-ir cells in the SNpc compared to the MPTP-saline group. This increased loss of TH-ir cells in the SNpc was not observed when BMMC transplantation was performed 24 h after MPTP administration. In contrast, in the MPTP animals treated early with systemic BM-MSCs, no loss of TH-ir cells was observed. BMMCs and BM-MSCs previously labeled with CM-DiI cell tracker were found in brain sections of all transplanted animals. In addition, cells expressing CD45, an inflammatory white blood cell marker, were found in all brain sections analyzed and were more abundant in the MPTP-BMMC animals. In these animals, Iba1+ microglial cells showed also marked morphological changes indicating increased microglial activation. These results show that systemic BMMC transplantation did not ameliorate or prevent the lesion induced by MPTP. Instead, BMMC transplantation in MPTP-lesioned rats accelerated dopaminergic neuronal damage and induced motor impairment and immobility behavior. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when considering cell therapy using BMMCs to treat PD. However, systemic BM-MSC transplantation that reaches the injury site and prevents neuronal damage after an MPTP infusion could be considered as a potential treatment for PD during the early stage of disease development. PMID: 25136260 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Therapeutics with SPION-labeled stem cells for the main diseases related to brain aging: a systematic review. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:3749-70 Authors: Alvarim LT, Nucci LP, Mamani JB, Marti LC, Aguiar MF, Silva HR, Silva GS, Nucci-da-Silva MP, DelBel EA, Gamarra LF Abstract The increase in clinical trials assessing the efficacy of cell therapy for structural and functional regeneration of the nervous system in diseases related to the aging brain is well known. However, the results are inconclusive as to the best cell type to be used or the best methodology for the homing of these stem cells. This systematic review analyzed published data on SPION (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle)-labeled stem cells as a therapy for brain diseases, such as ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementia. This review highlights the therapeutic role of stem cells in reversing the aging process and the pathophysiology of brain aging, as well as emphasizing nanotechnology as an important tool to monitor stem cell migration in affected regions of the brain. PMID: 25143726 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Designer's microglia with novel delivery system in neurodegenerative diseases. Med Hypotheses. 2014 Oct;83(4):510-2 Authors: Baig AM Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of central nervous system diseases that have a high rate of morbidity and mortality. More disabling than lethal, the pathogenesis of many of these diseases, like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Multiple sclerosis, (MS) remains to be established. Even after passage of several decades subsequent to their first recognition, these diseases have proven to be notoriously refractory towards drug treatment. Stem cell therapy itself has faced problems like ethical issues with such transplants, difficult and risky implantation routes and immune rejections of the implanted stem cells. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) offers a hope to the aforesaid diseases if the cells selected for nuclear donation itself has inherent regenerative and scavenging properties. Here we propose olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC's) as the donor somatic cell that conceivably would attempt regeneration in above mentioned diseases by differentiating into glia, which would have healthy mitochondria and without any fear of immune rejection. Also proposed is a method of delivering these cells after SCNT to the brain by a novel "transcribrial route" through a device that can deliver cells to the brain across the cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. PMID: 25146247 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Aug 23; Authors: Cao L, Tan L, Jiang T, Zhu XC, Yu JT Abstract Although most neurodegenerative diseases have been closely related to aberrant accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins in neurons, understanding their pathogenesis remains incomplete, and there is no treatment to delay the onset or slow the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. The availability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in recapitulating the phenotypes of several late-onset neurodegenerative diseases marks the new era in in vitro modeling. The iPSC collection represents a unique and well-characterized resource to elucidate disease mechanisms in these diseases and provides a novel human stem cell platform for screening new candidate therapeutics. Modeling human diseases using iPSCs has created novel opportunities for both mechanistic studies as well as for the discovery of new disease therapies. In this review, we introduce iPSC-based disease modeling in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In addition, we discuss the implementation of iPSCs in drug discovery associated with some new techniques. PMID: 25146848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Proceedings: cell therapies for Parkinson's disease from discovery to clinic. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Sep;3(9):979-91 Authors: Canet-Aviles R, Lomax GP, Feigal EG, Priest C Abstract In March 2013, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, in collaboration with the NIH Center for Regenerative Medicine, held a 2-day workshop on cell therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD), with the goals of reviewing the state of stem cell research for the treatment of PD and discussing and refining the approach and the appropriate patient populations in which to plan and conduct new clinical trials using stem cell-based therapies for PD. Workshop participants identified priorities for research, development, and funding; discussed existing resources and initiatives; and outlined a path to the clinic for a stem cell-based therapy for PD. A consensus emerged among participants that the development of cell replacement therapies for PD using stem cell-derived products could potentially offer substantial benefits to patients. As with all stem cell-based therapeutic approaches, however, there are many issues yet to be resolved regarding the safety, efficacy, and methodology of transplanting cell therapies into patients. Workshop participants agreed that designing an effective stem cell-based therapy for PD will require further research and development in several key areas. This paper summarizes the meeting. PMID: 25150264 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles SOX9 as a Predictor for Neurogenesis Potentiality of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Oct;3(10):1138-47 Authors: Wei PC, Chao A, Peng HH, Chao AS, Chang YL, Chang SD, Wang HS, Chang YJ, Tsai MS, Sieber M, Chen HC, Chen SJ, Lee YS, Hwang SM, Wang TH Abstract Preclinical studies of amniotic fluid-derived cell therapy have been successful in the research of neurodegenerative diseases, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, and brain ischemia. Transplantation of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) into rat brain ventricles has shown improvement in symptoms of Parkinson's disease and also highlighted the minimal immune rejection risk of AFSCs, even between species. Although AFSCs appeared to be a promising resource for cell-based regenerative therapy, AFSCs contain a heterogeneous pool of distinct cell types, rendering each preparation of AFSCs unique. Identification of predictive markers for neuron-prone AFSCs is necessary before such stem cell-based therapeutics can become a reality. In an attempt to identify markers of AFSCs to predict their ability for neurogenesis, we performed a two-phase study. In the discovery phase of 23 AFSCs, we tested ZNF521/Zfp521, OCT6, SOX1, SOX2, SOX3, and SOX9 as predictive markers of AFSCs for neural differentiation. In the validation phase, the efficacy of these predictive markers was tested in independent sets of 18 AFSCs and 14 dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We found that high expression of SOX9 in AFSCs is associated with good neurogenetic ability, and these positive correlations were confirmed in independent sets of AFSCs and DPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX9 in AFSCs inhibited their neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, the discovery of SOX9 as a predictive marker for neuron-prone AFSCs could expedite the selection of useful clones for regenerative medicine, in particular, in neurological diseases and injuries. PMID: 25154783 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Zinc-finger nuclease enhanced gene targeting in human embryonic stem cells. J Vis Exp. 2014;(90):e51764 Authors: Hartley BJ, Fabb SA, Finnin BA, Haynes JM, Pouton CW Abstract One major limitation with current human embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation protocols is the generation of heterogeneous cell populations. These cultures contain the cells of interest, but are also contaminated with undifferentiated ESCs, non-neural derivatives and other neuronal subtypes. This limits their use in in vitro and in vivo applications, such as in vitro modeling for drug discovery or cell replacement therapy. To help overcome this, reporter cell lines, which offer a means to visualize, track and isolate cells of interest, can be engineered. However, to achieve this in human embryonic stem cells via conventional homologous recombination is extremely inefficient. This protocol describes targeting of the Pituitary homeobox 3 (PITX3) locus in human embryonic stem cells using custom designed zinc-finger nucleases, which introduce site-specific double-strand DNA breaks, together with a PITX3-EGFP-specific DNA donor vector. Following the generation of the PITX3 reporter cell line, it can then be differentiated using published protocols for use in studies such as in vitro Parkinson's disease modeling or cell replacement therapy. PMID: 25177806 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Regionally-specified second trimester fetal neural stem cells reveals differential neurogenic programming. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e105985 Authors: Fan Y, Marcy G, Lee ES, Rozen S, Mattar CN, Waddington SN, Goh EL, Choolani M, Chan JK Abstract Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC) have the potential for treatment of a wide range of neurological diseases such as Parkinson Disease and multiple sclerosis. Currently, NSC have been isolated only from hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain. It is not known whether NSC can be found in all parts of the developing mid-trimester central nervous system (CNS) when the brain undergoes massive transformation and growth. Multipotent NSC from the mid-trimester cerebra, thalamus, SVZ, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord can be derived and propagated as clonal neurospheres with increasing frequencies with increasing gestations. These NSC can undergo multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, and engraft in a developmental murine model. Regionally-derived NSC are phenotypically distinct, with hippocampal NSC having a significantly higher neurogenic potential (53.6%) over other sources (range of 0%-27.5%, p<0.004). Whole genome expression analysis showed differential gene expression between these regionally-derived NSC, which involved the Notch, epidermal growth factor as well as interleukin pathways. We have shown the presence of phenotypically-distinct regionally-derived NSC from the mid-trimester CNS, which may reflect the ontological differences occurring within the CNS. Aside from informing on the role of such cells during fetal growth, they may be useful for different cellular therapy applications. PMID: 25181041 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Dual small-molecule targeting of SMAD signaling stimulates human induced pluripotent stem cells toward neural lineages. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e106952 Authors: Wattanapanitch M, Klincumhom N, Potirat P, Amornpisutt R, Lorthongpanich C, U-pratya Y, Laowtammathron C, Kheolamai P, Poungvarin N, Issaragrisil S Abstract Incurable neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are very common and can be life-threatening because of their progressive disease symptoms with limited treatment options. To provide an alternative renewable cell source for cell-based transplantation and as study models for neurological diseases, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and then differentiated them into neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and mature neurons by dual SMAD signaling inhibitors. Reprogramming efficiency was improved by supplementing the histone deacethylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), and inhibitor of p160-Rho associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK), Y-27632, after retroviral transduction. We obtained a number of iPS colonies that shared similar characteristics with human embryonic stem cells in terms of their morphology, cell surface antigens, pluripotency-associated gene and protein expressions as well as their in vitro and in vivo differentiation potentials. After treatment with Noggin and SB431542, inhibitors of the SMAD signaling pathway, HDF-iPSCs demonstrated rapid and efficient differentiation into neural lineages. Six days after neural induction, neuroepithelial cells (NEPCs) were observed in the adherent monolayer culture, which had the ability to differentiate further into NPCs and neurons, as characterized by their morphology and the expression of neuron-specific transcripts and proteins. We propose that our study may be applied to generate neurological disease patient-specific iPSCs allowing better understanding of disease pathogenesis and drug sensitivity assays. PMID: 25207966 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Stem cells for cell replacement therapy: a therapeutic strategy for HD? Mov Disord. 2014 Sep 15;29(11):1446-54 Authors: Rosser A, Svendsen CN Abstract Much interest has been expressed over the last couple of decades in the potential application of stem cells to medicine, both for research and diagnostic tools and as a source of donor cells for therapeutic purposes. Potential therapeutic applications include replacement of cells in many body organs where the capacity for intrinsic repair is limited, including the pancreas, heart, and brain. A key challenge is to generate the relevant donor cell types, and this is particularly challenging in the brain where the number of different neuronal subtypes is so great. Although dopamine neuron replacement in Parkinson's disease has been the focus of most clinical studies, great interest has been shown in this approach for other disorders, including Huntington's disease. Replacing complete neural circuits in the adult brain is clearly challenging, and there are many other complexities with regard to both donor cells and host. This article presents the pros and cons of taking a cell therapy approach in Huntington's disease. It considers the implantation both of cells that are already of the same neural subtype as those lost in the disease process (ie, primary fetal cells derived from the developing striatum) and those derived from stem cells, which require "directing" toward that phenotype. PMID: 25216372 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles 3,5,4'-Trihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone protects astrocytes against oxidative stress via interference with cell signaling and by reducing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Neurochem Int. 2014 Sep 10;78C:67-75 Authors: Elmann A, Telerman A, Mordechay S, Erlank H, Rindner M, Ofir R, Kashman Y Abstract Oxidative stress is tightly involved in various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and conditions such as ischemia. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support. Therefore, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In a previous study we have demonstrated that an extract prepared from the plant Achillea fragrantissima (Af) prevented the oxidative stress-induced death of astrocytes and attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS in astrocytes under oxidative stress. In the present study, using activity guided fractionation, we have purified from this plant the active compound, determined to be a flavonoid named 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (TTF). The effects of TTF in any biological system have not been studied previously, and this is the first study to characterize the anti-oxidant and protective effects of this compound in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. Using primary cultures of astrocytes we have found that TTF prevented the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced death of astrocytes, and attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with H2O2 or the peroxyl radicals generating molecule 2,2'-Azobis(amidinopropane) (ABAP). TTF also interfered with cell signaling events and inhibited the phosphorylation of the signaling proteins stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) and the phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The mechanism of the protective effect of TTF against H2O2-cytotoxicity could not be attributed to a direct H2O2 scavenging but rather to the scavenging of free radicals as was shown in cell free systems. Thus, TTF might be a therapeutic candidate for the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress is part of the pathophysiology. PMID: 25217804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Japan stem-cell trial stirs envy. Nature. 2014 Sep 18;513(7518):287-8 Authors: Reardon S, Cyranoski D PMID: 25230622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Read more...
Related Articles Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 alone as an efficient inducer for differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. J Biomed Sci. 2014;21(1):83 Authors: Nandy SB, Mohanty S, Singh M, Behari M, Airan B Abstract BACKGROUND: The reported efficiency of differentiation of human bone marrow derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hBM MSC) into dopaminergic neurons with different inducers is found to vary. Thus, in the current study we have investigated the response of hBM MSC to some of the neuronal inducers and their combinations. Neuronal differentiation inducing agents Fibroblastic Growth Factor 2 (FGF2), Sonic Hedge Hog (Shh), Fibroblastic Growth Factor 8 (FGF8) & All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) were used either singly or in varied combinations. RESULTS: The differentiated and undifferentiated hBM MSC were characterized in terms of morphology, expression of cell markers at transcriptional and translational levels, amount of dopamine secreted by the cells in the media and changes in cell membrane potential by calcium ions imaging. Induced hBM MSC revealed neuron like morphology and expressed cellular markers suggesting neuronal differentiation with all the inducing agents. However, upon quantitative analysis through qPCR, cells induced with FGF2 were found to show maximum expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by 47.5 folds. Immunofluorescence analysis of differentiated and undifferentiated cells also revealed expression of nestin, neurofilament, microtubule associated protein- 2, beta tubulin III and TH in differentiated cells, at translational level. This data was supported by immunoblotting analysis. Further, ELISA study also supported the release of dopamine by cultures induced with FGF2. When the cells were depolarised with KCl solution, those induced with Shh & FGF8 showed maximum calcium ion trafficking, followed by the cells induced with FGF2 only. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hBM MSC can be coaxed to differentiate efficiently into dopaminergic neurons in the presence of a very simple media cocktail containing only one main inducer like FGF2 and thus contribute towards cellular therapy in Parkinson's and other related disorders. These dopaminergic neurons are also functionally active, as shown by calcium ion trafficking. PMID: 25248378 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles iNSC suppress macrophage-induced inflammation by repressing COX-2. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2014 Sep 24; Authors: Kim JH, Sun W, Han DW, Moon HJ, Lee J Abstract Brain inflammation causes cell damage and death in diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. In this study, we investigated whether early induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) could protect against cell death after treatment with THP1-derived macrophages. We developed an inflammatory model system with THP1-derived macrophages and cortical neuronal cells and investigated the therapeutic efficacy of iNSC against macrophage-induced inflammation in this model. Apoptosis was confirmed by double immunocytochemistry with NeuN and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling. Cortical neuronal cells cultured with iNSCs exhibited fewer apoptotic cells than did cultures without iNSCs. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cells cultured with iNSCs had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines and higher VEGF levels than those cultured without iNSCs. Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) showed a significantly lower level of COX-2 in cells cultured with iNSCs than in those cultured without iNSCs. Thus, early iNSCs administration reduced inflammation associated with neurological recovery, and this effect is mediated by COX-2 regulation. Our results suggest that iNSCs have potential therapeutic relevance, because they display strong anti-inflammatory functions that promote neuroprotection thorough the inflammatory response. PMID: 25248435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Mesenchymal stem cells: potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;9(6):513-21 Authors: Tanna T, Sachan V Abstract Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Marrow Stromal Cells (MSCs) have long been viewed as a potent tool for regenerative cell therapy. MSCs are easily accessible from both healthy donor and patient tissue and expandable in vitro on a therapeutic scale without posing significant ethical or procedural problems. MSC based therapies have proven to be effective in preclinical studies for graft versus host disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary fibrosis, autoimmune disorders and many other conditions and are currently undergoing clinical trials at a number of centers all over the world. MSCs are also being extensively researched as a therapeutic tool against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MSCs have been discussed with regard to two aspects in the context of neurodegenerative diseases: their ability to transdifferentiate into neural cells under specific conditions and their neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects. When transplanted into the brain, MSCs produce neurotrophic and growth factors that protect and induce regeneration of damaged tissue. Additionally, MSCs have also been explored as gene delivery vehicles, for example being genetically engineered to over express glial-derived or brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the brain. Clinical trials involving MSCs are currently underway for MS, ALS, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and stroke. In the present review, we explore the potential that MSCs hold with regard to the aforementioned neurodegenerative diseases and the current scenario with reference to the same. PMID: 25248677 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exhibit therapeutic effects in a mouse model of CADASIL. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Sep 22; Authors: Liu XY, Gonzalez-Toledo ME, Fagan A, Liu Y, Duan WM, Zhang S, Li B, Piao CS, Zhao LR Abstract Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a Notch3 dominant mutation-induced cerebral small vascular disease, is characterized by progressive degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) of small arteries in the brain, leading to recurrent ischemic stroke, vascular dementia and death. To date, no treatment can stop or delay the progression of this disease. Herein, we determined the therapeutic effects of stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) in a mouse model of CADASIL carrying the human mutant Notch3 gene. SCF+G-CSF was subcutaneously administered for 5days and repeated 4 times with 1-4month intervals. We found through water maze testing that SCF+G-CSF treatment improved cognitive function. SCF+G-CSF also attenuated vSMC degeneration in small arteries, increased cerebral blood vascular density, and inhibited apoptosis in CADASIL mice. We also discovered that loss of cerebral capillary endothelial cells and neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) occurred in CADASIL mice. SCF+G-CSF treatment inhibited the CADASIL-induced cell loss in the endothelia and NSCs/NPCs and promoted neurogenesis. In an in vitro model of apoptosis, SCF+G-CSF prevented apoptotic cell death in vSMCs through AKT signaling and by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF restricts the pathological progression of CADASIL. This study offers new insights into developing therapeutic strategies for CADASIL. PMID: 25251607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014 Oct 2; Authors: Tan J, Xu X, Lin J, Fan L, Zheng Y, Kuang W Abstract Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, dental follicle progenitor stem cells and stem cells from apical papilla, which may be a good stem cell type for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed. PMID: 25274563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Infected with Adenovirus Expressing HGF Promote Regeneration of Damaged Neuron Cells in a Parkinson's Disease Model. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:909657 Authors: Liu XS, Li JF, Wang SS, Wang YT, Zhang YZ, Yin HL, Geng S, Gong HC, Han B, Wang YL Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (hUC-MSCs) have great potential for developing a therapeutic agent as such. HGF is a multifunctional mediator originally identified in hepatocytes and has recently been reported to possess various neuroprotective properties. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hUC-MSCs infected by an adenovirus carrying the HGF gene on the PD cell model induced by MPP+ on human bone marrow neuroblastoma cells. Our results provide evidence that the cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF could promote regeneration of damaged PD cells at higher efficacy than the supernatant from hUC-MSCs alone. And intracellular free Ca(2+) obviously decreased after treatment with cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF, while the expression of CaBP-D28k, an intracellular calcium binding protein, increased. Therefore our study clearly demonstrated that cultural supernatant of MSC overexpressing HGF was capable of eliciting regeneration of damaged PD model cells. This effect was probably achieved through the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels by modulating of CaBP-D28k expression. PMID: 25276829 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Microencapsulation of dopamine neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Oct 1; Authors: Konagaya S, Iwata H Abstract Backgroud Dopamine neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells have been widely studied for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, various difficulties remain to be overcome, such as tumor formation, fragility of dopamine neurons, difficulty in handling large numbers of dopamine neurons, and immune reactions. In this study, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived precursors of dopamine neurons were encapsulated in agarose microbeads. Dopamine neurons in microbeads could be handled without specific protocols, because the microbeads protected the fragile dopamine neurons from mechanical stress. METHODS: hiPS cells were seeded on a Matrigel-coated dish and cultured to induce differentiation into a dopamine neuronal linage. On day 18 of culture, cells were collected from the culture dishes and seeded into U-bottom 96-well plates to induce cell aggregate formation. After 5days, cell aggregates were collected from the plates and microencapsulated in agarose microbeads. The microencapsulated aggregates were cultured for an additional 45days to induce maturation of dopamine neurons. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of all cells differentiated into tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in agarose microbeads. The cells released dopamine for more than 40days. In addition, microbeads containing cells could be cryopreserved. CONCLUSION: hiPS cells were successfully differentiated into dopamine neurons in agarose microbeads. General significance Agarose microencapsulation provides a good supporting environment for the preparation and storage of dopamine neurons. PMID: 25281770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Cell Mol Med. 2014 Oct 6; Authors: Wolff EF, Mutlu L, Massasa EE, Elsworth JD, Eugene Redmond D, Taylor HS Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. PMID: 25283241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Directed dopaminergic neuron differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells. J Vis Exp. 2014;(91) Authors: Zhang P, Xia N, Reijo Pera RA Abstract Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (also known as A9 DA neurons) are the specific cell type that is lost in Parkinson's disease (PD). There is great interest in deriving A9 DA neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for regenerative cell replacement therapy for PD. During neural development, A9 DA neurons originate from the floor plate (FP) precursors located at the ventral midline of the central nervous system. Here, we optimized the culture conditions for the stepwise differentiation of hPSCs to A9 DA neurons, which mimics embryonic DA neuron development. In our protocol, we first describe the efficient generation of FP precursor cells from hPSCs using a small molecule method, and then convert the FP cells to A9 DA neurons, which could be maintained in vitro for several months. This efficient, repeatable and controllable protocol works well in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from normal persons and PD patients, in which one could derive A9 DA neurons to perform in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell transplantation therapy for PD. PMID: 25285746 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles A High Efficiency Induction of Dopaminergic Cells from Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Hemiparkinsonian Rats. Cell Transplant. 2014 Oct 6; Authors: Ko TL, Fu YY, Shih YH, Lin YH, Ko MH, Fu TW, Lin TY, Hsiao HS, Chu PM, Fu YS Abstract Background The success rate in previous attempts at transforming human mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) isolated from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord to dopaminergic cells was a mere 12.7 %. The present study was therefore initiated to establish a more effective procedure for better yield of dopaminergic cells in such transformation for more effective HUMSC-based therapy for Parkinsonism. Methods To examine, in vitro, the effects of enhanced Nurr1 expression in HUMSCs on their differentiation, cells were processed through the three-stage differentiation protocol. The capacity of such cells to synthesize and release dopamine was measured by HPLC. The therapeutic effects of Nurr1-overexppressed HUMSCs were examined in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats by quantification of rotations in response to amphetamine. Results Enhanced Nurr1 expression in HUMSCs promoted the transformation into dopaminergic cells in vitro through stepwise culturing in sonic hedgehog, and fibroblast growth factor-8, neuron-conditioned medium. The success rate was about 71%, as determined by immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase, and around 94 nM dopamine synthesis (intracellular and released into the culture medium), as measured by HPLC. Additionally, transplantation of such cells into the striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats resulted in improvement of their behavioral deficits, as indicated by amphetamine-evoked rotation scores. Viability of the transplanted cells lasted for at least 3 months as verified by positive staining for tyrosine hydroxylase. Conclusions Nurr1, FGF8, Shh and NCM can synergistically enhance the differentiation of HUMSCs into dopaminergic cells, and may pave the way for HUMSCs-based treatments for Parkinson's disease. PMID: 25289862 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Dopaminergic Neuron-Like Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Lmx1α and Neurturin Overexpression for Autologous Cytotherapy in Hemiparkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014 Oct 9; Authors: Wang WP, He ZL, Lu SY, Yan M, Zhou Y, Xie TH, Yin N, Wang WJ, Tang DH, Li HJ, Sun MS Abstract Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells hold great potential for cytotherapeutics of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. The neurotrophic factor neurturin can rescue dopaminergic neurons damaged during the disease process. Lmx1α can promote mesencephalic dopaminergic differentiation during embryogenesis. In this study, we tested a cytotherapeutic strategy combining NTN/Lmx1α gene therapy and cell transplantation to ameliorate disease progression in hemiparkinsonian rhesus. Rhesus BMSCs were prepared for autologous grafting by transfection with recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing secreted NTN and Lmx1α, and cultured in the presence of induce factors, particularly the Lmx1α regulatory factor sonic hedgehog, to guide dopaminergic differentiation. These induced rh-BMSCs exhibited gene/protein expression phenotypes resembling nigral dopaminergic neurons. They survived and retained dopaminergic function following stereotaxic injection into the MPTP-lesioned right-side substantia nigra as indicated by SPECT measurement of DAT activity. Injected cells preserved and supplemented the remaining endogenous population of dopamine neurons (TH-positive cell ipsilateral/contralateral ratio was 56.81% ± 7.28% vs. 3.86%±1.22% in vehicle-injected controls; p<0.05). Cell injection also partially restored motor function and reduce apomorphine-evoked rotation (p<0.05). Moreover, function recovery occurred earlier than in previous studies on injected BMSCs. Our findings demonstrate a promising strategy for restoration of PD-associated motor dysfunction by transplantation of autologous BMSCs overexpressing NTN/Lmx1α PMID: 25300822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Intranasal delivery of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, macrophages, and microglia to the brain in mouse models of Alzheimer?s and Parkinson?s disease. Cell Transplant. 2014 Oct 9; Authors: Danielyan L, Beer-Hammer S, Stolzing A, Sch Fer R, Siegel G, Fabian C, Kahle P, Biedermann T, Lourhmati A, Buadze M, Novakovic A, Proksch B, Gleiter CH, Ii WH, Schwab M Abstract In view of the rapid preclinical development of cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury, and tumors, the safe and efficient delivery and targeting of therapeutic cells to the central nervous system is critical for maintaining therapeutic efficacy and safety in the respective disease models. Our previous data demonstrated therapeutically efficacious and targeted delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the brain in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson?s disease (PD). The present study examined delivery of bone marrow derived MSCs, macrophages, and microglia to the brain in a transgenic model of PD ((Thy1)-h[A30P] αS) and an APP/PS1 model of Alzheimer?s disease (AD) via intranasal application (INA). INA of microglia in na?ve BL/6 mice led to targeted and effective delivery of cells to the brain. Quantitative PCR analysis of eGFP DNA showed that the brain contained the highest amount of eGFP-microglia (up to 2.1x10(4)) after INA of 1x10(6) cells, while the total amount of cells detected in peripheral organs did not exceed 3.4x10(3). Seven days after INA, MSCs expressing eGFP were detected in the olfactory bulb (OB), cortex, amygdala, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem of (Thy1)-h[A30P] αS transgenic mice, showing predominant distribution within the OB and brainstem. INA of eGFP-expressing macrophages in 13 month-old APP/PS1 mice led to delivery of cells to the OB, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Both, MSCs and macrophages contained Iba-1-positive population of small microglia-like cells and Iba-1-negative large rounded cells showing either intracellular Amyloid beta (macrophages in APP/PS1 model) or α-Synuclein (MSCs in (Thy1)-h[A30P] αS model) immunoreactivity. Here we show, for the first time, intranasal delivery of cells to the brain of transgenic PD and AD mouse models. Additional work is needed to determine the optimal dosage (single treatment regimen or repeated administrations) to achieve functional improvement in these mouse models with intranasal microglia/macrophages and MSCs. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation. PMID: 25302802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Human Wharton?s jelly-derived stem cells display immunomodulatory properties and transiently improve rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Cell Transplant. 2014 Oct 10; Authors: Donders R, Vanheusden M, Bogie JF, Ravanidis S, Thewissen K, Stinissen P, Gyselaers W, Hendriks JJ, Hellings N Abstract Umbilical cord matrix or Wharton?s jelly-derived stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are an easily accessible source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Recent studies describe a hypo-immunogenic phenotype, multipotent differentiation potential and trophic support function for WJ-MSCs, with variable clinical benefit in degenerative disease models such as stroke, myocardial infarction and Parkinson?s disease. It remains unclear whether WJ-MSCs have therapeutic value for multiple sclerosis (MS), where autoimmune-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration need to be halted. In this study, we investigated whether WJ-MSCs possess the required properties to effectively and durably reverse these pathological hallmarks, and whether they survive in an inflammatory environment after transplantation. WJ-MSCs displayed a lowly immunogenic phenotype and showed intrinsic expression of neurotrophic factors and a variety of anti-inflammatory molecules. Furthermore, they dose-dependently suppressed proliferation of activated T cells using contact-dependent and paracrine mechanisms. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 was identified as one of the main effector molecules responsible for the observed T cell suppression. The immune-modulatory phenotype of WJ-MSCs was further enhanced after pro-inflammatory cytokine treatment in vitro (licensing). In addition to their effect on adaptive immunity, WJ-MSCs interfered with dendritic cell differentiation and maturation, thus directly affecting antigen presentation and therefore T cell priming. Systemically infused WJ-MSCs potently but transiently ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, when injected at onset or during chronic disease. This protective effect was paralleled with a reduction in autoantigen-induced T cell proliferation, confirming their immune-modulatory activity in vivo. Surprisingly, in vitro licensed WJ-MSCs did not ameliorate EAE, indicative of a fast rejection as a result of enhanced immunogenicity. Collectively, we show that WJ-MSCs have trophic support properties and effectively modulate immune cell functioning both in vitro and in the EAE model, suggesting WJ-MSC may hold promise for MS therapy. Future research is needed to optimize survival of stem cells and enhance clinical durability. PMID: 25310756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles The potential of alternate sources of cells for neural grafting in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2014 Aug;4(4):297-307 Authors: Drouin-Ouellet J Abstract SUMMARY  Cell-based therapies for Parkinson's and Huntington's disease have provided mixed clinical outcomes and one of the reasons underlying this is the use of primary fetal tissue as the source of grafted cells. An alternate source of cells, such as stem cells, could overcome many of the issues associated with primary fetal tissue and would help bring forward cell replacement therapy as a reliable and effective treatment for these two neurodegenerative disorders. This review will discuss which stem cells are likely to go to clinic in the next generation of cells, based on trials for Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. PMID: 25313986 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...
Related Articles Potential of caveolae in the therapy of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Front Physiol. 2014;5:370 Authors: Navarro G, Borroto-Escuela DO, Fuxe K, Franco R Abstract Caveolae are membrane micro-domains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and caveolins, which are transmembrane proteins with a hairpin-like structure. Caveolae participate in receptor-mediated trafficking of cell surface receptors and receptor-mediated signaling. Furthermore, caveolae participate in clathrin-independent endocytosis of membrane receptors. On the one hand, caveolins are involved in vascular and cardiac dysfunction. Also, neurological abnormalities in caveolin-1 knockout mice and a link between caveolin-1 gene haplotypes and neurodegenerative diseases have been reported. The aim of this article is to present the rationale for considering caveolae as potential targets in cardiovascular and neurological diseases. PMID: 25324780 [PubMed]
Read more...
Related Articles Dopamine release from transplanted neural stem cells in Parkinsonian rat striatum in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 20; Authors: Kang X, Xu H, Teng S, Zhang X, Deng Z, Zhou L, Zuo P, Liu B, Liu B, Wu Q, Wang L, Hu M, Dou H, Liu W, Zhu F, Li Q, Guo S, Gu J, Lei Q, Lü J, Mu Y, Jin M, Wang S, Jiang W, Liu K, Wang C, Li W, Zhang K, Zhou Z Abstract Embryonic stem cell-based therapies exhibit great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because they can significantly rescue PD-like behaviors. However, whether the transplanted cells themselves release dopamine in vivo remains elusive. We and others have recently induced human embryonic stem cells into primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) that are self-renewable for massive/transplantable production and can efficiently differentiate into dopamine-like neurons (pNSC-DAn) in culture. Here, we showed that after the striatal transplantation of pNSC-DAn, (i) pNSC-DAn retained tyrosine hydroxylase expression and reduced PD-like asymmetric rotation; (ii) depolarization-evoked dopamine release and reuptake were significantly rescued in the striatum both in vitro (brain slices) and in vivo, as determined jointly by microdialysis-based HPLC and electrochemical carbon fiber electrodes; and (iii) the rescued dopamine was released directly from the grafted pNSC-DAn (and not from injured original cells). Thus, pNSC-DAn grafts release and reuptake dopamine in the striatum in vivo and alleviate PD symptoms in rats, providing proof-of-concept for human clinical translation. PMID: 25331880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Read more...
Related Articles Adult neurogenesis restores dopaminergic neuronal loss in the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2014 Oct 22;34(43):14430-42 Authors: Lazarini F, Gabellec MM, Moigneu C, de Chaumont F, Olivo-Marin JC, Lledo PM Abstract Subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis continuously provides new GABA- and dopamine (DA)-containing interneurons for the olfactory bulb (OB) in most adult mammals. DAergic interneurons are located in the glomerular layer (GL) where they participate in the processing of sensory inputs. To examine whether adult neurogenesis might contribute to regeneration after circuit injury in mice, we induce DAergic neuronal loss by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the dorsal GL or in the right substantia nigra pars compacta. We found that a 6-OHDA treatment of the OB produces olfactory deficits and local inflammation and partially decreases the number of neurons expressing the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) near the injected site. Blockade of inflammation by minocycline treatment immediately after the 6-OHDA administration rescued neither TH(+) interneuron number nor the olfactory deficits, suggesting that the olfactory impairments are most likely linked to TH(+) cell death and not to microglial activation. TH(+) interneuron number was restored 1 month later. This rescue resulted at least in part from enhanced recruitment of immature neurons targeting the lesioned GL area. Seven days after 6-OHDA lesion in the OB, we found that the integration of lentivirus-labeled adult-born neurons was biased: newly formed neurons were preferentially incorporated into glomerular circuits of the lesioned area. Behavioral rehabilitation occurs 2 months after lesion. This study establishes a new model into which loss of DAergic cells could be compensated by recruiting newly formed neurons. We propose that adult neurogenesis not only replenishes the population of DAergic bulbar neurons but that it also restores olfactory sensory processing. PMID: 25339754 [PubMed - in process]
Read more...

Quick Contact Form