Muscular Dystrophy Stem Cell Treatment

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

What is Muscular Dystrophy?

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy


Muscular Dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of hereditary muscle diseases that weakens the muscles that move the human body.
Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.

Nine diseases including Duchenne, Becker, limb girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and Emery-Dreifuss are always classified as muscular dystrophy but there are more than 100 diseases in total with similarities to muscular dystrophy.

Most types of MD are multi-system disorders with manifestations in body systems including the heart, gastrointestinal and nervous systems, endocrine glands, skin, eyes and even brain.

The condition may also lead to mood swings and learning difficulties.

 

Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Apr 5;

Authors: Eom YW, Lee JE, Yang MS, Jang IK, Kim HE, Lee DH, Kim YJ, Park WJ, Kong JH, Shim KY, Lee JI, Kim HS

Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear.

We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.

In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step.

Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation.

Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

PMID: 21473854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related Articles RhoA/Rock Inhibition Improves the Beneficial Effects of Glucocorticoid Treatment in Dystrophic Muscle: Implications for Stem Cell Depletion. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 May 26;: Authors: Mu X, Tang Y, Takayama K, Chen W, Lu A, Wang B, Weiss K, Huard J Abstract Glucocorticoid treatment represents a standard palliative treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, but various adverse effects have limited this treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids impart their effects on the dystrophic muscle, and potentially reduce the adverse effects, we have studied the effect of prednisolone treatment in dystrophin/utrophin double knockout (dKO) mice, which exhibit a severe dystrophic phenotype due to rapid muscle stem cell depletion. Our results indicate that muscle stem cell depletion in dKO muscle is related to upregulation of mTOR, and that prednisolone treatment reduces the expression of mTOR and other pro-inflammatory mediators, consequently slowing down muscle stem cell depletion. However, prednisolone treatment was unable to improve the myogenesis of stem cells and reduce fibrosis in dKO muscle. We then studied whether glucocorticoid treatment can be improved by co-administration of an inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK signaling, which can be activated by glucocorticoids and was found in our previous work to be over-activated in dystrophic muscle. Our results indicate that the combination of RhoA/ROCK inhibition and glucocorticoid treatment in dystrophic muscle have a synergistic effect in alleviating the dystrophic phenotype. Taken together, our study not only shed light on the mechanism by which glucocorticoid imparts its beneficial effect on dystrophic muscle, but also revealed the synergistic effect of RhoA/ROCK inhibition and glucocorticoid treatment, which could lead to the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for treating DMD patients. PMID: 28549178 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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