Muscular Dystrophy Stem Cell Treatment

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

What is Muscular Dystrophy?

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy


Muscular Dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of hereditary muscle diseases that weakens the muscles that move the human body.
Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.

Nine diseases including Duchenne, Becker, limb girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and Emery-Dreifuss are always classified as muscular dystrophy but there are more than 100 diseases in total with similarities to muscular dystrophy.

Most types of MD are multi-system disorders with manifestations in body systems including the heart, gastrointestinal and nervous systems, endocrine glands, skin, eyes and even brain.

The condition may also lead to mood swings and learning difficulties.

 

Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Apr 5;

Authors: Eom YW, Lee JE, Yang MS, Jang IK, Kim HE, Lee DH, Kim YJ, Park WJ, Kong JH, Shim KY, Lee JI, Kim HS

Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear.

We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.

In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step.

Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation.

Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

PMID: 21473854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related Articles Myoblasts and macrophages are required for therapeutic morpholino antisense oligonucleotide delivery to dystrophic muscle. Nat Commun. 2017 10 16;8(1):941 Authors: Novak JS, Hogarth MW, Boehler JF, Nearing M, Vila MC, Heredia R, Fiorillo AA, Zhang A, Hathout Y, Hoffman EP, Jaiswal JK, Nagaraju K, Cirak S, Partridge TA Abstract Exon skipping is a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), employing morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (PMO-AO) to exclude disruptive exons from the mutant DMD transcript and elicit production of truncated dystrophin protein. Clinical trials for PMO show variable and sporadic dystrophin rescue. Here, we show that robust PMO uptake and efficient production of dystrophin following PMO administration coincide with areas of myofiber regeneration and inflammation. PMO localization is sustained in inflammatory foci where it enters macrophages, actively differentiating myoblasts and newly forming myotubes. We conclude that efficient PMO delivery into muscle requires two concomitant events: first, accumulation and retention of PMO within inflammatory foci associated with dystrophic lesions, and second, fusion of PMO-loaded myoblasts into repairing myofibers. Identification of these factors accounts for the variability in clinical trials and suggests strategies to improve this therapeutic approach to DMD.Exon skipping is a strategy for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but has variable efficacy. Here, the authors show that dystrophin restoration occurs preferentially in areas of myofiber regeneration, where antisense oligonucleotides are stored in macrophages and delivered to myoblasts and newly formed myotubes. PMID: 29038471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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