Muscular Dystrophy Stem Cell Treatment

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

What is Muscular Dystrophy?

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy


Muscular Dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of hereditary muscle diseases that weakens the muscles that move the human body.
Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.

Nine diseases including Duchenne, Becker, limb girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and Emery-Dreifuss are always classified as muscular dystrophy but there are more than 100 diseases in total with similarities to muscular dystrophy.

Most types of MD are multi-system disorders with manifestations in body systems including the heart, gastrointestinal and nervous systems, endocrine glands, skin, eyes and even brain.

The condition may also lead to mood swings and learning difficulties.

 

Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Apr 5;

Authors: Eom YW, Lee JE, Yang MS, Jang IK, Kim HE, Lee DH, Kim YJ, Park WJ, Kong JH, Shim KY, Lee JI, Kim HS

Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear.

We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.

In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step.

Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation.

Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

PMID: 21473854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related Articles Heme oxygenase-1 influences satellite cells and progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Pietraszek-Gremplewicz K, Kozakowska M, Bronisz-Budzynska I, Ciesla M, Mucha O, Podkalicka P, Madej M, Glowniak U, Szade KT, Stepniewski J, Jez M, Andrysiak K, Bukowska-Strakova K, Kaminska A, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Jozkowicz A, Loboda A, Dulak J Abstract AIMS: Muscle damage in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) caused by the lack of dystrophin is strongly linked to inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; Hmox1) is an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective enzyme affecting myoblasts differentiation by inhibiting myomirs. The role of HO-1 has not been so far well addressed in DMD. RESULTS: In dystrophin-deficient mdx mice expression of Hmox1 in limb skeletal muscles and diaphragm is higher than in wild-type animals, being consistently elevated from 8 up to 52 weeks, both in myofibres and inflammatory leukocytes. Accordingly, HO-1 expression is induced in muscles of DMD patients. Pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 activity or genetic ablation of Hmox1 aggravates muscle damage and inflammation in mdx mice. Double knockout animals (Hmox1-/-mdx) demonstrate impaired exercise capacity in comparison to mdx mice. Interestingly, in contrast to the effect observed in muscle fibres, in dystrophin-deficient muscle satellite cells (SCs) expression of Hmox1 is decreased, while MyoD, myogenin and miR-206 are upregulated comparing to wild-type counterparts. Mdx SCs demonstrate disturbed and enhanced differentiation, which is further intensified by Hmox1 deficiency. RNA sequencing revealed downregulation of Atf3, MafK, Foxo1 and Klf2 transcription factors, known to activate Hmox1 expression, as well as attenuation of nitric oxide-mediated cGMP-dependent signaling in mdx SCs. Accordingly, treatment with NO-donor induces Hmox1 expression and inhibits differentiation. Finally, differentiation of mdx SCs was normalized by CO, a product of HO-1 activity Innovation and conclusions: HO-1 is induced in DMD, and HO-1 inhibition aggravates DMD pathology. Therefore, HO-1 can be considered as a therapeutic target to alleviate this disease. PMID: 29669436 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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