Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy
What is Muscular Dystrophy?
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of hereditary muscle diseases that weakens the muscles that move the human body.
Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.
Nine diseases including Duchenne, Becker, limb girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and Emery-Dreifuss are always classified as muscular dystrophy but there are more than 100 diseases in total with similarities to muscular dystrophy.
Most types of MD are multi-system disorders with manifestations in body systems including the heart, gastrointestinal and nervous systems, endocrine glands, skin, eyes and even brain.
The condition may also lead to mood swings and learning difficulties.
Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Apr 5;
Authors: Eom YW, Lee JE, Yang MS, Jang IK, Kim HE, Lee DH, Kim YJ, Park WJ, Kong JH, Shim KY, Lee JI, Kim HS
Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear.
We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.
In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step.
Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation.
Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.
PMID: 21473854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Transthyretin: A Transporter Protein Essential for Proliferation of Myoblast in the Myogenic Program.
Related Articles Transthyretin: A Transporter Protein Essential for Proliferation of Myoblast in the Myogenic Program. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Jan 08;18(1): Authors: Lee EJ, Pokharel S, Jan AT, Huh S, Galope R, Lim JH, Lee DM, Choi SW, Nahm SS, Kim YW, Park SY, Choi I Abstract Irregularities in the cellular uptake of thyroid hormones significantly affect muscle development and regeneration. Herein, we report indispensable role of transthyretin (TTR) in maintaining cellular thyroxine level. TTR was found to enhance recruitment of muscle satellite cells to the site of injury, thereby regulating muscle regeneration. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunofluorescence analysis of TTRwt (TTR wild type) and TTRkd (TTR knock-down) cells revealed that TTR controlled cell cycle progression by affecting the expression of Cyclin A2. Deiodinase 2 (D2) mediated increases in triiodothyronine levels were found to regulate the expression of myogenic marker, myogenin (MYOG). Moreover, use of a coumarin derivative (CD) revealed a significant reduction in cellular thyroxine, thereby indicating that TTR play a role in the transport of thyroxine. Taken together, these findings suggest that TTR mediated transport of thyroxine represents a survival mechanism necessary for the myogenic program. The results of this study will be highly useful to the strategic development of novel therapeutics to combat muscular dystrophies. PMID: 28075349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...