Muscular Dystrophy Stem Cell Treatment

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

What is Muscular Dystrophy?

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy

Muscular Dystrophy and Stem Cell Therapy


Muscular Dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of hereditary muscle diseases that weakens the muscles that move the human body.
Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.

Nine diseases including Duchenne, Becker, limb girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and Emery-Dreifuss are always classified as muscular dystrophy but there are more than 100 diseases in total with similarities to muscular dystrophy.

Most types of MD are multi-system disorders with manifestations in body systems including the heart, gastrointestinal and nervous systems, endocrine glands, skin, eyes and even brain.

The condition may also lead to mood swings and learning difficulties.

 

Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Apr 5;

Authors: Eom YW, Lee JE, Yang MS, Jang IK, Kim HE, Lee DH, Kim YJ, Park WJ, Kong JH, Shim KY, Lee JI, Kim HS

Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear.

We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.

In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step.

Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation.

Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

PMID: 21473854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related Articles Selective release of muscle-specific, extracellular microRNAs during myogenic differentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2016 Sep 15;25(18):3960-3974 Authors: Coenen-Stass AM, Betts CA, Lee YF, Mäger I, Turunen MP, El Andaloussi S, Morgan JE, Wood MJ, Roberts TC Abstract MyomiRs are muscle-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Extracellular myomiRs (ex-myomiRs) are highly enriched in the serum of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients and dystrophic mouse models and consequently have potential as disease biomarkers. The biological significance of miRNAs present in the extracellular space is not currently well understood. Here we demonstrate that ex-myomiR levels are elevated in perinatal muscle development, during the regenerative phase that follows exercise-induced myoinjury, and concomitant with myoblast differentiation in culture. Whereas ex-myomiRs are progressively and specifically released by differentiating human primary myoblasts and C2C12 cultures, chemical induction of apoptosis in C2C12 cells results in indiscriminate miRNA release. The selective release of myomiRs as a consequence of cellular differentiation argues against the idea that they are solely waste products of muscle breakdown, and suggests they may serve a biological function in specific physiological contexts. Ex-myomiRs in culture supernatant and serum are predominantly non-vesicular, and their release is independent of ceramide-mediated vesicle secretion. Furthermore, ex-myomiRs levels are reduced in aged dystrophic mice, likely as a consequence of chronic muscle wasting. In conclusion, we show that myomiR release accompanies periods of myogenic differentiation in cell culture and in vivo. Serum myomiR abundance is therefore a function of the regenerative/degenerative status of the muscle, overall muscle mass, and tissue expression levels. These findings have implications for the use of ex-myomiRs as biomarkers for DMD disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. PMID: 27466195 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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