Cancer Stem Cell Treatment

Autologous Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer is available at SIRM

Cancer represents one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. More than half of patients suffering from cancer succumb to their condition. The primary approaches to treating cancer are surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These treatments have resulted in significant benefits to patients with the majority of tumor types, and the clinical outcomes have become more satisfactory. It is recognized that multidisciplinary treatments should be used in cancer treatments, another option proposed for this is immunotherapy. The combination of the traditional methods of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy with immunotherapy, is a new way for anti-cancer therapies to reduce the mortality of cancer patients. The dysfunction of the antigen-specific T cells required to kill the cancer leads to cancer cells being able to grow in cancer patients. Active and adoptive T cell immunotherapies generate T cells that can target cancer cells.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells that function as antigen-presenting cells. They are able to activate naive CD4+ T helper cells and unprimed CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Active immunotherapy, represented by DC-based regimens, has been used to produce tumor-specific antigen-presenting cells and to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against cancer cells. DCs can capture antigens, process them, and present them with co-stimulation cytokines/messengers to initiate an immune response, like inducing primary T-cell responses.

Adoptive immunotherapy, as conducted at our Asian Stem Cell Institute, is a personalized therapy that uses a patient’s own anti-tumor immune cells to kill cancer cells and may be used to treat several types of cancer, and represents another therapeutic approach against cancer. To date, the adoptive immunotherapy approach is one of the most effective methods for using the body’s immune system to treat cancer. To be used clinically, protocols for the development of these functional DCs must be established for in-clinic use via defined, xenobiotic-free medium conditions.

The purpose of the present study is to determine the cellular immune response in terms of the delayed-type hyper-sensitivity (DTH) skin test and evaluate the subjective clinical outcome and safety of the regimen in cancer patients receiving a DC vaccine.

Vaccination against a single antigen is available using purified and synthetic products, but these have disadvantages because it is unknown which of the identified antigens have the potential to induce an effective antitumor immune response. This study uses unfractionated, autologous, tumor-derived antigens in the form oftumor cell lysates which circumvents this disadvantage.

Tumor lysates as addressed in this protocol, contain multiple known as well as unknown antigens that can be presented to T cells by both MHC class I- and class II-pathways. Therefore, lysate-loaded DCs are more likely to induce the more preferred polyclonal expansion of T cells, including MHC class II restricted T-helper cells. These have been recognized to play an important role in the activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), probably the most important cells in effecting an antitumor immune response. The generation of CTL clones with multiple specificities may be an advantage in heterogeneous tumors and could also reduce the risk of tumor escape variants. Furthermore, lysate from the autologous tumor can be used independently of the HLA type of the patient. A drawback of unfractionated tumor antigens is the possibility of inducing an autoimmune reactivity to epitopes that are shared by normal tissues. However, in clinical trials using lysate or whole tumor cells as the source of antigen, no clinically relevant autoimmune responses have ever been detected.

Personalized dendritic cell vaccines for cancer, via adoptive immunotherapy, are successfully developed and autologously administered to patients coming to Asia, and more specifically, within the Philippines at the Subic Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The results of this case study of cancer and immunotherapy via pulsed dendritic cells, can serve as another example of safety for future cancer vaccine development.

Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer:
Related Articles Secretion of Rhoptry and Dense Granule Effector Proteins by Nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii Uracil Auxotrophs Controls the Development of Antitumor Immunity. PLoS Genet. 2016 07;12(7):e1006189 Authors: Fox BA, Sanders KL, Rommereim LM, Guevara RB, Bzik DJ Abstract Nonreplicating type I uracil auxotrophic mutants of Toxoplasma gondii possess a potent ability to activate therapeutic immunity to established solid tumors by reversing immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we engineered targeted deletions of parasite secreted effector proteins using a genetically tractable Δku80 vaccine strain to show that the secretion of specific rhoptry (ROP) and dense granule (GRA) proteins by uracil auxotrophic mutants of T. gondii in conjunction with host cell invasion activates antitumor immunity through host responses involving CD8α+ dendritic cells, the IL-12/interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) TH1 axis, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Deletion of parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) associated proteins ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35 or ROP38, intravacuolar network associated dense granule proteins GRA2 or GRA12, and GRA24 which traffics past the PVM to the host cell nucleus severely abrogated the antitumor response. In contrast, deletion of other secreted effector molecules such as GRA15, GRA16, or ROP16 that manipulate host cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, or deletion of PVM associated ROP21 or GRA3 molecules did not affect the antitumor activity. Association of ROP18 with the PVM was found to be essential for the development of the antitumor responses. Surprisingly, the ROP18 kinase activity required for resistance to IFN-γ activated host innate immunity related GTPases and virulence was not essential for the antitumor response. These data show that PVM functions of parasite secreted effector molecules, including ROP18, manipulate host cell responses through ROP18 kinase virulence independent mechanisms to activate potent antitumor responses. Our results demonstrate that PVM associated rhoptry effector proteins secreted prior to host cell invasion and dense granule effector proteins localized to the intravacuolar network and host nucleus that are secreted after host cell invasion coordinately control the development of host immune responses that provide effective antitumor immunity against established ovarian cancer. PMID: 27447180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Immunotherapy for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017 Mar;111:87-93 Authors: Jung SH, Lee HJ, Vo MC, Kim HJ, Lee JJ Abstract Immunotherapy has recently emerged as a promising treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). There are now several monoclonal antibodies that target specific surface antigens on myeloma cells or the checkpoints of immune and myeloma cells. Elotuzumab (targeting SLAMF7), daratumumab (targeting CD38), and pembrolizumab (targeting PD-1) have shown clinical activity in clinical studies with relapsed/refractory MM. Dendritic cell vaccination is a safe strategy that has shown some efficacy in a subset of myeloma patients and may become a crucial part of MM treatment when combined with immunomodulatory drugs or immune check-point blockade. Genetically engineered T cells, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cells or T cell receptor-engineered T cells, have also shown encouraging results in recent clinical studies of patients with MM. In this paper, we discuss recent progress in immunotherapy for the treatment of MM. PMID: 28259300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Successful treatment with biweekly CHOP for bone marrow relapse of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2017;58(2):150-154 Authors: Ono K, Ise M, Ikebe D, Sato A, Wang X, Sugawara T, Tsujimura H, Itami M, Kumagai K Abstract Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and aggressive hematological malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The majority of patients initially respond to multi-agent chemotherapy, though most relapse within a year and the prognosis is very poor. We report a 67-year-old man with erythema on the right chest and a nasopharyngeal mass. Histological examination revealed a mass of tumor cells expressing CD4, CD56, and CD123, but neither CD3 nor CD20. He was diagnosed with BPDCN. Bone marrow involvement was not seen at diagnosis. He achieved complete remission (CR) with CHOP-like chemotherapy. After 1 year, he relapsed with a cutaneous tumor on the head, a nasopharyngeal tumor, and massive bone marrow involvement. Relapsed BPDCN is generally resistant to chemotherapy and the prognosis is dismal. However, he was successfully treated with biweekly CHOP therapy and achieved a second CR lasting 16 months. PMID: 28321093 [PubMed - in process]
Related Articles Overview of Basic Immunology for Clinical Investigators. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;995:1-31 Authors: Stephen B, Hajjar J Abstract Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. The location, density, functionality, and the cross talk between the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment influence the nature of immune response, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in cancer patients. Therefore, an understanding of the characteristics of the immune cells and their role in tumor immune surveillance is of paramount importance to identify immune targets and to develop novel immune therapeutics in the war against cancer. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the individual components of the human immune system and the translational relevance of predictive biomarkers. PMID: 28321810 [PubMed - in process]
Related Articles Nanoparticles for Tumor Immunotherapy. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2017 Mar 18;: Authors: Zang X, Zhao X, Hu H, Qiao M, Deng Y, Chen D Abstract Although most researches and therapies have been focused on the tumor itself, it is becoming clear that immune cells can not only suppress tumor development but support and maintain their malignant type. Promising recent developments in immunology will provide opportunities for tumor-specific immunotherapy, which can orchestrate the patients immune system to target, fight and eradicate cancer cells without destroying healthy cells. However, antitumor immunity driven by self-immune system alone may be therapeutically insufficient. Developments in nanoparticle based drug delivery system can promote immunotherapy and re-educate immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which provide promising strategies for cancer therapy. In this review, we will focus on nanoparticle-based immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer, ranging from nanovaccines, artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) to nanoparticles reversing tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. PMID: 28323111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related Articles Osteopontin: its potential role in cancer of children and young adults. Biomark Med. 2017 Mar 14;: Authors: Karpinsky G, Fatyga A, Krawczyk MA, Chamera M, Sande N, Szmyd D, Izycka-Swieszewska E, Bien E Abstract OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN) is aglyco-phosphoprotein, involved in tissue remodeling, inflammation and boneresorption. In various adult neoplasms OPN was shown to correlate with cancer progression, invasiveness and metastasis. AIM: to define the role of OPN in malignancies of children and young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a structured PubMed and Google Scholar literature analysis based on reports published in English between I'1995 and XII'2015. RESULTS: 14 studies (four on hematological malignancies, four on bone tumors, three on CNS tumors, two on dendritic proliferative diseases and one on renal tumors) were identified. Higher levels of serum and cerebro-spinal fluid OPN protein, and high expressions of OPN mRNA and SPP1 gene were present in more aggressive and advanced childhood malignancies. In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia with CNS involvement and with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and medulloblastoma, the serum and CSF OPN levels reflected tumor bulk and response to therapy, while in children with AT/RT and multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis with high-risk organs involvement, high OPN serum levels correlated with poorer survival. To the contrary, in osteosarcoma, high OPN mRNA and SPP1 gene expressions correlated with better survival and good response to chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review suggests that OPN may play important roles in the development and progression of selected cancers of children and young adults, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, malignant gliomas, AT/RT and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, limited number of published studies prevents from definite concluding on the clinical utility of OPN as a marker of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment monitoring in these pediatric cancers. Further studies performed in more numerous groups of patients with particular types of cancers of children and young adults are warranted. PMID: 28326824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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