Cancer Stem Cell Treatment

Autologous Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer is available at SIRM

Cancer represents one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. More than half of patients suffering from cancer succumb to their condition. The primary approaches to treating cancer are surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These treatments have resulted in significant benefits to patients with the majority of tumor types, and the clinical outcomes have become more satisfactory. It is recognized that multidisciplinary treatments should be used in cancer treatments, another option proposed for this is immunotherapy. The combination of the traditional methods of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy with immunotherapy, is a new way for anti-cancer therapies to reduce the mortality of cancer patients. The dysfunction of the antigen-specific T cells required to kill the cancer leads to cancer cells being able to grow in cancer patients. Active and adoptive T cell immunotherapies generate T cells that can target cancer cells.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells that function as antigen-presenting cells. They are able to activate naive CD4+ T helper cells and unprimed CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Active immunotherapy, represented by DC-based regimens, has been used to produce tumor-specific antigen-presenting cells and to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against cancer cells. DCs can capture antigens, process them, and present them with co-stimulation cytokines/messengers to initiate an immune response, like inducing primary T-cell responses.

Adoptive immunotherapy, as conducted at our Asian Stem Cell Institute, is a personalized therapy that uses a patient’s own anti-tumor immune cells to kill cancer cells and may be used to treat several types of cancer, and represents another therapeutic approach against cancer. To date, the adoptive immunotherapy approach is one of the most effective methods for using the body’s immune system to treat cancer. To be used clinically, protocols for the development of these functional DCs must be established for in-clinic use via defined, xenobiotic-free medium conditions.

The purpose of the present study is to determine the cellular immune response in terms of the delayed-type hyper-sensitivity (DTH) skin test and evaluate the subjective clinical outcome and safety of the regimen in cancer patients receiving a DC vaccine.

Vaccination against a single antigen is available using purified and synthetic products, but these have disadvantages because it is unknown which of the identified antigens have the potential to induce an effective antitumor immune response. This study uses unfractionated, autologous, tumor-derived antigens in the form oftumor cell lysates which circumvents this disadvantage.

Tumor lysates as addressed in this protocol, contain multiple known as well as unknown antigens that can be presented to T cells by both MHC class I- and class II-pathways. Therefore, lysate-loaded DCs are more likely to induce the more preferred polyclonal expansion of T cells, including MHC class II restricted T-helper cells. These have been recognized to play an important role in the activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), probably the most important cells in effecting an antitumor immune response. The generation of CTL clones with multiple specificities may be an advantage in heterogeneous tumors and could also reduce the risk of tumor escape variants. Furthermore, lysate from the autologous tumor can be used independently of the HLA type of the patient. A drawback of unfractionated tumor antigens is the possibility of inducing an autoimmune reactivity to epitopes that are shared by normal tissues. However, in clinical trials using lysate or whole tumor cells as the source of antigen, no clinically relevant autoimmune responses have ever been detected.

Personalized dendritic cell vaccines for cancer, via adoptive immunotherapy, are successfully developed and autologously administered to patients coming to Asia, and more specifically, within the Philippines at the Subic Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The results of this case study of cancer and immunotherapy via pulsed dendritic cells, can serve as another example of safety for future cancer vaccine development.

Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer:
Related Articles Immunomodulatory and Antitumor Effects of a Novel TLR7 Agonist Combined with Lapatinib. Sci Rep. 2016 12 21;6:39598 Authors: Gao N, Zhong J, Wang X, Jin Z, Li W, Liu Y, Diao Y, Wang Z, Jiang W, Jin G Abstract As new treatment approaches, both immunotherapy and targeted treatments have been used in the clinical treatment of cancers. These therapies are different from traditional surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Use of a combination of immunotherapy and targeted treatments may improve tumor clearance. We investigated the feasibility of combining tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, targeted drugs) and SZU-101 (a novel TLR7 agonist synthesized by our laboratory). Thirteen different TKIs were combined with or without SZU-101 and studied to determine their effects on immunocytes. On the basis of the distinctive results, lapatinib and sunitinib were selected for further tumor-inhibition investigation and determination of the underlying mechanism. Interestingly, we found lapatinib to work better with SZU-101, enhancing tumor clearance in vivo, without affecting the TLR7-NF-κB pathway activated by the TLR7 agonist in mouse spleen lymphocytes and bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs). PMID: 28000738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Is immunotherapy a viable option in treating mesothelioma? Future Oncol. 2017 08;13(20):1747-1750 Authors: Dumoulin DW, Aerts JG, Cornelissen R PMID: 28774186 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Phase I clinical trial of a novel autologous modified-DC vaccine in patients with resected NSCLC. BMC Cancer. 2017 12 21;17(1):884 Authors: Ge C, Li R, Song H, Geng T, Yang J, Tan Q, Song L, Wang Y, Xue Y, Li Z, Dong S, Zhang Z, Zhang N, Guo J, Hua L, Chen S, Song X Abstract BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a novel dendritic cell (DC) vaccine pulsed with survivin and MUC1, silenced with suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), and immune stimulated with flagellin for patients with stage I to IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase I open-label, uncontrolled, and dose-escalation trial. Moreover, we evaluate the potential efficacy of this modified DC vaccine as secondary aim. METHODS: The patients were treated with the vaccine at 1 × 106, 1 × 107and the maximum dose 8 × 107 at day 7, 14, and 21 after characterization of the vaccine phenotype by flow cytometry. The safety of the vaccine was assessed by adverse events, and the efficacy by the levels of several specific tumor markers and the patient quality of life. RESULTS: The vaccine was well tolerated without dose-limiting toxicity even at higher doses. The most common adverse event reported was just grade 1 flu-like symptoms without unanticipated or serious adverse event. A significant decrease in CD3 + CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cell number and increase in TNF-α and IL-6 were observed in two patients. Two patients showed 15% and 64% decrease in carcino-embryonic antigen and CYFRA21, respectively. The vaccination with the maximum dose significantly improved the patients'quality of life when administered at the highest dose. More importantly, in the long-term follow-up until February 17, 2017, 1 patient had no recurrence, 1 patients had a progressive disease (PD), and 1 patient was died in the low dose group. In the middle dose group, all 3 patients had no recurrence. In the high dose group, 1 patient was died, 1 patient had a PD, and the other 7 patients had no recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: We provide preliminary data on the safety and efficacy profile of a novel vaccine against non-small cell lung cancer, which was reasonably well tolerated, induced modest antitumor activity without dose-limiting toxicity, and improved patients' quality of life. Further more, the vaccine maybe a very efficacious treatment for patients with resected NSCLC to prevent recurrence. Our findings on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine in this phase I trial warrant future phase II/III clinical trial. PMID: 29268708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles moDCs, Less Problems. Immunity. 2018 01 16;48(1):6-8 Authors: Gardner A, Ruffell B Abstract Type 1 conventional dendritic cells are necessary for the development of anti-tumor immunity. In this issue of Immunity, Sharma et al. (2018) identify a phenotypically similar monocyte-derived population within inflamed tumors that promotes T cell responses during therapy. PMID: 29343441 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles Early Investigations and Recent Advances in Intraperitoneal Immunotherapy for Peritoneal Metastasis. Vaccines (Basel). 2018 Aug 10;6(3): Authors: Thadi A, Khalili M, Morano WF, Richard SD, Katz SC, Bowne WB Abstract Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is an advanced stage malignancy largely refractory to modern therapy. Intraperitoneal (IP) immunotherapy offers a novel approach for the control of regional disease of the peritoneal cavity by breaking immune tolerance. These strategies include heightening T-cell response and vaccine induction of anti-cancer memory against tumor-associated antigens. Early investigations with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells), vaccine-based therapies, dendritic cells (DCs) in combination with pro-inflammatory cytokines and natural killer cells (NKs), adoptive cell transfer, and immune checkpoint inhibitors represent significant advances in the treatment of PM. IP delivery of CAR-T cells has shown demonstrable suppression of tumors expressing carcinoembryonic antigen. This response was enhanced when IP injected CAR-T cells were combined with anti-PD-L1 or anti-Gr1. Similarly, CAR-T cells against folate receptor α expressing tumors improved T-cell tumor localization and survival when combined with CD137 co-stimulatory signaling. Moreover, IP immunotherapy with catumaxomab, a trifunctional antibody approved in Europe, targets epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and has shown considerable promise with control of malignant ascites. Herein, we discuss immunologic approaches under investigation for treatment of PM. PMID: 30103457 [PubMed]
Related Articles Dual effect of DLBCL-derived EXOs in lymphoma to improve DC vaccine efficacy in vitro while favor tumorgenesis in vivo. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Aug 13;37(1):190 Authors: Chen Z, You L, Wang L, Huang X, Liu H, Wei JY, Zhu L, Qian W Abstract BACKGROUND: Exosomes derived from tumor cells (TEXs) are involved in both immune suppression, angiogenesis, metastasis and anticancer stimulatory, but the biological characteristics and role of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-derived exosomes have been less investigated. METHODS: Exosomes (EXOs) were isolated from OCI-LY3, SU-DHL-16, and Raji cells and biological characteristics of EXOs were investigated using electron microscopy, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blot analysis. The protein expression of EXOs was determined by an antibody array. Next, the communication between EXOs and lymphoma cell, stromal cell, dendritic cells (DCs), and T cells was evaluated. Finally, effect of DLBCL TEXs on tumor growth in vivo was investigated. RESULTS: We demonstrated that EXOs derived from DLBCL cell lines displayed malignancy molecules such as c-Myc, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, CD19, and CD20. There was a different protein expression pattern between DLBCL TEXs and Burkitt lymphoma TEXs. DLBCL TEXs were easily captured by DCs and lymphoma cells, and mainly acted as an immunosuppressive mediator, evidenced by induction of apoptosis and upregulation of PD-1 in T cells. Furthermore, the TEXs stimulated not only cell proliferation, migration of stromal cells but also angiogenesis. As a result, the TEXs promoted tumor growth in vivo. On other hand, DLBCL TEXs did not induce apoptosis of DCs. After pulsed with the TEXs, DCs could stimulate clonal expansion of T cells, increase the secretion of IL-6 and TNFα, and decrease the production of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-4 and IL-10. The T cells from tumor bearing mice immunized by TEX were shown to possess superior antilymphoma potency relative to immunization of tumor lysates. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the framework for novel immunotherapies targeting TEXs in DLBCL. PMID: 30103789 [PubMed - in process]
Related Articles Cancer stem cells as targets for DC-based immunotherapy of colorectal cancer. Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 13;8(1):12042 Authors: Szaryńska M, Olejniczak A, Kobiela J, Łaski D, Śledziński Z, Kmieć Z Abstract The therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is often unsuccessful because of the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) resistant to conventional approaches. Dendritic cells (DC)-based protocols are believed to effectively supplement CRC therapy. Our study was aimed to assess how the number and properties of CSCs isolated from tumor tissue of CRC patients will affect the biological characteristics of in vitro modified DCs. Similar procedures were conducted with the using of CRC HCT116 and HT29 cell lines. We found that the detailed configuration of CSC-like markers significantly influenced the maturation and activation of DCs after stimulation with cancer cells lysates or culture supernatants. This basic stimulatory effect was enhanced by LPS that is normally present in CRC CSCs niche. The increased number of CD29+ and CD44+ CSCs presented the opposite impact on treated DCs as showed by many significant correlations. The CD133+ CSCs seemed to impair the functions of DCs. The more CD133+ CSCs in tumor sample the lower number of activated DCs evidenced after stimulation. Moreover, our results showed superiority of the spherical culture model over the adherent one since spherical HCT116 and HT29 cells presented similar influence on DCs properties as CRC patients cancer cells. We concluded that the DCs features may depend directly on the properties of CSCs affected by progression status of tumor. PMID: 30104575 [PubMed - in process]
Related Articles A universal anti-cancer vaccine: Chimeric invariant chain potentiates the inhibition of melanoma progression and the improvement of survival. Int J Cancer. 2018 Aug 14;: Authors: Sharbi-Yunger A, Grees M, Gal C, Bassan D, Eichmüller SB, Tzehoval E, Utikal J, Umansky V, Eisenbach L Abstract For many years, clinicians and scientists attempt to develop methods to stimulate the immune system to target malignant cells. Recent data suggest that effective cancer vaccination requires combination immunotherapies to overcome tumor immune evasion. Through presentation of both MHC-I and II molecules, DCs based vaccine platforms are effective in generating detectable CD4 and CD8 T cell responses against tumor associated antigens. Several platforms include DC transfection with mRNA of the desired tumor antigen. These DCs are then delivered to the host and elicit an immune response against the antigen of interest. We have recently established an mRNA genetic platform which induced specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response by DC vaccination against melanoma. In this study, an MHC-II mRNA DCs vaccine platform was developed to activate CD4+ T cells and to enhance the anti-tumor response. The invariant chain (Ii) was modified and the semi-peptide CLIP was replaced with an MHC-II binding peptide sequences of melanoma antigens. These chimeric MHC-II constructs are presented by DCs and induce proliferation of tumor specific CD4+ T cells. When administered in combination with the MHC-I platform into tumor bearing mice, these constructs were able to inhibit tumor growth, and improve mouse survival. Deciphering the immunological mechanism of action, we observed an efficient CTLs killing in addition to higher levels of Th1 and Th2 subsets in the groups immunized with a combination of the MHC-I and MHC-II constructs. These universal constructs can be applied in multiple combinations and offer an attractive opportunity to improve cancer treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30106470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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