Cancer Stem Cell Treatment

Autologous Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer is available at SIRM

Cancer represents one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. More than half of patients suffering from cancer succumb to their condition. The primary approaches to treating cancer are surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These treatments have resulted in significant benefits to patients with the majority of tumor types, and the clinical outcomes have become more satisfactory. It is recognized that multidisciplinary treatments should be used in cancer treatments, another option proposed for this is immunotherapy. The combination of the traditional methods of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy with immunotherapy, is a new way for anti-cancer therapies to reduce the mortality of cancer patients. The dysfunction of the antigen-specific T cells required to kill the cancer leads to cancer cells being able to grow in cancer patients. Active and adoptive T cell immunotherapies generate T cells that can target cancer cells.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells that function as antigen-presenting cells. They are able to activate naive CD4+ T helper cells and unprimed CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Active immunotherapy, represented by DC-based regimens, has been used to produce tumor-specific antigen-presenting cells and to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against cancer cells. DCs can capture antigens, process them, and present them with co-stimulation cytokines/messengers to initiate an immune response, like inducing primary T-cell responses.

Adoptive immunotherapy, as conducted at our facility, is a personalized therapy that uses a patient’s own anti-tumor immune cells to kill cancer cells and may be used to treat several types of cancer, and represents another therapeutic approach against cancer. To date, the adoptive immunotherapy approach is one of the most effective methods for using the body’s immune system to treat cancer. To be used clinically, protocols for the development of these functional DCs must be established for in-clinic use via defined, xenobiotic-free medium conditions.

The purpose of the present study is to determine the cellular immune response in terms of the delayed-type hyper-sensitivity (DTH) skin test and evaluate the subjective clinical outcome and safety of the regimen in cancer patients receiving a DC vaccine.

Vaccination against a single antigen is available using purified and synthetic products, but these have disadvantages because it is unknown which of the identified antigens have the potential to induce an effective antitumor immune response. This study uses unfractionated, autologous, tumor-derived antigens in the form oftumor cell lysates which circumvents this disadvantage.

Tumor lysates as addressed in this protocol, contain multiple known as well as unknown antigens that can be presented to T cells by both MHC class I- and class II-pathways. Therefore, lysate-loaded DCs are more likely to induce the more preferred polyclonal expansion of T cells, including MHC class II restricted T-helper cells. These have been recognized to play an important role in the activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), probably the most important cells in effecting an antitumor immune response. The generation of CTL clones with multiple specificities may be an advantage in heterogeneous tumors and could also reduce the risk of tumor escape variants. Furthermore, lysate from the autologous tumor can be used independently of the HLA type of the patient. A drawback of unfractionated tumor antigens is the possibility of inducing an autoimmune reactivity to epitopes that are shared by normal tissues. However, in clinical trials using lysate or whole tumor cells as the source of antigen, no clinically relevant autoimmune responses have ever been detected.

Personalized dendritic cell vaccines for cancer, via adoptive immunotherapy, are successfully developed and autologously administered to patients coming to Asia, and more specifically, within the Philippines at the Subic Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The results of this case study of cancer and immunotherapy via pulsed dendritic cells, can serve as another example of safety for future cancer vaccine development.

Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer:
The European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Textbook for Nurses: Under the Auspices of EBMT Book. 2018 Authors: Kenyon M, Babic A Abstract Prior to haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), conditioning therapy is used for disease eradication, creation of space for engraftment and immunosuppression. Conditioning therapy includes combinations of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Chemotherapy is delivered in different phases: induction, consolidation and maintenance. Total body irradiation (TBI) is widely used as part of conditioning regimens preceding allogeneic HSCT and is able to target sanctuary sites where some drugs cannot reach. Cancer immunotherapy treatment harnesses the body’s natural defences to fight the cancer, by involving components of the immune system. Conditioning therapy can have acute and chronic side effects due to the toxicity of the treatment. Nursing implications involve patient education and information, toxicity assessments, close monitoring and action plans. Stem cell infusion is usually a safe procedure but can cause adverse reactions ranging from flushing and nausea to life-threatening reactions. There should be written policies for the administration of cellular therapy products, and nurses must have training and competency in order to safely administer haematopoietic stem cells. PMID: 31314314
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The European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Textbook for Nurses: Under the Auspices of EBMT Book. 2018 Authors: Kenyon M, Babic A Abstract HSCT is a complex procedure, which involves a long and complicated pathway for the patient and the intervention of many health professionals. Within this multidisciplinary team, the transplant coordinator, usually a nurse, is the ‘essential marrow’, the heart and the vital backbone of this procedure; they are an essential transplant ingredient facilitating a fluidity of the pathway and a good transmission of information. Written information about the procedure is beneficial for patients either prior to clinic visit or during clinic to allow the patients and relatives to reflect on conversations. Transplantation carries a significant risk of morbidity and mortality, and these should be considered regarding the ‘need’ to transplant, based upon risk of disease, versus risk of the transplant. Pre-transplant assessments must also be undertaken, and the results of these along with suitable donor medical clearance and cell availability are essential to ascertain that transplant is a valid option and can proceed safely. Dealing with fertility preservation upon diagnosis of cancer is often challenging; this issue is even more complex for paediatric patients. PDWP recommends that counselling about fertility preservation opportunities should be offered to each patient receiving HSCT. This chapter will also focus on vascular access for optimal treatment of haematology patients because stem cell treatment cannot be performed without it. Constant advances in haematology have raised challenging ethical dilemmas concerning end of life, palliative care, patient information, donor concerns and impartiality and issues related to the risk we run to our patients. Nurses provide a key role in patient education, providing pre- and post-transplant advocacy and counselling, plan hospitalisations and consultations. They also act as educators and role models to nursing students and share knowledge in accordance with local policies and JACIE guidelines. PMID: 31314318
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Related Articles Plerixafor, cyclophosphamide and G-CSF and Blood cell mobilization in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. J Clin Apher. 2017 12;32(6):592-593 Authors: Jaimovich G, Castro M, Rosales Ostriz B, Fernandez M, Silveyra D, Campestri R PMID: 27787909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Pre-emptive plerixafor injection in lymphoma patients mobilized with chemotherapy plus pegfilgrastim followed by apheresis on the same day. J Clin Apher. 2017 12;32(6):594-596 Authors: Jantunen E, Partanen A, Valtola J, Pyörälä M, Mäntymaa P, Nousiainen T, Varmavuo V PMID: 28171695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Simvastatin enhances radiation sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells. Surg Endosc. 2018 03;32(3):1533-1539 Authors: Karagkounis G, DeVecchio J, Ferrandon S, Kalady MF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for rectal cancer induces variable responses, and better response has been associated with improved oncologic outcomes. Our group has previously shown that the administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, commonly known as statins, is associated with improved response to neoadjuvant CRT in rectal cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to study the effects of simvastatin on colorectal cancer cells and explore its potential as a radiation-sensitizer in vitro. METHODS: Four colorectal cancer cell lines (SW480, DLD1, SW837, and HRT18) were used to test the effects of simvastatin alone, radiation alone, and combination therapy. Outcome measures included ATP-based cell viability, colony formation, and protein (immunoblot) assays. RESULTS: The combination of radiation and simvastatin inhibited colony formation and cell viability of all four CRC lines, to a greater degree than either treatment alone (p < 0.01). In addition, the effects of simvastatin in this combination therapy were dose dependent, with increased concentrations resulting in more potentiated inhibitory effects. The radiosensitizing effects of simvastatin on cell viability were negated by the presence of exogenous GGPP in the media. On protein analyses of irradiated cells, simvastatin treatment inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2, in a dose-dependent manner, while the total levels of ERK1/2 remained stable. In addition, the combined treatment resulted in increased levels of cleaved caspase 3, indicating greater apoptotic activity in the cells treated with radiation and simvastatin together. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with simvastatin hindered CRC cell viability and enhanced radiation sensitivity in vitro. These effects were tied to the depletion of GGPP and the decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, suggesting a prominent role for the EGFR-RAS-ERK1/2 pathway, through which statin enhances radiation sensitivity. PMID: 28916945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in CD40L Predict Endothelial Complications and Mortality After Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2018 03 10;36(8):789-800 Authors: Rachakonda SP, Dai H, Penack O, Blau O, Blau IW, Radujkovic A, Müller-Tidow C, Kumar R, Dreger P, Luft T Abstract Purpose Endothelial vulnerability is a potential risk factor for complications after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT). The CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) axis contributes to inflammatory diseases and is upregulated in endothelial cells upon activation, suggesting a role in alloSCT biology. Here, we studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD40L gene in recipients of alloSCT. Patients and Methods Three CD40L SNPs (rs3092920, rs3092952, rs3092936) were analyzed for association with transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, overall nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and NRM after acute graft-versus-host disease in 294 recipients of alloSCT without statin-based endothelial prophylaxis (SEP). The significant genotype was then put into perspective with established thrombomodulin ( THBD) gene polymorphisms. Findings were validated in an independent cohort without SEP and in an additional 344 patients who received SEP. Results The rs3092936 CC/CT genotype was associated with an increased risk of transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy ( P = .001), overall NRM ( P = .03), and NRM after acute graft-versus-host disease ( P = .01). The rs3092936 CC/CT genotype was largely mutually exclusive of high-risk THBD SNPs. Both CD40L and THBD SNPs predicted adverse overall survival (OS) and overall NRM to a similar extent in training cohort (OS, P = .04; NRM, P < .001) and validation cohort (OS, P = .01; NRM, P = .001) without SEP. In contrast, SEP completely abolished the influence of the high-risk CD40L and THBD SNPs ( P = .40). Conclusion An increased risk of endothelial complications can be predicted before alloSCT by genetic markers in the recipient's genome. The normalization of mortality risks in patients treated with SEP suggests a way of overcoming the negative effect of high-risk genotypes and warrants further clinical validation. PMID: 29369699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Catechin-conjugated mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticle: A novel nano-antioxidant with enhanced osteogenic property. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2018 09 01;169:329-339 Authors: Sistanipour E, Meshkini A, Oveisi H Abstract Hydroxyapatite is the main component of mineral phase of bone which is widely employed for coating metal implants and scaffold materials in synthetic bone grafts owing to its osteoinductive property. In order to improve the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite, mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (MHAP) were synthesized and chemically functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The amine-functionalized nanoparticles were conjugated with a natural antioxidant, catechin (Cat), through a stable amide linkage. The true structure of the bioconstruct was confirmed by calculating condensed Fukui indices. The functionalized-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Cat@MHAP) showed an outstanding antioxidant activity, having reactivity toward hydroxyl and superoxide radicals larger than that of free catechin. To explore the bone cell responses to this material, multilayer nanoparticle films were prepared by MHAP and Cat@MHAP on a glass substrate. Afterward, the short- and long-term responses of cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2), and doxorubicin-resistant cells (RSaos-2/Dox) on the surface of the prepared films were investigated. Both the MSCs and bone tumor cells selectively adhered onto Cat@MHAP surface as compared with glass and MHAP at initial culture time. Moreover, it was found that Cat@MHAP decreases the proliferation of Saos-2 and RSaos-2/Dox cells in a time-dependent manner, while it supports the growth of MSCs, indicating the ability of Cat@MHAP to distinguish tumor cells from normal ones. Further, Cat@MHAP promotes the osteogenic differentiation in both the MSCs and tumor cells, accompanied by the attenuation of intracellular ROS. From these results, Cat@MHAP is a novel "nano-antioxidant," which could be considered as a promising biomaterial in treating bone defects, particularly after surgery in osteosarcoma patients. PMID: 29800908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles The efficacy and safety of lenvatinib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in a real-world setting. Hepatol Int. 2019 Mar;13(2):199-204 Authors: Obi S, Sato T, Sato S, Kanda M, Tokudome Y, Kojima Y, Suzuki Y, Hosoda K, Kawai T, Kondo Y, Isomura Y, Ohyama H, Nakagomi K, Ashizawa H, Miura Y, Amano H, Mochizuki H, Omata M Abstract BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lenvatinib (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (GF) receptors 1-3, fibroblast GF receptors 1-4, platelet-derived GF receptor α, rearranged during transfection, and stem cell factor receptor) was non-inferior to sorafenib in a phase 3 (REFLECT) trial of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. This study examined the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in a real-world setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter, observational study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were based on the phase 3 trial, and participants were observed for at least 12 weeks. Therapeutic effect was determined using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (m-RECIST) at the 8th week. Patients received oral lenvatinib 12 mg/day (body weight > 60 kg) or 8 mg/day (body weight < 60 kg). Dose interruptions followed by reductions for lenvatinib-related toxicities were permitted. Grades of adverse events (AEs) complied with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. RESULTS: All 16 patients included in this study had prior treatment history, and a median 3.9 years had passed since the first treatment. Fatigue, hypertension, and proteinuria were the most frequent AEs, and were higher than Grade 2. AEs could be controlled by appropriate dose reduction, interruption, and symptomatic treatment according to the protocol. In the m-RECIST evaluation at the 8th week, 0, 6, 8, and 1 patients had achieved complete response, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease, respectively. The objective response rate was 40%. CONCLUSION: Lenvatinib treatment could be accomplished with safety and good response in a real-world setting. PMID: 30671808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Combating osteoporosis and obesity with exercise: leveraging cell mechanosensitivity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019 06;15(6):339-355 Authors: Pagnotti GM, Styner M, Uzer G, Patel VS, Wright LE, Ness KK, Guise TA, Rubin J, Rubin CT Abstract Osteoporosis, a condition of skeletal decline that undermines quality of life, is treated with pharmacological interventions that are associated with poor adherence and adverse effects. Complicating efforts to improve clinical outcomes, the incidence of obesity is increasing, predisposing the population to a range of musculoskeletal complications and metabolic disorders. Pharmacological management of obesity has yet to deliver notable reductions in weight and debilitating complications are rarely avoided. By contrast, exercise shows promise as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological method of regulating both osteoporosis and obesity. The principal components of exercise - mechanical signals - promote bone and muscle anabolism while limiting formation and expansion of fat mass. Mechanical regulation of bone and marrow fat might be achieved by regulating functions of differentiated cells in the skeletal tissue while biasing lineage selection of their common progenitors - mesenchymal stem cells. An inverse relationship between adipocyte versus osteoblast fate selection from stem cells is implicated in clinical conditions such as childhood obesity and increased marrow adiposity in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as contributing to skeletal frailty. Understanding how exercise-induced mechanical signals can be used to improve bone quality while decreasing fat mass and metabolic dysfunction should lead to new strategies to treat chronic diseases such as osteoporosis and obesity. PMID: 30814687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Combined surgery and radiotherapy as curative treatment for tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2019 Mar 06;13(1):52 Authors: Spinelli GP, Miele E, Prete AA, Lo Russo G, Di Marzo A, Di Cristofano C, Tomao S Abstract BACKGROUND: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea is a rare tumor, characterized by slow growth and low rate of local and distant metastasis. When achievable, complete surgical resection represents the optimal treatment approach, with the highest results in terms of overall survival. Radiation therapy is a reasonable alternative in cases of inoperable disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an 82-year-old white man affected by primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, treated with debulking surgery and radiotherapy on the residual disease. A three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was conducted. The total dose amounted to 70 Gy, administered in 35 fractions of 2 Gy. The medium doses given to the esophagus and lungs were 23 Gy and 4.2 Gy respectively. The maximum dose delivered to the spinal cord was 31 Gy with satisfactory results in terms of local control of the disease. CONCLUSION: A combined approach of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy on the residual disease provided an excellent result in terms of disease control, quality of life, and overall survival in a patient with locally advanced tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID: 30836992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Therapeutic Targeting of Collective Invasion in Ovarian Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 22;20(6): Authors: Moffitt L, Karimnia N, Stephens A, Bilandzic M Abstract Ovarian cancer is the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer amongst women and has the highest mortality rate of all gynaecological malignancies. It is a heterogeneous disease attributed to one of three cell types found within the reproductive milieu: epithelial, stromal, and germ cell. Each histotype differs in etiology, pathogenesis, molecular biology, risk factors, and prognosis. Furthermore, the origin of ovarian cancer remains unclear, with ovarian involvement secondary to the contribution of other gynaecological tissues. Despite these complexities, the disease is often treated as a single entity, resulting in minimal improvement to survival rates since the introduction of platinum-based chemotherapy over 30 years ago. Despite concerted research efforts, ovarian cancer remains one of the most difficult cancers to detect and treat, which is in part due to the unique mode of its dissemination. Ovarian cancers tend to invade locally to neighbouring tissues by direct extension from the primary tumour, and passively to pelvic and distal organs within the peritoneal fluid or ascites as multicellular spheroids. Once at their target tissue, ovarian cancers, like most epithelial cancers including colorectal, melanoma, and breast, tend to invade as a cohesive unit in a process termed collective invasion, driven by specialized cells termed "leader cells". Emerging evidence implicates leader cells as essential drivers of collective invasion and metastasis, identifying collective invasion and leader cells as a viable target for the management of metastatic disease. However, the development of targeted therapies specifically against this process and this subset of cells is lacking. Here, we review our understanding of metastasis, collective invasion, and the role of leader cells in ovarian cancer. We will discuss emerging research into the development of novel therapies targeting collective invasion and the leader cell population. PMID: 30909510 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Creation of PDX-Bearing Humanized Mice to Study Immuno-oncology. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1953:241-252 Authors: Yao LC, Aryee KE, Cheng M, Kaur P, Keck JG, Brehm MA Abstract A significant obstacle to the study of human cancer biology and the testing of human specific immunotherapeutics is the paucity of translational models that recapitulate both the growth of human tumors and the functionality of human immune systems. Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) enable preclinical investigation of the interactions between the human immune system and human cancer. We use immunodeficient non-obese diabetic (NOD, scid, gamma) NSG™ or NSG™-SGM3 mice as hosts for establishment of human immunity following HSC injection and for engraftment of human tumors. Here we describe a refined protocol for the subcutaneous implant of solid PDX tumors into humanized mice. Protocols to recover infiltrating immune cells from growing tumors and to evaluate the immune cell subsets by flow cytometry are also described. PMID: 30912026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Individualized, Single Session Yoga Therapy to Reduce Physical and Emotional Symptoms in Hospitalized Hematological Cancer Patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1534735419861692 Authors: Mascaro JS, Waller AV, Wright L, Leonard T, Haack C, Waller EK Abstract Objective: Inpatient treatment of hematological cancer is among the most physically and mentally arduous cancer treatments, and it is associated with a number of common physical, emotional, and social symptoms that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL) for years following treatment. While treating symptoms during hospitalization holds promise for improving long-term QOL, successful approaches likely require multidisciplinary interventions. In this article, we describe a 4-year effort in program enhancement that incorporated an adjunctive single yoga therapy session during treatment for hematological malignancies. Methods: Hospitalized patients receiving treatment for hematological cancer (N = 486) were provided a 40-minute individualized yoga therapy session. We evaluated feasibility and acceptance by quantifying the percentage of patients who discontinued the yoga session due to pain, discomfort, or another reason, and by comparing the intervention population to the demographic makeup of the unit more generally. Patient-reported symptoms were obtained before and after each session, and we evaluated acute symptom change for the entire sample and in subsamples that are less likely to use mindfulness-based interventions such as yoga. Results: The majority of sessions (87%) were completed, and the majority of unfinished sessions were interrupted by a medical procedure or because the patient fell asleep. No session was stopped early due to patients' reported pain. Significant decreases were reported in all symptoms, with the greatest decrease in fatigue and anxiety. Conclusions: Yoga therapy was a feasible and effective nondrug adjunct intervention for hospitalized patients receiving treatment for hematological cancer, including bone marrow transplantation. PMID: 31311341 [PubMed - in process]
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G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 radiosensitizes glioblastoma xenograft in vivo through a differential targeting of bulky differentiated- and stem-cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Jul 16;38(1):311 Authors: Berardinelli F, Tanori M, Muoio D, Buccarelli M, di Masi A, Leone S, Ricci-Vitiani L, Pallini R, Mancuso M, Antoccia A Abstract BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and most lethal primary brain tumor in the adulthood. Current standard therapies are not curative and novel therapeutic options are urgently required. Present knowledge suggests that the continued glioblastoma growth and recurrence is determined by glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs), which display self-renewal, tumorigenic potential, and increased radio- and chemo-resistance. The G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 displays in vitro radiosensitizing effect in GBM radioresistant cells through the targeting and dysfunctionalization of telomeres but RHPS4 and Ionizing Radiation (IR) combined treatment efficacy in vivo has not been explored so far. METHODS: RHPS4 and IR combined effects were tested in vivo in a heterotopic mice xenograft model and in vitro in stem-like cells derived from U251MG and from four GBM patients. Cell growth assays, cytogenetic analysis, immunoblotting, gene expression and cytofluorimetric analysis were performed in order to characterize the response of differentiated and stem-like cells to RHPS4 and IR in single and combined treatments. RESULTS: RHPS4 administration and IR exposure is very effective in blocking tumor growth in vivo up to 65 days. The tumor volume reduction and the long-term tumor control suggested the targeting of the stem cell compartment. Interestingly, RHPS4 treatment was able to strongly reduce cell proliferation in GSCs but, unexpectedly, did not synergize with IR. Lack of radiosensitization was supported by the GSCs telomeric-resistance observed as the total absence of telomere-involving chromosomal aberrations. Remarkably, RHPS4 treatment determined a strong reduction of CHK1 and RAD51 proteins and transcript levels suggesting that the inhibition of GSCs growth is determined by the impairment of the replication stress (RS) response and DNA repair. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the potent antiproliferative effect of RHPS4 in GSCs is not determined by telomeric dysfunction but is achieved by the induction of RS and by the concomitant depletion of CHK1 and RAD51, leading to DNA damage and cell death. These data open to novel therapeutic options for the targeting of GSCs, indicating that the combined inhibition of cell-cycle checkpoints and DNA repair proteins provides the most effective means to overcome resistance of GSC to genotoxic insults. PMID: 31311580 [PubMed - in process]
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Clonal Evolution and Epithelial Plasticity in the Emergence of AR-Independent Prostate Carcinoma. Trends Cancer. 2019 Jul;5(7):440-455 Authors: Laudato S, Aparicio A, Giancotti FG Abstract In spite of an initial clinical response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), the majority of prostate cancer patients eventually develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recent studies have highlighted the role of epithelial plasticity, including transdifferentiation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in the development of AR pathway-negative CRPC, a form of the disease that has increased in incidence after the introduction of potent AR inhibitors. In this review, we will discuss the switches between different cell fates that occur in response to AR blockade or acquisition of specific oncogenic mutations, such as those in TP53 and RB1, during the evolution to CRPC. We highlight the urgent need to dissect the mechanistic underpinnings of these transitions and identify novel vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically. PMID: 31311658 [PubMed - in process]
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Mitochondrial and ribosomal biogenesis are new hallmarks of stemness, oncometabolism and biomass accumulation in cancer: Mito-stemness and ribo-stemness features. Aging (Albany NY). 2019 07 16;: Authors: Peiris-Pagès M, Ozsvári B, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP Abstract Using proteomics analysis, we previously compared MCF7 breast cancer cells grown as 3D tumor spheres, with the same cell line grown as monolayers. Our results indicated that during 3D anchorage‐independent growth, the cellular machinery associated with i) mitochondrial biogenesis and ii) ribosomal biogenesis, were both significantly increased. Here, for simplicity, we refer to these two new oncogenic hallmarks as “mito‐stemness” and “ribo‐stemness” features. We have now applied this same type of strategy to begin to understand how fibroblasts and MCF7 breast cancer cells change their molecular phenotype, when they are co‐cultured together. We have previously shown that MCF7‐fibroblast co‐cultures are a valuable model of resistance to apoptosis induced by hormonal therapies, such as Tamoxifen and Fulvestrant. Here, we directly show that these mixed co‐cultures demonstrate the induction of mito‐stemness and ribo‐stemness features, likely reflecting a mechanism for cancer cells to increase their capacity for accumulating biomass. In accordance with the onset of a stem‐like phenotype, KRT19 (keratin 19) was induced by ~6‐fold during co‐culture. KRT19 is a well‐established epithelial CSC marker that is used clinically to identify metastatic breast cancer cells in sentinel lymph node biopsies. The potential molecular therapeutic targets that we identified by label‐free proteomics of MCF7‐fibroblast co‐cultures were then independently validated using a bioinformatics approach. More specifically, we employed publically‐available transcriptional profiling data derived from primary tumor samples from breast cancer patients, which were previously subjected to laser‐capture micro‐dissection, to physically separate breast cancer cells from adjacent tumor stroma. This allowed us to directly validate that the proteins up‐regulated in this co‐culture model were also transcriptionally elevated in patient‐derived breast cancer cells in vivo. This powerful approach for target identification and translational validation, including the use of patient outcome data, can now be applied to other tumor types as well, to validate new therapeutic targets that are more clinically relevant, for patient benefit. Moreover, we discuss the therapeutic implications of these findings for new drug development, drug repurposing and Tamoxifen‐resistance, to effectively target mito‐stemness and ribo‐stemness features in breast cancer patients. We also discuss the broad implications of this “organelle biogenesis” approach to cancer therapy. PMID: 31311889 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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A case of acute promyelocytic leukemia variant with derivative chromosome 3 der(3)t(3;8) associated with 8q partial gain. Mol Cytogenet. 2019;12:32 Authors: Nozza F, Vona G, Trino S, D'Auria F, La Rocca F, Grieco V, Possidente L, De Luca L, Musto P Abstract Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by fusion of PML/RARα genes as a result of t(15;17)(q24;q21). APL is now one of the curable hematological malignancies thanks to molecularly targeted therapies based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATX). Extramedullary (EM) relapse is a rare event in APL, ear involvement being even more infrequent, with only six cases so far described. About 30-35% of patients with newly diagnosed APL have additional cytogenetics abnormalities, whose prognostic significance is still controversial. The most common additional aberration is trisomy 8 or partial gain 8q. Case presentation: We describe here a novel unbalanced translocation der(3)t(3;8)(q29;q23.3-q24.3) associated with 8q partial gain in a 41 year-old man affected by APL in molecular remission after first line treatment, who had a responsive EM relapse in the auditory canal. Conclusions: EM relapse is a rare event in APL and ear involvement is even more infrequent. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of APL with a new der(3)t(3;8)(q29;q23.3-q24.3) and 8q partial gain associated with t(15;17)(q24;q21). Despite the recurrence of the disease at EM level, the clinical outcome of this patients was favorable. PMID: 31312256 [PubMed]
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Secreted klotho from exosomes alleviates inflammation and apoptosis in acute pancreatitis. Am J Transl Res. 2019;11(6):3375-3383 Authors: Wang N, Ma J, Ren Y, Xiang S, Jia R Abstract Acute pancreatitis is a potentially lethal disorder characterized by inflammation and apoptosis of parenchymal cells. Repeated acute pancreatitis results in chronic pancreatitis and is the major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Current therapeutic approaches focus on anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to apoptosis and pathogenesis in acute pancreatitis remain unclear. Here, in the current study, we developed a novel approach that using exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells that overexpress Klotho reversed apoptosis, nuclear factor-kB activation in caerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Klotho attenuated the severity of pancreatic inflammation after caerulein treatment. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Klotho is a potential therapeutic target for clinical interventions towards acute pancreatitis. PMID: 31312351 [PubMed]
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Generation of High-Titer Self-Inactivated γ-Retroviral Vector Producer Cells. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2019 Sep 13;14:90-99 Authors: Ghani K, Boivin-Welch M, Roy S, Dakiw-Piaceski A, Barbier M, Pope E, Germain L, Caruso M Abstract The γ-retroviral vector is a gene delivery vehicle that is commonly used in gene therapy. Despite its efficacy, its strong enhancers contributed to malignant transformations in some hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy trials. A safer version without viral enhancers (SIN) is available, but its production is cumbersome, as high titers can only be obtained in transient transfection. Our aim was to develop a system that could easily generate high-titer SIN vectors from stable producer cells. The use of the cytomegalovirus enhancer-promoter sequence to generate the full-length genomic RNA combined to sequences that decrease transcriptional readthrough (WPRE and strong polyadenylation sequences) led to 6 × 106 infectious units (IU)/mL of a SIN GFP vector in transient transfection. The incorporation of a blasticidin selection cassette to the retroviral plasmid allowed the generation of stable clones in the 293Vec packaging cells that release 2 × 107 IU/mL and 1.4 × 107 IU/mL of a SIN GFP and a SIN PIGA vector, respectively. A titer of 1.8 × 106 IU/mL was obtained with a SIN vector containing the long 8.9-kb COL7A1 cDNA. Thus, an efficient process was established for the generation of stable 293Vec-derived retrovirus producer cells that release high-titer SIN vectors. PMID: 31312667 [PubMed]
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Interferon beta increases NK cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma via tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Makowska A, Franzen S, Braunschweig T, Denecke B, Shen L, Baloche V, Busson P, Kontny U Abstract BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an EBV-associated neoplasm occurring endemically in Southeast Asia and sporadically all over the world. In children and adolescents, high cure rates have been obtained using chemotherapy, radiochemotherapy and maintenance therapy with interferon beta (IFNβ). The mechanism by which IFNβ contributes to a low systemic relapse rate has not yet been fully revealed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NK cells and serum samples from two patients with NPC were analyzed before and at different time points during IFNβ therapy, for assessment of TRAIL expression and NK cell cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was measured using the calcein release assay and the contribution of different death effector pathways was analyzed using specific inhibitors. RESULTS: Treatment with IFNβ induced TRAIL expression on patients' NK cells and increased their cytotoxicity against NPC targets in vitro. NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity was predominately mediated via TRAIL. IFNβ also induced the production of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) by NK cells and its release upon contact with NPC cells. IFNβ treatment increased serum levels of sTRAIL in patients. Moreover, sTRAIL concentrated from patients' serum samples induced apoptosis ex vivo in NPC cells from a patient-derived xenograft. CONCLUSION: Increased cytotoxicity of NK cells against NPC cells and increased serum levels of biologically active TRAIL in patients treated with IFNβ could be a means to eliminate micrometastatic disease and explain the low systemic relapse rate in this patient group. PMID: 31312900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease could ameliorate the impact of adverse somatic mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ann Hematol. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Caballero JC, Sánchez Barba M, Hernández Sánchez JM, Such E, Janusz K, Sanz G, Cabrero M, Chillón C, Cervera J, Hurtado AM, Jerez A, Calderón Cabrera C, Valcárcel D, Lumbreras E, Abáigar M, López Cadenas F, Hernández Rivas JM, Del Cañizo MC, Díez Campelo M Abstract Somatic mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSTC) are associated with adverse outcome, but the role of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in this subset of patients remains unknown. We analyzed bone marrow samples from 115 patients with MDS collected prior to HSCT using next-generation sequencing. Seventy-one patients (61%) had at least one mutated gene. We found that patients with a higher number of mutated genes (more than 2) had a worse outcome (2 years overall survival [OS] 54.8% vs. 31.1%, p = 0.035). The only two significant variables in the multivariate analysis for OS were TET2 mutations (p = 0.046) and the development of cGVHD, considered as a time-dependent variable (p < 0.001), correlated with a worse and a better outcome, respectively. TP53 mutations also demonstrated impact on the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) (1 year CIR 47.1% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.006) and were related with complex karyotype (p = 0.003). cGVHD improved the outcome even among patients with more than 2 mutated genes (1-year OS 88.9% at 1 year vs. 31.3%, p = 0.02) and patients with TP53 mutations (1-year CIR 20% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.553). These results confirm that cGVHD could ameliorate the adverse impact of somatic mutations in patients with MDS with HSCT. PMID: 31312927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Effects of rigosertib on the osteo-hematopoietic niche in myelodysplastic syndromes. Ann Hematol. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Balaian E, Weidner H, Wobus M, Baschant U, Jacobi A, Mies A, Bornhäuser M, Guck J, Hofbauer LC, Rauner M, Platzbecker U Abstract Rigosertib is a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, which has clinical activity towards leukemic progenitor cells of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) after failure or progression on hypomethylating agents. Since the bone marrow microenvironment plays an important role in MDS pathogenesis, we investigated the impact of rigosertib on cellular compartments within the osteo-hematopoietic niche. Healthy C57BL/6J mice treated with rigosertib for 3 weeks showed a mild suppression of hematopoiesis (hemoglobin and red blood cells, both - 16%, p < 0.01; white blood cells, - 34%, p < 0.05; platelets, - 38%, p < 0.05), whereas there was no difference in the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Trabecular bone mass of the spine was reduced by rigosertib (- 16%, p = 0.05). This was accompanied by a lower trabecular number and thickness (- 6% and - 10%, respectively, p < 0.05), partly explained by the increase in osteoclast number and surface (p < 0.01). Milder effects of rigosertib on bone mass were detected in an MDS mouse model system (NHD13). However, rigosertib did not further aggravate MDS-associated cytopenia in NHD13 mice. Finally, we tested the effects of rigosertib on human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in vitro and demonstrated reduced cell viability at nanomolar concentrations. Deterioration of the hematopoietic supportive capacity of MDS-MSC after rigosertib pretreatment demonstrated by decreased number of colony-forming units, especially in the monocytic lineage, further supports the idea of disturbed crosstalk within the osteo-hematopoietic niche mediated by rigosertib. Thus, rigosertib exerts inhibitory effects on the stromal components of the osteo-hematopoietic niche which may explain the dissociation between anti-leukemic activity and the absence of hematological improvement. PMID: 31312928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Radiation-induced lung injury: latest molecular developments, therapeutic approaches, and clinical guidance. Clin Exp Med. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Lu L, Sun C, Su Q, Wang Y, Li J, Guo Z, Chen L, Zhang H Abstract Cancer research has advanced throughout the years with respect to the personalization of the treatments and to targeting cancer-related molecular signatures on different organs. Still, the adverse events of the treatments such as radiotherapy are of high concern as they may increase the mortality rate due to their severity. With the improved efficiency of cancer treatments, patient survival has been increasing. Consequently, the number of patients with adverse effects from radiotherapy is also expected to increase in the forthcoming years. Therefore, approaches for personalized treatments include the elimination of adverse events and decreasing the toxicity in healthy tissues while increasing the efficiency of cancer cytotoxicity. In this context, this paper aims to discuss the recent advances in the field of thorax irradiation therapy and its related toxicities leading to radiation pneumonitis in cancer patients. Molecular mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced lung injury and approaches used to overcome this lung injury are discussed. The discourse covers approaches such as therapeutic administration of natural products, current and prospective radioprotective drugs, and applications of mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced lung injury. PMID: 31313081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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A reignited debate over the cell(s) of origin for glioblastoma and its clinical implications. Front Med. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Fan X, Xiong Y, Wang Y Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary neoplasm in the central nervous system. Despite intensive treatment, the prognosis for patients with GBM remains poor, with a median survival of 14-16 months. 90% of GBMs are primary GBMs that are full-blown at diagnosis without evidences of a pre-existing lessmalignant precursor lesion. Therefore, identification of the cell(s) of origin for GBM-the normal cell or cell type that acquires the initial GBM-promoting genetic hit(s)-is the key to the understanding of the disease etiology and the development of novel therapies. Neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells are the two major candidates for the cell(s) of origin for GBM. Latest data from human samples have reignited the longstanding debate over which cells are the clinically more relevant origin for GBMs. By critically analyzing evidences for or against the candidacy of each cell type, we highlight the most recent progress and debate in the field, explore the clinical implications, and propose future directions toward early diagnosis and preventive treatment of GBMs. PMID: 31313083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: 2019 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Hristov AC, Tejasvi T, Wilcox RA Abstract DISEASE OVERVIEW: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a heterogenous group of T-cell neoplasms involving the skin, the majority of which may be classified as Mycosis Fungoides (MF) or Sézary Syndrome (SS). DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis of MF or SS requires the integration of clinical and histopathologic data. RISK-ADAPTED THERAPY: TNMB (tumor, node, metastasis, blood) staging remains the most important prognostic factor in MF/SS and forms the basis for a "risk-adapted," multi-disciplinary approach to treatment. For patients with disease limited to the skin, expectant management or skin-directed therapies is preferred, as both disease-specific and overall survival for these patients is favorable. In contrast, patients with advanced-stage disease with significant nodal, visceral or blood involvement are generally approached with systemic therapies, including biologic-response modifiers, histone deacetylase inhibitors, or antibody-based strategies, in an escalating fashion. In highly-selected patients, allogeneic stem-cell transplantation may be considered, as this may be curative in some patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31313347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Concise Review: Challenges in Clinical Development of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Mastrolia I, Foppiani EM, Murgia A, Candini O, Samarelli AV, Grisendi G, Veronesi E, Horwitz EM, Dominici M Abstract Identified 50 years ago, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) immediately generated a substantial interest among the scientific community because of their differentiation plasticity and hematopoietic supportive function. Early investigations provided evidence of a relatively low engraftment rate and a transient benefit for challenging congenital and acquired diseases. The reasons for these poor therapeutic benefits forced the entire field to reconsider MSC mechanisms of action together with their ex vivo manipulation procedures. This phase resulted in advances in MSCs processing and the hypothesis that MSC-tissue supportive functions may be prevailing their differentiation plasticity, broadening the spectrum of MSCs therapeutic potential far beyond their lineage-restricted commitments. Consequently, an increasing number of studies have been conducted for a variety of clinical indications, revealing additional challenges and suggesting that MSCs are still lagging behind for a solid clinical translation. For this reason, our aim was to dissect the current challenges in the development of still promising cell types that, after more than half a century, still need to reach their maturity. Stem Cells Translational Medicine2019. PMID: 31313507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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