Cancer Stem Cell Treatment

Autologous Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer is available at SIRM

Cancer represents one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. More than half of patients suffering from cancer succumb to their condition. The primary approaches to treating cancer are surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These treatments have resulted in significant benefits to patients with the majority of tumor types, and the clinical outcomes have become more satisfactory. It is recognized that multidisciplinary treatments should be used in cancer treatments, another option proposed for this is immunotherapy. The combination of the traditional methods of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy with immunotherapy, is a new way for anti-cancer therapies to reduce the mortality of cancer patients. The dysfunction of the antigen-specific T cells required to kill the cancer leads to cancer cells being able to grow in cancer patients. Active and adoptive T cell immunotherapies generate T cells that can target cancer cells.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells that function as antigen-presenting cells. They are able to activate naive CD4+ T helper cells and unprimed CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Active immunotherapy, represented by DC-based regimens, has been used to produce tumor-specific antigen-presenting cells and to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against cancer cells. DCs can capture antigens, process them, and present them with co-stimulation cytokines/messengers to initiate an immune response, like inducing primary T-cell responses.

Adoptive immunotherapy, as conducted at our Asian Stem Cell Institute, is a personalized therapy that uses a patient’s own anti-tumor immune cells to kill cancer cells and may be used to treat several types of cancer, and represents another therapeutic approach against cancer. To date, the adoptive immunotherapy approach is one of the most effective methods for using the body’s immune system to treat cancer. To be used clinically, protocols for the development of these functional DCs must be established for in-clinic use via defined, xenobiotic-free medium conditions.

The purpose of the present study is to determine the cellular immune response in terms of the delayed-type hyper-sensitivity (DTH) skin test and evaluate the subjective clinical outcome and safety of the regimen in cancer patients receiving a DC vaccine.

Vaccination against a single antigen is available using purified and synthetic products, but these have disadvantages because it is unknown which of the identified antigens have the potential to induce an effective antitumor immune response. This study uses unfractionated, autologous, tumor-derived antigens in the form oftumor cell lysates which circumvents this disadvantage.

Tumor lysates as addressed in this protocol, contain multiple known as well as unknown antigens that can be presented to T cells by both MHC class I- and class II-pathways. Therefore, lysate-loaded DCs are more likely to induce the more preferred polyclonal expansion of T cells, including MHC class II restricted T-helper cells. These have been recognized to play an important role in the activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), probably the most important cells in effecting an antitumor immune response. The generation of CTL clones with multiple specificities may be an advantage in heterogeneous tumors and could also reduce the risk of tumor escape variants. Furthermore, lysate from the autologous tumor can be used independently of the HLA type of the patient. A drawback of unfractionated tumor antigens is the possibility of inducing an autoimmune reactivity to epitopes that are shared by normal tissues. However, in clinical trials using lysate or whole tumor cells as the source of antigen, no clinically relevant autoimmune responses have ever been detected.

Personalized dendritic cell vaccines for cancer, via adoptive immunotherapy, are successfully developed and autologously administered to patients coming to Asia, and more specifically, within the Philippines at the Subic Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The results of this case study of cancer and immunotherapy via pulsed dendritic cells, can serve as another example of safety for future cancer vaccine development.

Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer:
Related Articles Efficient generation of antigen-specific CTLs by the BAFF-activated human B Lymphocytes as APCs: a novel approach for immunotherapy. Oncotarget. 2016 Nov 22;7(47):77732-77748 Authors: Yiwen Z, Shilin G, Yingshi C, Lishi S, Baohong L, Chao L, Linghua L, Ting P, Hui Z Abstract Efficient antigen presentation is indispensable for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunotherapy. B-lymphocytes propagated with CD40L have been developed as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), but this capacity needs further optimization. Here, we aimed to expand human B-lymphocytes on a large scale while maintaining their antigen-presenting ability by using both CD40L and B-cell activating factor (BAFF). The addition of BAFF enhanced the expansion efficiency and prolonged the culture time without causing apoptosis of the expanded B-cells. This method thus provided an almost unlimited source of cellular adjuvant to achieve sufficient expansion of CTLs in cases where several rounds of stimulation are required. We also showed that the addition of BAFF significantly enhanced the expression of major costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. Subsequently, the antigen-presenting ability of the B-lymphocytes also increased. Consequently, these B-lymphocytes showed robust CTL responses to inhibit tumor growth after tumor-specific peptide pulses. A similar method induced potent antigen-specific CTL responses, which effectively eradicated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) latency in CD4 T-lymphocytes isolated from patients receiving suppressive anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Together, our findings indicate that potent antigen-specific CTLs can be generated using BAFF-activated B-lymphocytes as APCs ex vivo. This approach can be applied for CTL-mediated immunotherapy in patients with cancers or chronic viral infections. PMID: 27780916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Aerosol Delivery of Curcumin Reduced Amyloid-β Deposition and Improved Cognitive Performance in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;55(2):797-811 Authors: McClure R, Ong H, Janve V, Barton S, Zhu M, Li B, Dawes M, Jerome WG, Anderson A, Massion P, Gore JC, Pham W Abstract We report a novel approach for the delivery of curcumin to the brain via inhalation of the aerosol for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The percentage of plaque fraction in the subiculum and hippocampus reduced significantly when young 5XFAD mice were treated with inhalable curcumin over an extended period of time compared to age-matched nontreated counterparts. Further, treated animals demonstrated remarkably improved overall cognitive function, no registered systemic or pulmonary toxicity associated with inhalable curcumin observed during the course of this work. PMID: 27802223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Phase Ib Trial of the Toll-like Receptor 8 Agonist, Motolimod (VTX-2337), Combined with Cetuximab in Patients with Recurrent or Metastatic SCCHN. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 May 15;23(10):2442-2450 Authors: Chow LQM, Morishima C, Eaton KD, Baik CS, Goulart BH, Anderson LN, Manjarrez KL, Dietsch GN, Bryan JK, Hershberg RM, Disis ML, Martins RG Abstract Purpose: As Toll-like receptors (TLR) are key mediators of immune responses, TLR agonists may be important for augmenting the efficacy of therapies for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Motolimod (VTX-2337), a selective small-molecule agonist of TLR8, stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. A phase Ib clinical trial assessed the safety and antitumor activity of motolimod in combination with cetuximab in patients with SCCHN. Correlative biomarkers of immune activity were explored.Experimental Design: Thirteen patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN were enrolled in this open-label, dose-escalation study using a standard 3 + 3 design. Doses of motolimod (2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 mg/m2) were given on days 1, 8, and 15, in combination with fixed weekly doses of cetuximab in 28-day cycles.Results: There were no protocol-defined dose-limiting toxicities, drug-related deaths, or evidence of synergistic toxicities between motolimod and cetuximab. Clinical tolerability at the 3.5 mg/m2 dose level was not optimal for repeated dosing and 3.0 mg/m2 was identified as the MTD. Two patients achieved partial responses for an overall response rate of 15%. Five patients had disease stabilization equating to a disease control rate of 54%. Statistically significant increases in plasma cytokines and in the frequency and activation of circulating NK cells were observed.Conclusions: Motolimod can be safely administered in combination with cetuximab with an acceptable toxicity profile. Encouraging antitumor activity and robust pharmacodynamic responses were observed. Motolimod is being further investigated in a phase II trial in patients with SCCHN (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01836029). Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2442-50. ©2016 AACR. PMID: 27810904 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Isolation of T-Cell Receptors Specifically Reactive with Mutated Tumor-Associated Antigens from Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Based on CD137 Expression. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 May 15;23(10):2491-2505 Authors: Parkhurst M, Gros A, Pasetto A, Prickett T, Crystal JS, Robbins P, Rosenberg SA Abstract Purpose: The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically modified to express tumor reactive T-cell receptors (TCR) can mediate tumor regression. Some tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) recognize somatic mutations expressed only in the patient's tumors, and evidence suggests that clinically effective TILs target tumor-specific neoantigens. Here we attempted to isolate neoantigen-reactive TCRs as a prelude to the treatment of patients with autologous T cells genetically modified to express such TCRs.Experimental Design: Mutations expressed by tumors were identified using whole-exome and RNA sequencing. Tandem minigene (TMG) constructs encoding 12-24 mutated gene products were synthesized, each encoding the mutated amino acid flanked by 12 amino acids of the normal protein sequence. TILs were cultured with autologous dendritic cells (DC) transfected with in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNAs encoding TMGs and were evaluated for IFNγ secretion and CD137 expression. Neoantigen-reactive T cells were enriched from TILs by sorting for CD137+ CD8+ T cells and expanded in vitro Dominant TCR α and β chains were identified in the enriched populations using a combination of 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, deep sequencing of genomic DNA, PairSeq analysis, and single-cell RT-PCR analysis. Human PBL retrovirally transduced to express the TCRs were evaluated for recognition of relevant neoantigens.Results: We identified 27 TCRs from 6 patients that recognized 14 neoantigens expressed by autologous tumor cells.Conclusions: This strategy provides the means to generate T cells expressing neoantigen-reactive TCRs for use in future adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy trials for patients with cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2491-505. ©2016 AACR. PMID: 27827318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Gut microbiota modulates adoptive cell therapy via CD8α dendritic cells and IL-12. JCI Insight. 2018 Feb 22;3(4): Authors: Uribe-Herranz M, Bittinger K, Rafail S, Guedan S, Pierini S, Tanes C, Ganetsky A, Morgan MA, Gill S, Tanyi JL, Bushman FD, June CH, Facciabene A Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) is a promising new modality for malignancies. Here, we report that adoptive T cell efficacy in tumor-bearing mice is significantly affected by differences in the native composition of the gut microbiome or treatment with antibiotics, or by heterologous fecal transfer. Depletion of bacteria with vancomycin decreased the rate of tumor growth in mice from The Jackson Laboratory receiving ACT, whereas treatment with neomycin and metronidazole had no effect, indicating the role of specific bacteria in host response. Vancomycin treatment induced an increase in systemic CD8α+ DCs, which sustained systemic adoptively transferred antitumor T cells in an IL-12-dependent manner. In subjects undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, we found that oral vancomycin also increased IL-12 levels. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an important role played by the gut microbiota in the antitumor effectiveness of ACT and suggest potentially new avenues to improve response to ACT by altering the gut microbiota. PMID: 29467322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Human Semaphorin-4A drives Th2 responses by binding to receptor ILT-4. Nat Commun. 2018 Feb 21;9(1):742 Authors: Lu N, Li Y, Zhang Z, Xing J, Sun Y, Yao S, Chen L Abstract Semaphorin-4A (Sema4A) has been implicated in the co-stimulation of T cells and drives Th1 immune responses by binding to the receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 2 (Tim-2) in mice. Here we show that human, but not murine, Sema4A is preferentially expressed on antigen-presenting cells, and co-stimulates CD4+ T-cell proliferation and drives Th2 responses. By employing two independent cloning strategies, we demonstrate that Immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT-4) is a receptor for human SEMA4A (hSEMA4A) on activated CD4+ T cells. We also find hSEMA4A to be highly expressed in human asthmatic lung tissue, implying its potential function in disease pathogenesis. Our study defines a different biological function of hSEMA4A from its murine homolog through its binding to the receptor of ILT-4 to co-stimulate CD4+T cells and regulate Th2 cells differentiation. PMID: 29467366 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles [The innate immune system in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma : Immune modulation by HPV]. HNO. 2018 Feb 15;: Authors: Wagner S, Böckmann H, Gattenlöhner S, Klussmann JP, Wittekindt C Abstract Based on clinical and experimental data, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) have been recognized as a distinct entity of head and neck cancers. However, outside of clinical trials, HPV status currently has no impact on treatment. The natural replication cycle of HPV takes place in epithelial cells, and is thus spatially separated from cytotoxic immune cells in the epidermis. Dendritic cells (Langerhans cells, LC), however, are frequent in this upper dermal layer. The ability of LC to process antigens, migrate, and, ultimately activate T cells is inhibited by the activity of the viral oncoproteins (E5-E7). Downregulation of functional human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I) epithelial cell surface expression contributes to LC inhibition. However, due to their absence in upper skin layers, corresponding activation of natural killer (NK) cells via missing-self recognition is not relevant. Genome-wide analyses have revealed specific expression signatures for HPV-associated OPSCC that are distinct from HPV-negative cancers. Interestingly, aberrations in HLA-I genes were common in HPV-associated OPSCC. Our own findings indicate more frequent infiltration of HPV-associated OPSCC by CD56-positive (CD56+) NK cells, which might be related to HLA-I downregulation during HPV-associated carcinogenesis. In patients with OPSCC, CD56 positivity correlates with improved prognosis after conventional therapy. This could be evidence for HPV-associated OPSCC being especially eligible for novel immune-based therapies and an indication that immunological data should be included in the design of clinical trials. PMID: 29468275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Characterization of Postinfusion Phenotypic Differences in Fresh Versus Cryopreserved TCR Engineered Adoptive Cell Therapy Products. J Immunother. 2018 Feb 21;: Authors: Nowicki TS, Escuin-Ordinas H, Avramis E, Chmielowski B, Chodon T, Berent-Maoz B, Wang X, Kaplan-Lefko P, Yang L, Baltimore D, Economou JS, Ribas A, Comin-Anduix B Abstract Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) consisting of genetically engineered T cells expressing tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptors displays robust initial antitumor activity, followed by loss of T-cell activity/persistence and frequent disease relapse. We characterized baseline and longitudinal T-cell phenotype variations resulting from different manufacturing and administration protocols in patients who received ACT. Patients with melanoma who enrolled in the F5-MART-1 clinical trial (NCT00910650) received infusions of MART-1 T-cell receptors transgenic T cells with MART-1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination. Patients were divided into cohorts based on several manufacturing changes in the generation and administration of the transgenic T cells: decreasing ex vivo stimulation/expansion time, increased cell dose, and receiving fresh instead of cryopreserved cells. T-cell phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry at baseline and longitudinally in peripheral blood. Transgenic T cells with shorter ex vivo culture/expansion periods displayed significantly increased expression of markers associated with less differentiated naive/memory populations, as well as significantly decreased expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD1). Patients receiving fresh infusions of transgenic cells demonstrated expansion of central memory T cells and delayed acquisition of PD1 expression compared with patients who received cryopreserved products. Freshly infused transgenic T cells showed persistence and expansion of naive and memory T-cell populations and delayed acquisition of PD1 expression, which correlated with this cohort's superior persistence of transgenic cells and response to dendritic cell vaccines. These results may be useful in designing future ACT protocols.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/. PMID: 29470191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Related Articles Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 17;: Authors: Manuzak JA, Gott TM, Kirkwood JS, Coronado E, Hensley-McBain T, Miller C, Cheu RK, Collier AC, Funderburg NT, Martin JN, Wu MC, Isoherranen N, Hunt PW, Klatt NR Abstract Background: Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined. Methods: The impact of cannabis use on peripheral immune cell frequency, activation, and function was assessed in 198 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-treated individuals by flow cytometry. Individuals were categorized into heavy, medium, or occasional cannabis users or noncannabis users based on the amount of the cannabis metabolite 11-nor-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) detected in plasma by mass spectrometry. Results: Heavy cannabis users had decreased frequencies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR+CD38+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequencies, compared to frequencies of these cells in non-cannabis-using individuals. Heavy cannabis users had decreased frequencies of intermediate and nonclassical monocyte subsets, as well as decreased frequencies of interleukin 23- and tumor necrosis factor-α-producing antigen-presenting cells. Conclusions: While the clinical implications are unclear, our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with a potentially beneficial reduction in systemic inflammation and immune activation in the context of antiretroviral-treated HIV infection. PMID: 29471387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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